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CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCE IN THE PROVINCE

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCE IN THE PROVINCE

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various fields in the country and abroad. However, there are very

few researches on sustainable development of commerce in the

province, especially for coastal provinces like Binh Dinh. Binh Dinh

has a marine economy, close to international maritime routes and is

a province with great potential for trade development. In order to

develop trade sustainably and greening commercial activities, it is

necessary to have in-depth studies, suitable with the characteristics

of Binh Dinh province, and at the same time to approach the

perspective of sustainable development in terms of economy,

society and the environment. Therefore, the study of the topic

"Sustainable development of commerce in Binh Dinh province" is

consistent with reality, associated with 3 key points in sustainable

development, accommodate the requirements of innovation and

greening the commercial sector in Binh Dinh province in the new

development stage.

1.2. Research orientation of the thesis

1.2.1. Research objectives of the thesis

The overall objective of the thesis is to assess the current

situation and propose solutions to sustainable development of

commerce in Binh Dinh province.

To accomplish the above general objective, the specific objectives

of the topic are:

- Interpret theoretical and practical basis on sustainable

development of commerce in the province.

- Identify the basic factors affecting the sustainable

development of commerce in Binh Dinh province

- Analyze the current situation of sustainable development of

commerce in Binh Dinh province from 2010 to 2018 and the

problems raised.

- Assess opportunities, challenges, strengths and weaknesses in

sustainable development trade in Binh Dinh province and propose

perspectives,

orientations

and

solutions

for

sustainable

development in the province of Binh Dinh in the context of

integration and development.

1.2.2. Object and scope of the research

The research object of the thesis is theoretical and practical

issues on sustainable development of commerce in Binh Dinh

province.

Content scope: Research on commodity trade at the provincial

macro level including domestic and international trade of Binh Dinh



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province.

Space scope: Scope of macro commerce research in Binh Dinh

province.

Time scope: Research the situation of sustainable

development of commerce in Binh Dinh province in the period of

2010-2018. Proposing solutions and recommendations for

sustainable development of commerce in Binh Dinh province until

2025, with a view to 2030.

1.2.3. Research methodologies

The thesis uses a combination of the following research

methodologies:

Qualitative methodology:The data collection method in

qualitative research is the observation method and the evaluation

method according to the general rule of development.

Quantitative methodology:The data collection method in

quantitative research is the method of combining the synthesis of

secondary data and the method of investigating practical survey of

sustainable development of commerce in Binh Dinh province.

Other methodologies : Statistical analysis method, descriptive

comparison method, ... to analyze and evaluate the research

contents on the basis of dialectical materialism methodology.

_______________________________

CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL ISSUES AND PRACTICAL

EXPERIENCE ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCE

IN THE PROVINCE

2.1. Overview of sustainable development and sustainable

development of commerce

2.1.1. Concept of development and sustainable

development

2.1.1.1. The concept of development

Development is the increase in scale, speed and quality.

Economic development is understood as the process of increasing

in all aspects of the economy and is considered as a process of

change in both quantity and quality and is a strict combination of

the completing process of economic and social issues in each

country.

However, when the economic development of many countries

around the world has reached a decent level, people began to worry

about the negative effects of rapid development on the future of



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human. Therefore, the issue of sustainable development was posed

and led to the appearance of the concept of "Sustainable

development".

2.1.1.2. Overview of sustainable development

There are many different approaches to the concept of

sustainable development, but the widely recognized and most cited

definition was of World Commission on Environment and

Development: Sustainable development is development that

satisfies the needs of the present but does not compromise the

ability of future generations to satisfy their needs.

From the perspective of the thesis research, the author

proposes a specific definition of "Sustainable Development", that is:

The development process with a strict, reasonable and harmonious

combination between 3 aspects of development, namely economic

development, social development and environmental protection in

order to meet the requirements of the present, but not causing

obstacles to meet the needs of future generations.

2.1.2. Sustainable development of commerce

Sustainable development of commerce in the province has

many different views, due to the perspective of approaching different

research issues of each author. The author proposes the concept of

SDC from the perspective of approaching SDC accordance to the

standpoint of sustainable development of the United Nations or

Agenda 21 as follows:“Sustainable development of commerce in the

province is a commercial development in which the commercial

activities in the province must ensure the harmony between the

three aspects of development that are economic, social and

environmental”.

