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Exhibit 14.10: Subordinates’ Expectations under Three Levels of Power Distance

Exhibit 14.10: Subordinates’ Expectations under Three Levels of Power Distance

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National Context and

Subordinates’ Expectation

•• Strong

Strong masculinity

masculinity norms

norms

•• Lead

Lead toto the

the acceptance

acceptance ofof more

more authoritarian

authoritarian

leadership

leadership

•• Strong

Strong uncertainty-avoidance

uncertainty-avoidance norms

norms

•• Subordinates

Subordinates toto expect

expect the

the leader

leader toto provide

provide more

more

detail

detail inin directions

directions



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Preference for “Specific” Leader In

Thirteen Countries



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Contemporary Leadership

Perspectives: Multinational

Implications

•• Two

Two basic

basic forms

forms ofof leadership

leadership

•• Transactional

Transactional leadership:

leadership: managers

managers use

use rewards

rewards or

or

punishments

punishments toto influence

influence their

their subordinates

subordinates

Most

Most ordinary

ordinary leaders

leaders use

use transactional

transactional leadership

leadership



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Transformational Leadership

•• Managers

Managers go

go beyond

beyond transactional

transactional leadership

leadership by

by

•• Articulating

Articulating aa vision

vision

•• Breaking

Breaking from

from the

the status

status quo

quo

•• Providing

Providing goals

goals and

and aa plan

plan

•• Giving

Giving meaning

meaning or

or aa purpose

purpose toto goals

goals

•• Taking

Taking risks

risks

•• Being

Being motivated

motivated toto lead

lead

•• Building

Building aa power

power base

base

•• Demonstrating

Demonstrating high

high ethical

ethical and

and moral

moral standards

standards

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Transformational Leaders

•• Succeed

Succeed because

because subordinates

subordinates respond

respond toto them

them with

with

high

high levels

levels ofof performance,

performance, devotion

devotion and

and willingness

willingness toto

sacrifice

sacrifice

•• Same

Same leadership

leadership traits

traits may

may not

not lead

lead toto

transformational

transformational leadership

leadership inin all

all countries

countries



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 14.11: GLOBE Study and

Charismatic Leadership



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Attributions and Leadership

•• Emphasis

Emphasis on

on what

what leaders

leaders believe

believe causes

causes

subordinates’

subordinates’behaviors

behaviors

•• Two

Two key

key distinctions

distinctions inin attributions

attributions

•• External

External attribution:

attribution: factors

factors outside

outside the

the person

person and

and

beyond

beyond the

the person’s

person’s control

control (e.g.,

(e.g., natural

natural disasters,

disasters,

illness,

illness, faulty

faulty equipment,

equipment, etc.)

etc.)

•• Internal

Internal attribution:

attribution: characteristics

characteristics ofof the

the person

person

(e.g.,

(e.g., personality,

personality, motivation,

motivation, low

low ability,

ability, etc.)

etc.)

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Exhibit 14.10: Subordinates’ Expectations under Three Levels of Power Distance

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