Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang
Table 4.6 Teacher’s difficulties in teaching English pronunciation to the students
There were some difficulties, including vowel and consonant, stress, ending sounds,
intonation that the English teachers had to face when teaching English pronunciation to the
students. From the above chart, it was clearly seen that no one frequently and most
frequently coped with these difficulties, there were up to 73.33% of respondents who
sometimes faced with those mistakes, 23.33 % of English teachers often coped with these
mistakes. Besides, there were 3.33 % English teachers (one teacher) who never made the
mistakes when teaching the pronunciation to their students. She was very confident when
teaching English pronunciation. In fact, she was well-educated at the international university.
Before going to the class, she spent much time on practicing English pronunciation,
recording her voice at home. Besides, she was really excellent and highly appreciated by the
For the teacher’s difficulties in teaching English pronunciation to the student, 5
following answers were collected from the interview.
Teacher 1 said,” I often do the wrong stress in each word when teaching the
pronunciation, for example "Television" / 'telɪvɪʒn/, the first sound "te" must be pronounce
stronger than the others, but I forgot doing that”.
Unlike teacher 1, teacher 2 and teacher 3 stated “sometimes I made mistakes in
pronouncing the vowel & consonant and ending sound of each word. It is the fact that I
find them difficult to pronounce at the same time because I came from Vung Tau province, I
am used to speak in my native accents. I think that I need to practice English pronunciation
again to improve it”.
Besides, the teacher 4 said, “sometimes, I don’t pronounce the ending sound.
However, I read those words one more time after recognizing my mistakes. She also
expressed that “I know that pronouncing the English words correctly is very important for
people to understand what you are saying, sometimes I pay attention to the intonation and
vowel & consonant, so I don’t focus on pronouncing the ending sound any more. That is my
mistake. And I need to improve it every day”.
Meanwhile, teacher 5 said, “In the field of teaching English pronunciation, I am very
confident because I am highly appreciated by my colleagues and native speakers. Luckily, I
have 4 years of studying at Duke University in the United States. So my pronunciation is
very good. When I teach at Tran Quoc Toan... ... primary school, I never make mistakes in
In the class observation, it could not be denied that most of teachers had the
difficulties in teaching English pronunciation, the mistakes included intonation, vowel and
consonant and ending sounds. However, the mistakes that teachers sometimes made are
ending sounds and vowels and consonants. These mistakes were often caused by 6 English
teachers from 6 classes. They did not pronounce ending sounds of each word often. This was
probably because teachers were not the native speakers. So, they often brought the mother
tongue to their English pronunciation teaching. In another observation, there were 3 English
teachers who sometimes gave wrong intonation and stress. For this mistake, they explained
that they came from the central region and mountainous areas of Vietnam or some of them
lived in Huein ......... In addition, there was 1 English teacher who was very good at
pronouncing English sentences and words. So she never made the mentioned mistakes when
4.3.1. Activities used to enhance students’ pronunciation
As mentioned, activities in English pronunciation class were very important to the
students in English pronunciation. Basing on the results of the interviews, the activities that
teachers usually did in order to improve the pronunciation of students were listening and
repeating, playing games and singing the song. In order to support the questionnaire and
interview results, Brewster et al (2002) claimed that songs and rhymes are easy to remember
and students tend to like singing and performing. Or with play games, according to Brewster
et al. (2002), games were not only interesting but also useful because games provided the
excellent practices to improve pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and language skills.
As listed in literature review, some activities in teaching pronunciation for students
include listening and repeating, games, songs, rhyme, phonetic training and minimal pairs
which would help students to learn English pronunciation more effectively. From the results
of questionnaire, interview and observations, most of English teachers used those activities.
Among them, the popular way that teachers regularly employed to pronounce the word
correctly was to listen and repeat because it could save the time in the class. During the
English lesson, the students shall listen to the pronunciation of the native speakers via the
radio, and then the teacher shall read those words so that the students can repeat after them.
