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6 Using Science to Match Candidates to Jobs: The Case of Kronos
3.6 USING SCIENCE TO MATCH CANDIDATES TO JOBS: THE CASE OF KRONOS • 118
The idea behind the software is simple: If you have a lot of employees and keep track of your data over time,
you have access to an enormous resource. By analyzing this data, you can specify the profile of the “ideal”
employee. The software captures the profile of the potential high performers, and applicants are screened to
assess their fit with this particular profile. More important, the profile is continually updated as new employees are hired. As the database gets larger, the software does a better job of identifying the right people for
If you applied for a job in retail, you may have already been a part of this database: the users of this system
include giants such as Universal Studios, Costco Wholesale Corporation, Burger King, and other retailers
and chain restaurants. In companies such as Albertsons or Blockbuster, applicants use a kiosk in the store to
answer a list of questions and to enter their background, salary history, and other information. In other companies, such as some in the trucking industry, candidates enter the data through the Web site of the company
they are applying to. The software screens people on basic criteria such as availability in scheduling as well
as personality traits.
Candidates are asked to agree or disagree with statements such as “I often make last-minute plans” or “I
work best when I am on a team.” After the candidates complete the questions, hiring managers are sent a
report complete with a color-coded suggested course of action. Red means the candidate does not fit the job,
yellow means proceed with caution, and green means the candidate can be hired on the spot. Interestingly,
the company contends that faking answers to the questions of the software is not easy because it is difficult for candidates to predict the desired profile. For example, according to their research, being a successful
salesman has less to do with being an extraverted and sociable person and more to do with a passion for the
Matching candidates to jobs has long been viewed as a key way of ensuring high performance and low
turnover in the workplace, and advances in computer technology are making it easier and more efficient to
assess candidate–job fit. Companies using such technology are cutting down the time it takes to hire people,
and it is estimated that using such technologies lowers their turnover by 10%–30%.
Based on information from Berta, D. (2002, February 25). Industry increases applicant screening amid labor
surplus, security concerns. Nation’s Restaurant News, 36(8), 4; Frauenheim, E. (2006, March 13). Unicru
beefs up data in latest screening tool. Workforce Management, 85(5), 9–10; Frazier, M. (2005, April). Help
wanted. Chain Store Age, 81(4), 37–39; Haaland, D. E. (2006, April 17). Safety first: Hire conscientious
employees to cut down on costly workplace accidents. Nation’s Restaurant News, 40(16), 22–24; Overholt,
A. (2002, February). True or false? You’re hiring the right people. Fast Company, 55, 108–109; Rafter, M.
V. (2005, May). Unicru breaks through in the science of “smart hiring.” Workforce Management, 84(5),
1. Why is it so expensive for companies to replace workers?
2. In modern times it is possible that an employee could have a number of different jobs in a short
amount of time. Do you think this frequent job changing could skew results for this type of
119 • ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
“ideal” employee selection? Do you think potential candidates can use these screening
mechanisms to their advantage by making themselves seem like perfect candidates when in fact
they are not?
3. What personality traits may not seem like a good fit based on an initial screening but in fact
would make a good employee?
4. Do you feel that hard work and dedication could overcome a person-job mismatch?
In conclusion, in this chapter we have reviewed major individual differences that affect employee attitudes and
behaviors. Our values and personality explain our preferences and the situations we feel comfortable with. Personality may influence our behavior, but the importance of the context in which behavior occurs should not be neglected.
Many organizations use personality tests in employee selection, but the use of such tests is controversial because of
problems such as faking and low predictive value of personality for job performance. Perception is how we interpret
our environment. It is a major influence over our behavior, but many systematic biases color our perception and
lead to misunderstandings.
You are applying for the job of sales associate. You have just found out that you will be given a personality
assessment as part of the application process. You feel that this job requires someone who is very high in
extraversion, and someone who can handle stress well. You are relatively sociable and can cope with some
stress but honestly you are not very high in either trait. The job pays well and it is a great stepping-stone
to better jobs. How are you going to respond when completing the personality questions? Are you going
to make an effort to represent yourself as how you truly are? If so, there is a chance that you may not get
the job. How about answering the questions to fit the salesperson profile? Isn’t everyone doing this to some
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of completing the questions honestly?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of completing the questions in a way you think the
company is looking for?
3. What would you really do in a situation like this?
Changing Others’ Perceptions of You
How do other people perceive you? Identify one element of how others perceive you that you are interested
in changing. It could be a positive perception (maybe they think you are more helpful than you really are) or
a negative perception (maybe they think you don’t take your studies seriously).
• What are the reasons why they formed this perception? Think about the underlying reasons.
• What have you done to contribute to the development of this perception?
• Do you think there are perceptual errors that contribute to this perception? Are they stereotyping?
Are they engaging in selective perception?
• Are you sure that your perception is the accurate one? What information do you have that makes
your perceptions more valid than theirs?
• Create an action plan about how you can change this perception.
