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A global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone, Tracey Sutton [et al.]

A global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone, Tracey Sutton [et al.]

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Distribution, population relationships and

genetic diversity of Antimora spp.

(Moridae, Gadiformes) in the world’s oceans

Alexei Orlov

∗ 1,2,3,4

, Svetlana Orlova 1 , Pavel Afanasiev 1 , Ilya Gordeev



Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) – Moscow, Russia


National Research Tomsk State University (TSU) – Tomsk, Russia


A.N.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution (IPEE RAS) – Moscow, Russia


Dagestan State University (DSU) – Makhachkala, Russia


Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) – Moscow, Russia

The genus Antimora (Moridae, Gadiformes) is represented by two species, Pacific flatnose

A. microlepis and blue antimora A. rostrata. Both species are widely distributed mainly in deep

temperate and cold waters: Pacific flatnose in the North Pacific and blue antimora in the rest

part of the world’s oceans. Published data on their distributions are fragmented and scarce.

Here we present a new data on distribution of Pacific flatnose within the entire range and that

of blue antimora within southern part of species’ range.

Previous genetic studies of Antimora spp. are scarce. We analyzed haplotypic composition of

12 samples using mtDNA gene CO1 as a genetic marker: A. rostrata (149 ind.) – Ross, Wedell,

Amundsen, Scotia seas, Eastern Australia, Indian Ocean, Southwest Greenland, Flemish Cap;

A. microlepis (95 ind.) – Emperor Seamounts, Alaska, British Columbia, Southeast Sakhalin.

93 haplotypes were found in all samples. Maximum diversity was characteristic for A. rostrata

in Scotia Sea and Flemish Cap area and for A. microlepis off US and Canada West coast. In

blue antimora samples, haplotypes H3 and H4 were most frequent. In Pacific flatnose samples,

haplotypes H1, H2 and H13 were most frequently observed. Haplotypes H4 and H13 were common for both species.

Attempt was made to evaluate population relationships based on results of comparative otolith

shape analysis using samples of A. rostrata from the Northwestern Atlantic and Antarctic and

A. microlepis from the Northwestern Pacific. Statistically significant differences were found in

otolith shape between both species as well as between the Northwestern Atlantic and Antarctic

A. rostrata samples.

Our results showed significant genetic differences (probably of subspecies level) not revealed

previously. The center of A. rostrata origin is the North Atlantic, from where it widely settled

in the world’s oceans. The origin of A. microlepis in the North Pacific is probably related to its

isolation after Panama Channel closing and change of the system of currents. The increasing

of number and length of its gill filaments may be a consequence of adaptation to existence in

conditions of oxygen deficiency.



This research was supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Research (grant 16-04-00516).


Estimates of divergence times in the two

monotypic genera of the family

Anoplomatidae based on mitochondrial

DNA sequences

Svetlana Orlova ∗ 1 , Dmitry Shcepetov 1 , Nikolai Mugue 1 , Anastasia

Teterina 2 , Hiroshi Senou 3 , Aleksei Baitaliuk 4 , Alexei Orlov† 1




Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) – 17, V. Krasnoselskaya,

Moscow, 107140, Russia


A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) –

http://www.sevin.ru/menues1/indexe ng.html, Russia

Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History – 499 Iryuda, Odawara, Kanagawa 250-0031, Japan

Pacific Fisheries Research Center (TINRO-Center) – 4, Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, 690091, Russia

Here we propose two calibration scenarios of to date contemporary divergence of Anoplopomatidae (skilfish Erilepis zonifer and sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria) for a dataset of two mtDNA

loci (OI and D-loop). The first calibration scenario is based upon the only known fossil Anoplopomatidae Eoscorpius primaevus dated to be 5-6 Mya old. The second calibration scenario was

based on two mayor paleogeological events, Panama Strait closure and Bering Strait opening,

with estimated Anoplopomatidae species divergence 3.5 Mya. Estimated evolution speeds indicate that COI evolves faster in the skilfish mitochondrial genome. There is also evidence of

skilfish going through a bottleneck event limiting its genetic diversity in the relatively recent

past, presumably in its sole refugium near Japan. Sablefish had two refugia on both sides of

the Pacific Ocean. The contemporary haplotype divergence was formed approximately 200-140

thousand years ago during an ice age in the Pliocene. This work was supported by the Russian

Fund of Basic Research (grant No. 16-34-01038).


Corresponding author: orlov@vniro.ru


Functional biodiversity of New Zealand’s

marine fishes across depth

Elisabeth Myers

∗ 1

, Marti Anderson 1 , David Eme 1 , Libby Liggins 2 ,

Clive Roberts 3 , Euan Harvey 4


New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University (NZIAS) – Massey University

Auckland (East Precinct) Albany Expressway (SH17) Albany 0632 New Zealand, New Zealand


Institute of Natural and Mathematical Science, Massey University (INMS) – Massey University

Auckland (East Precinct) Albany Expressway (SH17) Albany 0632 New Zealand, New Zealand


Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa – 169 Tory Street, Wellington, New Zealand, New



Curtin University – Kent Street, Bentley, Perth Western Australia. 6102, Australia

Changes in the composition of species assemblages have long been studied using taxonomic

diversity alone. To better understand and predict ecological processes, ecosystem services and

resilience, it is important to also study functional biodiversity. The deep sea is the largest habitat

on earth and sustains many important fisheries around the globe. Decreases in light, temperature, and trophic resources, along with increases in pressure that occur with greater depth,

renders the deep sea one of the most constraining environments for supporting life. However,

little is known about how biodiversity, and especially functional biodiversity, changes along the

depth gradient. This work aims to fill this gap by assessing how fish traits associated with the

structure, locomotion, and feeding, reflect functional adaptations to the extreme environment

of the deep sea. Fish community composition and functional trait measurements were obtained

from unique stereo-baited remote underwater video (stereo-BRUV) footage of fishes in 7 locations from subtropical to subantarctic New Zealand waters, spanning 21 degrees of latitude.

The video footage is drawn from a structured replicated ecological sampling design including

7 depth strata (50m, 100m, 300m, 500m, 700m, 900m, and 1200m), with 149 fish accurately

identified to species level. Trait measurements were taken from this stereo-video footage and

direct measurements of preserved specimens held in museum collections. These trait measurements included several which capture the functional changes predicted to be important across

the depth gradient for fishes (i.e. oral gape shape and position, eye size and position, body

transversal shape, pectoral fin position, and caudal peduncle throttling). Univariate statistical models suggest that there is a shift in most of the measured functional traits across depth

and that the covariance among measured traits changes across depth strata. For example, eye

size peaks at intermediate depths of 500-700m, potentially indicating a strategy maximising the

paucity of light still present, whereas oral gape shape consistently increases and is largest in the

deepest stratum (1200m), suggesting increased specialisation of feeding behaviour. I will present

these results and our ongoing analyses exploring trait relationships of New Zealand fishes across

the depth gradient using multivariate functional diversity measures.



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