Besides, the teachers let the whole class listen and repeat, and then he or she shall call
anyone students to repeat alone. However, the differences here were the majority of the
teachers rarely required the students to do the other activities (including games, minimal
pairs, song and rhymes) in class frequently because of the limitation of time and lack of
4.3.2. Teacher’s guiding activities for home practice
As mentioned, sometimes, the students would not have enough time to practice in the
class; they just hear and see their teacher’s speech performance. Thus, practicing English
pronunciation at home was the important step for students to learn English pronunciation
fluently. Basing on literature review, one of the most effective methods to improve the
pronunciation skill was to watch videos. This was because when watching videos, the
learners not only heard the different sounds and voices of native speakers but also saw their
speaking ways. In fact, practicing from video clips helped the students speak quickly with
the native pronunciation and accents, especially using many idioms and colloquial
expressions (Bloomsbury International 2016). In addition, the teachers could guide their
students to practice pronunciation at home through many other ways, including listening to
music, repeating the learned sentences, which helped student to be more confident and to
improve their pronunciation. From surveying, interviewing and observing the teacher’s
pronunciation teaching, it can be said that the some teachers asked students to practice the
pronunciation at home by many ways, such as watching video, listening to music and
repeating the learned sentences. This was because these activities aided the students in
accessing the voices and sounds of native speakers easier. When the students heard the
words many times, they would have the good reaction to the sounds and created the
motivation for pronunciation practice (Alan 2017). From then on, they pronounced it
correctly. Basing on literature review, according to Celce-Murcia and Goodwin (1996) stated
that if a learner gets a strong motivation to improve his pronunciation and spend as much as
possible time to attempt, he will achieve deserved result. However, most of them sometimes
guided the students to use the mentioned activities, they did not require the students to
practice pronunciation at home frequently. Their students studied hard at the school, so they
did not want their pupils practice pronunciation at home frequently to ensure the health. But
some other teachers often advised the student to pronounce English at home via watching
video and listening to music. This was because these activities could help the students to
relax and improve their pronunciation as well. It is the fact that watching video and listening
to music were the effective ways that enhance the student’s pronunciation (Cambridge
English 2017). In the modern life, the young learners like learn English pronunciation
online through watching video and listening to music. They can easily choose the interesting
films, songs or programs regarding to English which are suitable for their hobby and ability,
and these activities create motivation for them to practice the pronunciation.
4.3.3. Teacher’ss’ s difficulties
In fact, the accurate pronunciation was an important factor to help the students
pronounce English well, and it had a big influence on whether or not pupils understand
what you were saying (Wil 2016). Moreover, English is divided into many different
accents, such as the accent of British – British, British – American, British – Australian, etc.
Hence, the non-native teachers often made mistakes in teaching pronunciation. The
common mistakes that teachers faced with were vowels and consonants, intonation, stress,
ending sounds. In many situations, “incorrect word stress will lead to more problems than
the use of an incorrect sound in a word.” (Onestopenglish 2015).From the survey, interview
and class observation, most of English teachers had to cope with the difficulties when
teaching English pronunciation to the students, excepting for the excellent teachers. This
was because their pronunciation was mainly affected by the mother tongue. Mother tongue
influences a lot the acquisition of the foreign language (Tesi di Laurea 2014). It is often
involved in interference from the mother tongue, for example while English is a highly
stressed language; Vietnamese is a register language and not a “pure” tonal one. These
mistakes were made by the majority of English teachers. However, the frequency of
making mistakes by teachers was different. The stress and intonation are the biggest issues
for some teachers because they came from the different regions of Vietnam, so their voices
were different. The others often made mistake in ending sounds, vowel and consonant
because of their mother tongue.
The next section is the results from the questionnaires and interviews showing that
and how the teachers suggested to improve the teaching of pronunciation.
4.4. Teachers’ suggestions on improving the teaching of English pronunciation
From the results of the questionnaires and interviews, there were some suggestions
for the teachers in teaching English pronunciation for the 5th grade in some primary schools
in Huein .........
Although the English teachers had organized many activities such as listening and
repeating, phonetic training, minimal pairs, games, songs and rhymes, these activities were
not done frequently. It was very important for the teachers to organize these activities
frequently in class because they would make the lesson more interesting and effective
(Ruthwickham 2016). The teachers needed to read the English loudly and correctly, and then
asked the students to repeat that many times. Moreover, the teachers should spend time on
testing the student’s pronunciation after teaching them. Besides, the teachers used the
English songs with easy words and the moderate melody so that students could listen clearly
and sing along. Many interesting games should be held so that students could have better
pronunciation and become more active. In English games, teachers should try to encourage
the students to use the words and sentences in the lesson during playing the game, and
prepare the small gifts for the winners. From then on, the pupils would be more motivated
when learning English pronunciation.
