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Figure 5.7 - A Model of Cognitive Response

Figure 5.7 - A Model of Cognitive Response

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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

 Focuses on the differences in the ways consumers 

process and respond to persuasive messages

 Attitude formation or change process

 Depends on the amount and nature of elaboration 

that occurs in response to a persuasive message



 Elaboration likelihood is a function of: 

 Motivation

 Ability

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Cognitive Response Categories

Product/Message Thoughts

Product/Message Thoughts

Counterarguments

Counterarguments



Support arguments

Support arguments



Source­Oriented Thoughts

Source­Oriented Thoughts

Source derogation

Source derogation



Source bolstering

Source bolstering



Ad Execution Thoughts

Ad Execution Thoughts

Thoughts about

Thoughts about

the ad itself

the ad itself



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Affect attitude

Affect attitude

toward the ad

toward the ad

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McGraw-Hill Education.



Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive 

Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive 

messages, based on the amount and nature of elaboration 

messages, based on the amount and nature of elaboration 

or processing of information

or processing of information

Routes to Attitude Change



Central route – 

Central route – 

ability and 

ability and 

motivation to process 

motivation to process 

a message is high and 

a message is high and 

close attention is paid 

close attention is paid 

to message content

to message content



Peripheral route – 

Peripheral route – 

ability and 

ability and 

motivation to process 

motivation to process 

a message is low;  

a message is low;  

receiver focuses more 

receiver focuses more 

on peripheral cues 

on peripheral cues 

than on message 

than on message 

content

content



Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of

McGraw-Hill Education.



Figure 5.9 ­ A Framework for Studying

How Advertising Works



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McGraw-Hill Education.



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