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Exhibit 13.13: Effects of Positive Reinforcement and Types of Rewards in a Russian Cotton Mill

Exhibit 13.13: Effects of Positive Reinforcement and Types of Rewards in a Russian Cotton Mill

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Multinational Applications of

Process/Reinforcement

Theories

•• Expectancy

Expectancy theory:

theory: key

key isis identifying

identifying nationally

nationally

appropriate

appropriate rewards

rewards that

that have

have positive

positive valence

valence

•• Equity

Equity theory:

theory: assess

assess meaning

meaning and

and principle

principle ofof equity

equity

inin national

national context

context

•• Goal-setting

Goal-setting theory:

theory: should

should goals

goals be

be assigned

assigned toto

groups

groups or

or individuals?

individuals?

•• Reinforcement

Reinforcement theory:

theory: what

what people

people value

value atat work

work will

will

influence

influence the

the types

types ofof reinforcers

reinforcers that

that can

can be

be used

used

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Motivation and Job Design:

U.S. Perspectives

•• The

The job-characteristic

job-characteristic model

model approach

approach

•• Work

Work isis more

more motivating

motivating when

when managers

managers enrich

enrich

core

core job

job characteristics,

characteristics, such

such as

as by

by increasing

increasing

number

number ofof skills

skills aa job

job requires.

requires.



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Job-Characteristics Model

Three

Three critical

critical psychological

psychological states

states as

as motivating

motivating

•• AAperson

person must

must believe

believe that

that his

his or

or her

her job

job isis

meaningful.

meaningful.

•• AAperson

person must

must believe

believe that

that he

he or

or she

she isis responsible

responsible

or

or accountable

accountable for

for the

the outcome

outcome ofof work.

work.

•• AAperson

person must

must understand

understand how

how well

well he

he or

or she

she has

has

performed.

performed.

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Core Characteristics of Job













Skill

Skill variety

variety

Task

Task identity

identity

Task

Task significance

significance

Autonomy

Autonomy

Feedback

Feedback



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 13.14: A Motivating Job in the

Job-Characteristics Model



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Motivation and Job Design:

European Perspective

•• Sociotechnical

Sociotechnical systems

systems (STS)

(STS) approach:

approach: focuses

focuses on

on

designing

designing motivating

motivating jobs

jobs by

by blending

blending the

the social

social

system

system with

with different

different technologies

technologies

•• Autonomous

Autonomous work

work group:

group: team

team or

or unit

unit that

that has

has nearly

nearly

complete

complete responsibility

responsibility for

for aa particular

particular task

task

•• Team’s

Team’s task

task rather

rather than

than individual

individual task

task isis focus

focus ofof job

job

enrichment

enrichment



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



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Exhibit 13.13: Effects of Positive Reinforcement and Types of Rewards in a Russian Cotton Mill

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