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Origins of Hawaiian reef fauna: evidence from sister pairs of Pacific blennies, Michael Hoban [et al.]

Origins of Hawaiian reef fauna: evidence from sister pairs of Pacific blennies, Michael Hoban [et al.]

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Phylogenetic diversity of New Zealand

ray-finned fishes across depth and latitude.

David Eme ∗ 1 , Libby Liggins 2 , Elisabeth Myers 3 , Clive Roberts 4 , Carl

Struthers 4 , Salme Kortet 4 , Jeremy Barker 4 , Andrew Stewart 4 , Marti

Anderson 3

1



New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study (NZIAS) – Massey University Albany campus, New

Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, E-center building, Gate 5, Oaklands Road, Massey University,

Albany, Auckland 0632, New Zealand

2

Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences (INMS) – Institute of Natural and Mathematical

Sciences, Massey University, Albany campus, Private Bag 102904, North Shore Auckland 0745, New

Zealand, New Zealand

3

New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study (NZIAS) – Massey university, Albany campus, New

Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, E-center building, Gate 5, Oaklands Road, Massey University,

Albany, Auckland 0632, New Zealand

4

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Te Papa) – Museum of New Zealand Te Papa

Tongarewa, PO Box 467, Wellington, New Zealand, New Zealand



Knowledge regarding spatial patterns in marine biodiversity, including fishes, is mostly limited to shallow waters which represent less than 10% of marine habitats. However, understanding

the ecological/evolutionary processes shaping marine biodiversity requires including a third dimension – depth. Difficulty in sampling deep oceanic areas means that our understanding of

biodiversity patterns along the depth gradient is restricted to a few studies that are largely

descriptions of species diversity. In general, these studies suggest that fish species diversity

decreases with depth; or in some cases, species richness increases until a certain depth, and

then decreases as ecological conditions become more stressful at greater depths (high pressure,

limited productivity and ambient energy). However, despite these environmental constraints at

depth, deep sea environments are larger, more homogeneous, and have been more stable through

time than the shallow waters, potentially increasing the opportunity for long and diverse evolutionary histories in deep sea fishes. Therefore, documenting phylogenetic diversity patterns

of fishes across depth may reveal striking patterns of primary importance to understanding the

processes that have shaped marine biodiversity. Our research aim is to quantify phylogenetic

diversity of New Zealand’s ray-finned fishes across depth (50–1200m) and latitude (21 degrees)

using a robust, stratified, replicated survey of the fish community. In this talk, I will present

our progress in exploring the likelihood of an increase in the phylogenetic diversity of fishes

across depth. First, we have constructed a new time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based 70%

on New Zealand’s ray-finned fish species using our purpose-built pipeline that extracts DNA

sequences and metadata from databases and performs different selection steps in order to build

a multi-gene Bayesian phylogeny. Second, we have modelled the different facets of phylogenetic

diversity across depth and latitude using a range of phylogenetic diversity measures and various

null models of community assemblages, while taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty. The





Speaker



117



different patterns of phylogenetic diversity inferred suggest that deep sea fish communities comprise clusters of sister, or closely related taxa, which are widely spread through the phylogeny

of New Zealand ray-finned fishes.



118



Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish

functional traits

Sergio Floeter



∗† 1



, Mariana Bender 1 , Alexandre Siqueira 2 , Peter

Cowman 2



1



2



Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) – Depto. de Ecologia e Zoologia - CCB,

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian´opolis - SC, Brazil, 88040-900, Brazil

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (CoralCoE) – ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral

Reef StudiesJames Cook University TownsvilleQueensland 4811 Australia, Australia



Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish

lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction

and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring

the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated

fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic

trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes

on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found

examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such

transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological

opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In

terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple

times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the

last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate

range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes

through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes

in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The

diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait–environment interactions

as well as by species and trait–trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger

the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional

diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary

and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a phylogenetic and

a functional approach will improve the understanding of the mechanisms of species assembly in

extraordinarily rich coral reef communities.









Speaker

Corresponding author: sergiofloeter@gmail.com



119



Phylogeography, Biogeography, and the

Origins of Indo-Pacific Reef Fishes

Brian Bowen



∗ 1



, Michelle Gaither 2 , Joseph Dibattista 3 , Matthew

Iacchei 4 , Kim Andrews 5



1



Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) – 46-007 Lilipuna Rd Kaneohe, HI 96744, United States

2

University of Hawaii – 46-007 Lilipuna Road, Kaneohe, Hawaii, USA, United States

3

Curtin University – Department of Environment and Agriculture, PO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845,

Australia

4

University of Hawaii – Department of Oceanography, School of Ocean and Earth Science and

Technology, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States

5

University of Idaho – Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, Moscow, ID 83844, United States



Understanding how ecology, geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped

marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa.

Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in Indo-Pacific reef fishes against a backdrop of

biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic

genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. In cases where individual species are distributed across two or more

biogeographic provinces, shifts in genotype frequencies often align with biogeographic boundaries, providing intraspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography. This concordance indicates that the population-level genetic divergences observed between provinces are

a starting point for macroevolutionary divergences between species. However, isolation between

provinces does not account for all marine biodiversity; the remainder arises through alternative pathways, such as ecological speciation and parapatric (semi-isolated) divergences within

provinces and biodiversity hotspots.







Speaker



120



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