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Coral reef conservation on the largest Brazilian MPA - Linking hybrid governance and social-ecological resilience, Pedro Pereira [et al.]

Coral reef conservation on the largest Brazilian MPA - Linking hybrid governance and social-ecological resilience, Pedro Pereira [et al.]

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Disciplining Hybrid Governance: Assessing

Disciplinary Interference in Biocultural

Indicators for Socio-Ecological Resilience

Alexander Mawyer

1



∗ 1



Center For Pacific Islands Studies, University of Hawai’i at Manoa (CPIS-UHM) – 1890 East-West

Road, Moore 212 Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822, United States



Successful implementation of contemporary and future-oriented hybrid governance will rest

upon clear, shared understandings of dynamic, coupled biocultural systems. However, attempts

to establish broadly applicable consistent methodologies for assessing high-salience biocultural

indicators may become entangled in complex ”interference” effects from the disciplinary backgrounds of primary investigators, analysts, or agents of governance. Disconnection or tension

between alternative percepts, concepts, or analytical interpretation of primary field data may

not always result from the contemporary ”chaos of the disciplines” in a profoundly interdisciplinary or multi-disciplinary space. Subtle, foundational differences in orientation or disciplinary

stance on methodological or analytical concerns or even on the ontology of the very thing under

investigation may also require energetic attention. Grounded in the research of one biocultural

indicators working group with deep investments across social and natural sciences, coastal and

marine ecologies, and small and large scale insular contexts, this paper queries the extent and

character of disciplinary interference effects in the context of biocultural indicators, assessment,

and hybrid governance. It provisionally identifies areas where cross-cutting or potentially confounding differences in epistemological, ontological or interpretive stance may require significant

sensitivity. Reflecting on patterns of coding differences for biocultural elements and indicators,

and interpretive discussion surrounding implementation, it asks how disciplinary stances may

have material implications for assessing or implementing mixed-governance protocols on the

ground or at sea as they are or are not coupled around issues of resilience.







Speaker



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How MMSY promotes sustainability in

coral ecosystem facing environmental chocks

Adrien Lagarde



∗ 1



1



Groupe de Recherche en Economie Th´eorique et Appliqu´ee (GREThA) – Universit´e Montesquieu Bordeaux 4, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : UMR5113 – Avenue L´eon Duguit 33608

PESSAC, France



The small-scale fisheries in many Pacific islands are facing numerous challenges related to

biodiversity conservation, economic sustainability and food security. In particular, shocks such as

cots’ outbreaks, cyclones or El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) question the sustainability of

these fisheries and the underlying marine ecosystems. In that regard the case of Moorea’s island

in French Polynesia is a challenging example where coral - algae interactions play a major role.

To deal with such issues, this paper provides a spatially explicit, dynamic and ecosystem model

along with several bio-economic fishing scenarios at the Horizon 2050 for the Moorea coastal

fishery. The ecosystem model is calibrated using CRIOBE data over the period 2005-2016. The

ecological and economic performances of different fishing scenarios including the Status Quo, the

Closure and the Multi-species Maximum Sustainable Yield (MMSY) strategies are compared.

Through an uncertainty entailed by environmental shocks, the first results suggest that MMSY

fishing strategy could provide a relevant bio-economic balance.







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469



Linking terrestrial causes of disturbances to

coral reef health: socio-ecological modeling

of Kenting National Park (Taiwan) in the

context of climate change.

Lauriane Ribas-Deulofeu ∗† 1,2,3 , Pierre-Alexandre Chˆateau 3 , Vianney

Denis 4 , Chun-Hung Lee 5 , Yun-Ju Chen 6 , Pei-Jie Meng 7,8 , Yu-Wen

Chiu 9 , Yang Chi Chang 10 , Chaolun Allen Chen‡ 2,3,4

1



Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU) – Taipei 106, Taiwan

Taiwan International Graduate Program-Biodiversity, Academia Sinica (TIGP Biodiv) – Nangang,

Taipei 115, Taiwan

3

Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica (BRCAS) – Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan

4

Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University (IONTU) – Taipei 106, Taiwan

5

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University

(NDHU) – Hualien 974, Taiwan

6

Department of Applied Economics, National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) – Taichung 402, Taiwan