3.8 EXERCISES • 122
Selecting an Expatriate Using Personality Tests
Your department has over 50 expatriates working around the globe. One of the problems you encounter is
that the people you send to other cultures for long-term (2- to 5-year) assignments have a high failure rate.
They either want to return home before their assignment is complete, or they are not very successful in building relationships with the local employees. You suspect that this is because you have been sending people
overseas solely because of their technical skills, which does not seem to be effective in predicting whether
these people will make a successful adjustment to the local culture. Now you have decided that when selecting people to go on these assignments, personality traits should be given some weight.
1. Identify the personality traits you think might be relevant to being successful in an expatriate
2. Develop a personality test aimed at measuring these dimensions. Make sure that each
dimension you want to measure is captured by at least 10 questions.
3. Exchange the test you have developed with a different team in class. Have them fill out the
survey and make sure that you fill out theirs. What problems have you encountered? How would
you feel if you were a candidate taking this test?
4. Do you think that prospective employees would fill out this questionnaire honestly? If not, how
would you ensure that the results you get would be honest and truly reflect their personality?
5. How would you validate such a test? Describe the steps you would take.
Chapter 4: Individual Attitudes and Behaviors
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1. Identify the major work attitudes that affect work behaviors.
2. List the key set of behaviors that matter for organizational performance.
3. Understand the link between work attitudes and ethics.
4. Understand cross-cultural differences in job attitudes and behaviors at work.
4.1 People Come First: The Case of SAS
Wikimedia Commons – public domain.
Who are your best customers? Which customers are bringing you the most profits and which are the least
profitable? Companies are increasingly relying on complicated data mining software to answer these and
other questions. More than 92% of the top 100 companies on the Fortune Global 500 list are using software developed by SAS Institute Inc., the world’s largest privately held software company, for their business intelligence and analytical needs. The Cary, North Carolina, company is doing extremely well by any
measure. They have over 10,000 employees worldwide, operate in over 100 countries, and reported $2.31
billion in revenue in 2009 (their 33rd consecutive year of growth and profitability). The company is quick to
attribute their success to the performance and loyalty of their workforce. This is directly correlated with how
they treat their employees.
SAS has perfected the art of employee management. It has been ranked on Fortune magazine’s best places
to work list every year since the list was first published. Employees seem to genuinely enjoy working at SAS
and are unusually attached to the company, resulting in a turnover rate that is less than 4% in an industry
where 20% is the norm. In fact, when Google designed their own legendary campus in California, they visited the SAS campus to get ideas.
One thing SAS does well is giving its employees opportunities to work on interesting and challenging projects. The software developers have the opportunity to develop cutting-edge software to be used around the
world. The company makes an effort to concentrate its business in the areas of analytics, which add the most
value and help organizations best analyze disparate data for decision making, creating opportunities for SAS
workers to be challenged. Plus, the company removes obstacles for employees. Equipment, policies, rules,
and meetings that could impede productivity are eliminated.
The company has a reputation as a pioneer when it comes to the perks it offers employees, but these perks
125 • ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
are not given with a mentality of “offer everything but the kitchen sink.” There is careful thinking and planning behind the choice of perks the company offers. SAS conducts regular employee satisfaction surveys,
and any future benefits and perks offered are planned in response to the results. The company wants to eliminate stressors and anything that dissatisfies from people’s lives. To keep employees healthy and fit, there are
athletic fields; a full gym; a swimming pool; and tennis, basketball, and racquetball courts on campus. Plus,
the company offers free on-site health care for employees, covers dependents at their fully staffed primary
medical care center, and offers unlimited sick leave. The company understands that employees have a life
and encourages employees to work reasonable hours and then go home to their families. In fact, a famous
motto in the company is, “If you are working for more than 8 hours, you are just adding bugs.” SAS is truly
one of the industry leaders in leveraging its treatment of people for continued business success.
Based on information from Doing well by being rather nice. (2007, December 1). Economist. Retrieved April
30, 2010, from http://www.financialexpress.com/news/doing-well-by-being-rather-nice/247090; Cakebread,
C. (2005, July). SAS…not SOS. Benefits Canada, 29(7), 18; Florida, R., & Goodnight, J. (2005,
July–August). Managing for creativity. Harvard Business Review, 83(7/8), 124–131; Karlgaard, R. (2006,
October 16). Who wants to be public? Forbes Asia, 2(17), 22.
1. SAS is involved in cutting-edge technology. Does this give it a distinct advantage in employee
retention and satisfaction over, for example, Sloan (a company that focuses on the manufacturing
of toilet components)?
2. Do you feel that investing heavily in employee perks ultimately pays off for a company? Would
you feel the same way during hard economic times, when the pool of highly qualified workers
grows and the number of available jobs shrinks dramatically?
3. How much of an advantage does SAS have, given that the company produces analytic software
to help businesses improve their functionality?
4. What do you think you’d like about working at SAS? What would you not potentially like?