2.2. Content of SCD in the province and the system of

evaluation criteria

2.2.1. Content of sustainable development of commerce in

the province

Firstly, commercial business activities in the province are able

to cope with and withstand high levels of abnormal phenomena

from the external environment and trade has high and stable

economic growth.

Secondly, commerce in the province has the ability to improve

the quality of life, give people the opportunity to access goods

distribution services, ensure social security and improve income

and increase perks of workers. Besides, commerce contributes to



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ensuring the fairness among the classes in the regions.

Thirdly, commercial business activities in the province have

the ability to protect and improve the quality of the environment,

which means the commercial business activities can properly

exploit and use the resources in processing goods, limiting the

amount of waste (solid, liquid, gas ...) into the environment,

conserving biodiversity, limiting the factors that cause climate

change and ensuring energy security.

2.2.2. System of evaluation criteria for sustainable

development of commerce in the province

2.2.2.1. Group of criteria for assessing the level of sustainable

development of commerce in the economy

- Growth rate of total retail sales of consumer goods and

services

- Growth rate of import and export turnover

- Added value from commercial activities in the province

- Contribution of commerce in the GRDP of the local economy

2.2.2.2. Group of criteria for assessing the level of sustainable

development of commerce on society

- The number of employees attracted and the average income

of workers in the commerce industry in the province

- The level of pervasiveness and compliance with market rules

in commercial activities

- The level of satisfying the needs of customer in commercial

activities

2.2.2.3. Criteria for assessing the level sustainable development of

commerce about the environment

- Garbage from commercial activities and the amount of

commercial waste is collected and treated in the province

- Green logistics in commerce of the province



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2.3. Factors affecting sustainable development of commerce

in the province

- Institutional environment, commercial development law

- Commercial infrastructure

- System of commercial enterprises

- Commercial market

- Commercial human resources

2.4. Local and international experience in sustainable

development of commerce and lessons learned for Binh

Dinh

2.4.1. Experience in sustainable development of commerce

of some localities in countries around the world

- Shanghai's(China) experience in sustainable development

of commerce

- Orchard Road’s (Singapore) experience in sustainable

development of commerce

- Bremen's

(Germany)

experience

in

sustainable

development of commerce

2.4.2. Experience in sustainable development of commerce

of localities in the country

- Ho Chi Minh City’s (HCMC) experience in sustainable

development of commerce



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- Da Nang’s experience in sustainable development of

commerce

- Thua Thien Hue’s experience in sustainable development

of commerce

2.4.3. Lessons on sustainable development of commerce for

Binh Dinh province

- Diversify types of businesses with many different sizes,

increase in number and renovate in modes of operation;

- Modernize the commercial infrastructure, focus on the

construction and development of a modern commercial

infrastructure system;

- Connecting and developing transport infrastructure system

by road, rail, sea and air. Particularly, focusing on building and

developing Quy Nhon seaport system;

- Developing high quality human resources;

- It is necessary to have a long-term master plan and

synchronously implement the planning of developing sustainable

development of commerce.

- Completing local management institutions on sustainable

development of commerce;

- Diversifying export products and focusing on exporting

products are the strength of the province.

- Enhancing learning experience in sustainable development of

commerce of countries with developed commerce and logistics.

- Developing commercesustainably through the development

of circulation organization models suitable to each market.

CHAPTER3: ACTUAL SITUATION OF SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCE IN BINH DINH PROVINCE

3.1. The natural and socio-economic characteristics of Binh

Dinh province affecting the commercial development

process in the area

3.1.1. Natural and socio-economic characteristics of Binh

Dinh province

Binh Dinh Province is located in the South Central Coast

region, toward the South of the Central Key Economic Region. Binh

Dinh is centrally located in international and inter-regional exchange

routes, the North-South and East-West routes in the Central region

and located in all four routes includingroads, railways across

Vietnam, domestic air routes and sea routes. Binh Dinh is close to

international maritime routes, which is a convenient coastal



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gateway in the Central Highlands for countries in the Greater

Mekong Sub-region especially Laos, Cambodia and the northeastern

provinces of Thailand via Quy Nhon international seaport and

highway 19. Binh Dinh has a geographical position which creates

favorable conditions for economic development in general and

sustainable development of commerce in particular.

Binh Dinh has fulfilled most of its socio-economic development

plans. Social welfare is guaranteed, national defence and security

are strengthened, service industry continue to grow, people's jobs

and

incomes are improved, and lives are basically stabilized

creatingimportant premise for sustainable development of

commerce.