On guidance for students to practice English pronunciation at home, the majority of
teachers sometimes guided their students to pronounce English via some activities, such as
watching video clips, listening to music and repeating the learned sentences in English.
However, the students did not pay much attention to English pronunciation practicing at
home, their pronunciation learning are quite passive. Thus, the teachers think that they
needed to remind the students of using the listed activities most frequently, especially
watching the English video and films for kids. The teachers should advise their pupils to
write down the new words or sentences, listen to music carefully, and then say it again. In
fact, the primary students were very interested in watching English videos on YouTube.
Moreover, it was easy for them to remember the words with the images, and pronounce the
words correctly like native speakers. Like watching video, listening to music is an effective
method to improve the student’s pronunciation. Hence, the teachers instructed the pupils to
listen to English song frequently because it helped students to pronounce English more
naturally and confidently. Some teachers also agreed that they needed to ask students to
remember the lyrics of the short songs, sing it like native singers, and record their voice. In
addition, the teachers wanted to check the old/ assigned pronunciation or lesson before
starting the new one. From then on, the students were aware of their English pronunciation
practicing at home.
To fix some mistakes (vowel and consonant, intonation, stress, ending sounds) while
teaching English pronunciation for students, teachers needed to take part in some special
training courses of English pronunciation. In the course, the native speakers would train
Vietnamese teachers in teaching English pronunciation. So, the teachers had the great chance
to learn the correct pronunciation like native speakers. Besides, the teachers could improve
the English pronunciation teaching via many ways, such as reading textbooks, listening to
the radio, watching videos and so on. Before teaching students in the class, the English
teachers should to practice the words and sentences in the lesson at home, all elements
including intonation, stress, ending sounds, which were pronounced by the English teachers.
When the teachers pronounced the English exactly, their pupils did it correctly too. Thus, the
teachers had to recognize the mistakes in English pronunciation, find the suitable way to
overcome it for improving the pronunciation teaching.
4.5. Chapter summary
The findings and discussions of the research were presented in details in this chapter.
The research questions were examined and answered by the use of the results from
questionnaires, interviews and class observations. The research questions have been
answered completely. Specifically, the activities deployed by the teachers to teach the 5 th
grade students at some primary school in Huein ........ had been shown. In addition, the
teacher’s suggestions to enhance the English pronunciation teaching methods were found
and reported with discussions on all the findings.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Firstly, this chapter presents a brief summary of key findings in the previous chapter.
Next, the implications from the findings will be presented here. Finally, the limitations of the
study and recommendations for further research are shown in this chapter.
5.2. Summary of key findings
As mentioned earlier, the main objective of the study was to find out the reality of
teaching English pronunciation to the 5th graders in some primary schools in Huein ........, the
difficulties that teachers faced when teaching English pronunciation. A survey was done with
the participants of 30 English teachers from five primary schools in Thua Thien Hue
... ...province. In addition, the study aimed to clarify the real situation of teaching English
pronunciation by the teachers at some primary schools. Also, the research found out the
difficulties the teacher coped with in teaching English pronunciation. And then, the results
from questionnaires, interviews and class observations were analyzed quantitatively and
qualitatively which can be clarified as below:
Firstly, the findings showed the activities that teachers mainly used to enhance
student’s English pronunciation. These activities were diverse and suitable for the various
levels of students. However, because of the limit of time, the teachers often used the
“listening and repeating” method, which helped the pupils imitate the sounds easily and
quickly. Moreover, sometimes, the teachers used some other pronunciation teaching ways,
such as playing games, singing the English songs, etc which took a lot of time to arrange.
Thus, the teachers could not teach all contents in a pronunciation lesson from the textbook if
they organized those activities. As a result, the understanding the meaning of the words and
the efficiency of pronunciation by the students were limited,
Next, the findings also found out teacher’s guidance for students to practice English
pronunciation at home. Sometimes, the teachers advised their students to practice
pronunciation through different ways, such as watching video, listening to music, etc. These
activities brought many benefits to the learners. It helped students to remember the
vocabulary quickly and learn how to pronounce it correctly.
In addition, as found in the data, teaching English pronunciation to students,
especially the young learners was challenging; and the majority of teachers asserted that they
often coped with the difficulties when teaching English pronunciation to their pupils. Among
the challenges they had, stress and intonation were the biggest problems in teaching English
The next section was the implication of research in which some recommendations
were given by the researcher for improving the English pronunciation teaching.
