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Figure 18.8 - Gallup & Robinson’s Impact System

Figure 18.8 - Gallup & Robinson’s Impact System

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Portfolio Tests

 Expose a group of respondents to a portfolio 

consisting of control and test ads

 Limitations

 Factors other than advertising creativity and/or 

presentation may affect recall

 Ability to recognize the ad when shown may be a 

better measure than recall



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9



Readability Tests

 Communications efficiency of the copy in a print 

ad is tested without reader interviews

 Flesch formula: Assesses readability of a copy by 

determining the average number of syllables per 

100 words

 Limitations

 Copy may become too mechanical

 Direct input from receiver is not available

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New Print Pretesting Measures

 PreTesting Groups’ People Reader methodology

 Provides mocked­up magazines to consumers and 

measures their responsiveness to each ad

 Uses hidden cameras to record behavior 



 Link

 Uses a comprehensive set of diagnostic questions to 

evoke viewer reactions to the ads



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11



Pretesting Finished Broadcast Ads



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12



Physiological Measures



 Indicate receiver’s involuntary response to the ad

 Pupil dilation



 Pupillometrics: Measures dilation and constriction of the pupils in 

response to stimuli



 Galvanic skin response (GSR)

 Electrodermal response (EDR): Measures the skin’s resistance or 

conductance to a small amount of current



 Brain Waves

 Electroencephalographic (EEG): Determine electrical frequencies in 

brain

 Alpha activity: Degree of brain activation 

 Hemispheric lateralization: Distinguishes between alpha activity in the 

left and right sides of the brain

 Brain scan imaging ­ Examine physiological reactions to ads and brands

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13



Posttests of Print Ads

Advantages of inquiry tests

• Implementation is

inexpensive

• Provide some feedback

about the general

effectiveness of an ad or

medium used



Disadvantages of inquiry

tests

• Inquiries may not be a true

measure of the attentiongetting or informationproviding aspects of an ad

• Ineffective for comparing

different versions or

specific creative aspects

of an ad



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14



Posttests of Broadcast Commercials

Advantages of day-after recall tests

• Natural setting provides a more realistic

response profile

• Provide norms that allow advertisers to



Disadvantages of day-after recall

tests

• Have limited samples, high costs, and

security issues

• Favor unemotional appeals



compare how well their ads are



• Program content may influence recall



performing



• Respondents are aware of the test and



• Persuasive and diagnostics measures

are also available



will be more attentive

• Recall is not a measure of acceptance or

predictive of sales



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15



Factors That Make or Break Tracking 

Studies

Properly defined objectives

Alignment with sales objectives

Properly designed measures

Consistency

Random samples

Continuous interviewing

Evaluate measures related to behavior

Critical evaluative questions asked early to eliminate bias

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16



Factors That Make or Break Tracking 

Studies

Measurement of competitors’ performance

Skepticism about questions asking where the ad was seen

Building of news value into the study

Moving averages spot long-term trends and avoid seasonality

Data reported in terms of relationships

Integration of key marketplace events with tracking results

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17



Problems with Current Research 

Methods

 Accomplishing some factors important to good 

copy testing require more effort

 Most current methods do little more than provide 

recall scores

 Lab measures ­ Artificial and vulnerable to testing 

effects 

 Field measures ­ Result in a loss of control



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18



Essentials of Effective Testing

 Establish communications objectives

 Use a consumer response model

 Use both pretests and posttests

 Use multiple measures

 Understand and implement proper research



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Figure 18.8 - Gallup & Robinson’s Impact System

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