3.1.2. The process of commercial development in Binh Dinh

province

Through many historic milestones marking the turning point of

the sustainable development of commerce, commercial activities in

Binh Dinh are greening and developing in width and depth; the

quality of service for consumer has been increasingly focused. Total

retail sales of goods and social service revenue tend to increase

over the years, the average growth rate of total retail sales of goods

and service revenue reaches 25,4%/year. Besides, the average

export turnover increases by 40,1 million USD / year and the trade

balance of Binh Dinh is always in a trade surplus. The results of

trade activities are shown in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1.The commercial activities result of Binh Dinh in

the period of 2000 - 2018

Unit



200

0



2005



2010



Billions

VND



4.42

5



7.96

8



22.52

5



Exports of goods



Million USD



103,

9



Imports of goods



Million USD 74,9



Balance of trade



Million USD



214,

9

112,

1

102,

8



Total retail sales of

consumer goods and

services



29



427,2

161,7

265,5



2015 2018

46.9

22



65.0

88



702,

1

279,

9

422,

2



825,

6

375,

0

450,

6



Source: Statistical Yearbook of Binh Dinh Province in 2005, 2016,

2017 and 2018

3.2.

Analyze

the

current

situation

of

sustainable

development of commerce in Binh Dinh province in the



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period of 2010-2018

3.2.1. Current situation of sustainable development of

commerce through promotion of business activities in Binh

Dinh province

3.2.1.1. Stability and development of total retail sales of consumer

goods and services over the years

Total retail sales of consumer goods and services in 2018 were

estimated at 65,088 billion VND, increased by 13.4% compared to

the previous year. Overall, the average annual growth rate in the

period of 2011-2015 reached 15.8%, decreasedby 7.3% compared

to the period of 2006-2010 and decreasedby 6.2% compared to the

set target (22%).

Considering the total retail sales of goods at current prices,

there is an upward trend over the years, the average growth rate in

the period of 2001-2005 reached 12,3%/year, 23,1%/year in the

period of 2006-2010 and 13,02%/year in the period of 2011-2015.

Thus, the total retail sales of goods tends to increase but the speed

of increase tends to decrease. In 2010, total retail sales of goods on

the market was VND 18595 billion and increased by 25,75% in

2011. But 5 years later, the growth rate tended to decrease and

reached about 38.395 billion VND in 2015. In 2018, total retail sales

of goods in the market was estimated at 53.335 billion VND.

3.2.1.2. Sustainable development of import and export activities

a. Export activities

The total export value of the province tends to increase over

the years. In 2010, the export turnover (E.T) was 427.2 million USD.

In 2011, the figure increased to 488 million USD and reached 573.8

million USD in 2012. In the following years, the growth rate tends to

decrease and the total export value of the province in 2017 reached

about 725 million USD. Although the total export turnover increased

over the years, the growth rate was not high and did not reach the

target. However, in 2018, import-export activities in the province

continued to grow and achieved the target, the total E.T was $825,6

million, reached 100% of the year plan and increased 13,9%

compared to that of 2017.

b. Import activities

The total value of imported goods in the province fluctuated

over the years. In 2018, the import turnover (I.T) of the whole

province was estimated at $361,6 million, increased about 13,4%

compared to that of 2017, reaching 113% of the anual plan.



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Import turnover has a low and slow growth rate because the

production and processing activities of some products in enterprises

in the province show signs of slowing down and enterprises have a

change in demand for raw and alternative material sources.

c. Growth rate of total import and export turnover

Table 3.9. Trade balance and growth rate of export and

import in Binh Dinh

Year



Unit 2009



201

0



201

1



201

2



201

3



Export

Millio 346,

427,2 488,0 573,8 588,9

turnover n USD 2

Import

Millio 155,

161,7 154,5 190,9 176,9

turnover n USD 8

Trade

Millio 190,

265,5 333,5 382,9 412

balance n USD 4

The

growth

%

23,40 14,2317,58 2,63

rate of

E.T

The

growth

%

3,79 -4,45 23,56 -7,33

rate of

I.T



201

4



201

5



201 201 201

6

7

8



634,7 702,1 703,1724,7825,6

260,4 279,9 283 318,9375,0

374,3 422,2 420,1405,8450,6



7,78 10,62 0,14 3,07



47,20 7,49 1,11



13,9

2



12,6 17,5

9

9



Source: Statistical Yearbook of Binh Dinh Province in2013, 2015,

2016, 2017, 2018 and data process of author

In general, export turnover of many years did not hit the

targets, but there was a growth compared to the previous years,

and Binh Dinh's foreign trade always achieved a trade surplus in

2018 with trade surplus of about 450,6 million USD. This is a

highlight in the province's import and export activities.