5.3. Implications of the study
From the findings, some suggestions are given for teachers to improve the English
5.3.1. Implication for teachers
In order to teach the students to pronounce English words correctly and fluently, the
teachers should pay attention to all features of pronunciation, especially mainly on the stress,
intonation teaching and students’ attitudes towards their pronunciation. In addition, the
English teachers regularly use the activities, including minimal pairs, games, songs, etc. to
motivate, encourage the students to study better. These ways also make the lesson more
interesting. Moreover, the students will be instructed in how to remember the word and
pronounce it correctly. After finishing each activity, the teachers need to assess, give
feedback, compliment or give the gift to the winners who participate in playing the games or
singing a song. MoreoverBesides, the teachers should provide the students with more
interesting materials with different contents, colors and photos in order that the students can
easily understand and pronounce the word. Furthermore, the English teachers need to
communicate with the student’s parents for reminding their children practicing English
pronunciation regularly through watch English film, listening to music or take the children
to meet foreigners to practice this skill From then on, they will be interested in learning and
practicing pronunciation in the class.
In addition, normally the place for pupils to practice the English pronunciation is in
the classroom. This is because the students are young learners who are not aware of selfstudying in order to improve their pronunciation ability. In the class, they will follow the
teacher’s instruction. However, the class time is restricted to 45 minutes while there are
many steps with many activities in a pronunciation period, such as writing the new words,
listening and repeating, doing the tasks in the textbook. Therefore, the teacher should
organize the suitable activities that can help to save the time for pupils to have more time to
practice pronunciation. Besides, the teachers frequently guide students to practice English
pronunciation at home via some activities, including watching English video clips, listening
to English music, reading the learned sentences and so on to improve their pronunciation.
However, many students do not know how to practice at home. Hence, the teacher should
meet and instruct their parents to support their children at home. For example, the teacher
can show the student’s parents some useful video clips or easy songs for learning English
pronunciation. After that the parents guide their children to practice pronunciation, check
and educate them regularly at home so that the student’s pronunciation can be improved.
Besides, based on many difficulties the teachers have faced during teaching English
pronunciation to their students, the teachers should participate in the pronunciation
practicing and teaching courses for the teachers to improve their ability. Along with that, the
teachers should communicate with native speakers to learn the correct pronunciation and
follow them. Besides, the teachers have to practice the words before coming to the class so
that they can be confident to their teaching.
5.3.2. Implication for students
Some suggestions can be given for students in order to improve their pronunciation as
Firstly, effective English pronunciation is a skill that requires the students to practice
continuously. The students should practice pronunciation a lot in the class and outside the
class as well. Besides, the students could talk with the foreigners in English to improve their
pronunciation. Or practicing English with the friends is also a good way which makes
students more confident when learning English pronunciation. In addition, the students
should try to practice English pronunciation at home as much as possible through some
ways, such as listening to English songs or dramas, watching English pronunciation teaching
video clips or repeat the sample sentences. Doing this way regularly would help students to
pronounce the word correctly.
5.3.3. Implications for administrators
The key factors relating to teaching and learning English pronunciation are teachers
and students. But, the administrators also play an important part in the efficiency of teaching
and learning. There are some following recommendations for the administrators.
Firstly, pronunciation is an important factor of oral communication. Hence, the
administrator should focus on improving this skill. As mentioned, the limitation of time has
the influence on the process and efficiency of pronunciation teaching and learning. Thus, the
time for both teachers and student in a class period should be more than 45 minutes to ensure
the implementation of activities.
Next, activities involving in practicing the English pronunciation should include some
material, equipment, such as, flash cash, monitor, toys, etc so that students will be more
interested in learning pronunciation. Besides, the administrator can buy some gifts for the
students who are excellent to learn English pronunciation skills. They would understand
more the words with stress, intonation, vowel and consonant, etc. From then on, it make the
teacher’s pronunciation teaching more successful. Although the administrators do not take
charge of teaching English pronunciation and activities, they can arrange and provide the
students and teachers with the facilities for better English learning and teaching activities.
Finally, some pronunciation competitions for teachers and students should be
organized in order to motivate and stimulate the spirit of teaching and learning pronunciation