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Exhibit 14.1: Likert’s Four Styles of Management

Exhibit 14.1: Likert’s Four Styles of Management

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Japanese Perspectives on

Leader Behaviors

•• Performance-maintenance

Performance-maintenance (PM)

(PM) theory:

theory: balancing

balancing

tasktask- and

and person-centered

person-centered leader

leader behaviors

behaviors



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Performance-Maintenance

Theory

Two

Two dimensions

dimensions ofof PM

PM theory

theory

•• Performance

Performance function

function (P):

(P): similar

similar toto task-centered

task-centered

leadership

leadership

•• Two

Two components

components ofof performance

performance function

function

•• Planning

Planning component:

component: the

the leader

leader works

works for

for or

or

with

with subordinates

subordinates toto develop

develop work

work procedures

procedures

•• Pressure

Pressure component:

component: the

the leader

leader then

then

pressures

pressures employees

employees toto put

put forth

forth more

more effort

effort

and

and toto do

do good

good work

work

Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Performance-Maintenance

Theory

Maintenance

Maintenance function

function (M):

(M): similar

similar toto person-centered

person-centered

•• Presents

Presents behaviors

behaviors that

that promote

promote group

group stability

stability and

and

social

social interaction

interaction

•• Difference

Difference between

between the

the Japanese

Japanese PM

PM approach

approach and

and

the

the U.S.

U.S. perspective

perspective

•• Japanese

Japanese PM

PM leader

leader focuses

focuses on

on influencing

influencing groups

groups

•• U.S.

U.S. approach

approach focuses

focuses on

on influencing

influencing individuals

individuals

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Contingency Theory

Assumption

Assumption that

that different

different styles

styles and

and different

different leaders

leaders

are

are more

more appropriate

appropriate for

for different

different situations

situations

•• Two

Two North

NorthAmerican

American contingency

contingency theories

theories ofof leadership

leadership

•• Fiedler’s

Fiedler’s theory

theory ofof leadership

leadership

Path-goal

Path-goal theory

theory



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Fiedlers Theory of Leadership

•• Proposed

Proposed that

that managers

managers tend

tend toto be

be either

either tasktask- or

or

person-centered

person-centered leaders

leaders

•• Three

Three successful

successful contingencies

contingencies ofof the

the work

work situation

situation

•• Leader

Leader and

and subordinates

subordinates relationships

relationships

•• Clearly

Clearly defined

defined subordinates’

subordinates’tasks

tasks

•• Power

Power ofof the

the leader

leader



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Fiedlers Theory of Leadership

Effective

Effective leadership

leadership occurs

occurs when

when the

the leadership

leadership styles

styles

match

match the

the situation

situation

•• Theory

Theory suggests

suggests that

that task-centered

task-centered leadership

leadership works

works

best

best when

when situation

situation isis favorable

favorable or

or not

not favorable

favorable for

for

leader

leader

•• IfIf favorable,

favorable, subordinates

subordinates are

are positive

positive about

about their

their

work—need

work—need toto be

be told

told what

what toto do

do

•• InIn unfavorable

unfavorable situations,

situations, job

job requirements

requirements are

are

unclear,

unclear, leader

leader need

need toto focus

focus on

on getting

getting things

things done

done

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 14.2: Predictions of Leader

Effectiveness under Different

Conditions



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Path-Goal Theory

Four

Four leadership

leadership styles

styles that

that aa manager

manager might

might choose

choose

depending

depending on

on the

the situation

situation

•• Directive

Directive

Supportive

Supportive

Participative

Participative

Achievement-oriented

Achievement-oriented



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Exhibit 14.1: Likert’s Four Styles of Management

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