3.2.1.3.Value-added (VA) in commerce of local goods

Table 3.10. Value added of commercial commodities at

current prices in Binh Dinh province

201

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

0

Billions 325

4594, 5258 5959, 5062 5619, 5848, 6597,

VA

2521

VND

1

5

,3

2

,6

5

6

7

VA

Billions

2073, 663, 700,

556, 229,

-730

749,1

growth

896,

VND

5

8

9

9

1

speed

6



Target



Unit



12



VA

growth

speed



%



82,2 14,4 13,3

11,0

4,08 12,8

22,4

15,0

5

5

3

0

5

5



Source: Statistical Yearbook of Binh Dinh Province in 2013, 2015,

2016, 2017, 2018 and data process of author

In the period of 2010- 2018, the added value of commercial

commodities in the province fluctuated with the lowest value was in

2011 at 2521 billion VND and the highest value was in 2018 with

6597,7 billion VND.

3.2.1.4.Contribution of commercial commodities in the Province's

GRDP

In the province's GRDP structure, the service sector still

accounted for the highest proportion, ranging from 37,3 to 41,1% of

the province's total GRDP in the period of 2010 – 2018. Commerce

of goods accounted for about 25 - 31% in the service sector, in

2011 only accounted for about 18%. The level of contribution of

commercial commodities in the province's GRDP unsteadily

changed during 2010-2018 with the lowest was in 2011, the highest

was in 2013, 2014 and the average annual contribution to GRDP of

the province is 10,1%.

3.2.2. Sustainable development of commerce through

addressing social issues

3.2.2.1. The total labor attraction level and average income of

workers in commerce industry in Binh Dinh province

The total labor in commercial enterprises in the province tends

to increase over the years. In 2017, the number of employees in the

commodity trading enterprises reached 13,877 labors. There was an

increase of 259 employees compared to 2016. In addition to the

number of employees in commercial enterprises, a large labor force

is employed in individual economic assets. The number of

employees in non-agricultural, forestry and fisheryindividual

assetsin commodity trading accounts for about 34-36% of the total

number of employees in non-agricultural, forestry and fishery

individual economic assets in the province and tend to fluctuate

instably over the years.

In addition, the average income of workers in enterprises and

in commodity trading enterprises in Binh Dinh province tend to

increase. The average income of workers in enterprises in Binh Dinh

generally increased from 30,9 million VND/employee in 2010 to

64,42 million VND/employee in 2017. Besides, the average income

of workers in commodity trading enterprises are also unstable,



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standing at the point of 54,8 million VND in 2017

3.2.2.2. The level of pervasiveness and compliance with market

rules in commercial activities

a. The level of commercial pervasiveness

Firstly, the level ofcommercial pervasiveness is reflected in the

development in commercial business network, distribution system

to localities. Through the commercial distribution network system, it

is possible to see the level of distribution among regions is not

equal, consumers of some districts in Binh Dinh province, especially

mountainous areas such as Van Canh, An Lao and Vinh Thanh,

where the access to goods are much more difficult than in other

places.

Secondly, improving the level of satisfaction for consumers,

especially consumers in remoted areas through commercial

promotion activities in Binh Dinh province. Improving the level of

satisfaction for consumers is still relatively limited and uneven

across regions, especially remote areas. Consumers in remote areas

are less likely to have access to promotional activities and trade fair

activities, Vietnamese goods fair than consumers in the cities,

towns or hamlets. Besides, the number of commercial promotion

activities in the mountainous areas is quite small so the level of

commercial pervasiveness is not significant.

b. Compliance with market rules in commercial activities

The reality of compliance with market rules in commercial

activities in the area is still limited. The smuggle, trade fraud, fake

goods, poor quality goods and goods that do not ensure food safety

are quite complicated. In general, the total number of violations of

market rules in Binh Dinh province changed over the years, the

highest violation rate was in 2013 with over 96% of violations on

the total number of inspection cases. Although the number of

violations of market rules is on a downward trend, there are still

potential risks and complicated changes in terms of scale, feature

and scope.

3.2.2.3. The level of meeting customer needs in commercial

activities

The level of meeting customer needs in commercial activities

in Binh Dinh province is not high, most customers' satisfaction level

is quite average. This also reflects a part of unsustainable

development of commerce.



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