7

Institute of Marine Biology, National Dong-Hwa University (NDHU) – Checheng, Pingtung 944,

Taiwan

8

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium (NMMBA) – Pingtung 944, Taiwan

9

Centre for Research in Water Science and Technology, National Cheng-Kong University (NCKU) –

Tainan 701, Taiwan

10

Departement of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University (MAEV) –

Kaoshiung 804, Taiwan

2



Located in Southern Taiwan, Kenting National Park (KNP) was created in 1985 to enforce

conservation of terrestrial and marine diversity. Despite implementation of MPAs, many reefs

within KNP are now severely degraded under increasing natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Conciliating growing socioeconomic demands with ecological conservation represents a challenge

to durably sustain coral reefs. Here, we developed a transdisciplinary approach from socioecological surveys to ecosystem modeling to identify keys levers and their potential impact on

the overall state of the coral reefs in KNP. Initial assessment of benthic and fish communities was

based on > 100 sampling locations through KNP on a three-year period. Additional ecological

surveys were seasonally performed at 11 reefs in 2016-2017 to specifically assess impacts of

punctual disturbances such as typhoons and bleaching events. State and response of communities

was related to water quality surveys including watershed in order to identify potential entrance

source of land-based pollution. Eventually, stakeholders were interviewed to determine modality

and acceptability of management strategies which were model using Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE)

and eventually analyze the overall dynamic of the system. At the scale of the all KNP, benthic

communities are dominated by turf and macro-algae while hard corals are dominated by stress





Speaker

Corresponding author: lauriane.ribas@gmail.com



Corresponding author: cac@gate.sinica.edu.tw





470



tolerant species. Fish communities are dominated by small size individuals and characterized by

low biomass of sessile invertivorous and piscivorous, typical from reefs with high fishery catch.

Water quality surveys reveal localized nutrient or sedimentation inputs from land. Stakeholders

show strong support for reinforcements of marine police, the establishment of capacity control

regulations, and favor establishment of reef conservation funds by setting park entrance fees.

Future work will integrate those results together in different climate change scenarios. It will

highlight key levers to prioritize in management strategy for building resilient reefs and insure

source of income for local stakeholders.



471



Operationalizing Ecological Adaptive

Capacity to assess Impacts, Resilience, and

Action for Coral Reefs in the Face of Global

Environmental Change

Adrien Comte



∗ 1



, Linwood Pendleton



1,2



1



Universit´e de Brest, Ifremer, CNRS, UMR6308 AMURE, IUEM, Plouzan´e, France – AMURE :

UMR6308, Universit´e de Brest, Ifremer, CNRS, IUEM – UMR 6308 AMURE IUEM Rue Dumont

d’Urville 29 280 Plouzan´e - France, France

2

Duke University – Duke University Box 90291 Durham, NC 27708, United States



Coral reefs, already under pressure from local threats (e.g. overfishing, coastal pollution),

are one of the socio-ecological systems most vulnerable to global environmental change. Scientific indicator-based assessments have been developed to understand changes in socio-ecological

systems and guide decision-makers and managers and to monitor and evaluate progress towards

environmental management under change. The diversity of the human and ecological states of

coral reefs requires a diverse set of tools and management strategies to best handle the increasing

intensity of threats posed by climate change and ocean acidification in specific environmental

contexts. Therefore, we propose to continue the integration of resilience and vulnerability frameworks that started with Turner (2010) and Engle (2011). We propose the concept of ”ecological

adaptive capacity (EAC)” that defines the maximum potential ecological state of a reef in the absence of local environmental stress. Identifying the EAC of a reef helps to prioritize the potential

for improved (i) resilience, (ii) recovery, (iii) ability to avoid losses of ecosystem services (which

can require human adaption). To go from theoretical thinking towards operational assessments

of EAC and integration of vulnerability and resilience thinking, we attempt to formalize the

relationships between the components identified by these two fields. We use participative approaches to incorporate local ecological knowledge to help quantify EAC in the context of French

Polynesia. The goal of these participative approaches is to engage communities that depend on

coral reefs to assess resilience and vulnerability and help public policy plan for adaptation.







Speaker



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H2/ The status and opportunities of

marine wildlife tourism



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