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Exhibit 13.9: Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture and Motivators at Work

Exhibit 13.9: Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture and Motivators at Work

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Applying Need Theories in

Multinational Settings

•• Identify

Identify the

the basic

basic functions

functions ofof work

work inin the

the national

national or

or

local

local culture

culture

•• Identify

Identify the

the needs

needs considered

considered most

most important

important by

by

workers

workers inin the

the national

national or

or local

local culture

culture

•• Sources

Sources ofof need

need fulfillment

fulfillment may

may differ

differ for

for the

the same

same

needs

needs

•• Understand

Understand limitations

limitations ofof available

available jobs

jobs toto satisfy

satisfy

needs

needs

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Process and Reinforcement

Theories of Motivation:

Expectancy Theory

•• Expectancy

Expectancy theory

theory

•• Assumes

Assumes that

that part

part ofof motivation

motivation isis an

an individual’s

individual’s

desire

desire toto satisfy

satisfy needs

needs

•• People’s

People’s beliefs

beliefs regarding

regarding how

how much

much their

their efforts

efforts atat

work

work will

will eventually

eventually satisfy

satisfy their

their needs

needs



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Expectancy Theory

Three

Three factors

factors

•• Expectancy:

Expectancy: an

an individual’s

individual’s belief

belief that

that his

his or

or her

her

effort

effort will

will lead

lead toto some

some result

result

•• Valence:

Valence: the

the value

value attached

attached toto the

the outcome

outcome ofof

efforts

efforts

•• Instrumentality:

Instrumentality: the

the links

links between

between early

early and

and later

later

results

results ofof the

the work

work effort

effort

Motivation

Motivation == Expectancy

Expectancy xx Valence

Valence xx Instrumentality

Instrumentality

Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Applying Expectancy Theory

in Multinational Settings

•• Two

Two key

key issues

issues

•• Identify

Identify valued

valued outcomes

outcomes ofof work

work

•• Use

Use culturally

culturally appropriate

appropriate ways

ways toto convince

convince

employees

employees that

that their

their efforts

efforts will

will lead

lead toto desirable

desirable

ends

ends



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Equity Theory

Focuses

Focuses on

on the

the fairness

fairness that

that people

people perceive

perceive inin the

the

rewards

rewards that

that they

they receive

receive for

for their

their efforts

efforts atat work

work

•• There

There are

are no

no absolute

absolute standards

standards for

for fairness

fairness inin the

the

input/output

input/output (effort/reward)

(effort/reward) equation.

equation.

•• People

People compare

compare themselves

themselves toto others

others and

and adjust

adjust

their

their input

input (effort).

(effort).



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Applying Equity Theory in

Multinational Settings

••

••



Equity

Equity norms

norms vary

vary

Three

Three principles

principles ofof allocating

allocating rewards

rewards

•• The

The principle

principle ofof equity

equity (based

(based on

on contributions)

contributions)

•• Prevails

Prevails inin individualistic

individualistic cultures

cultures

•• The

The principle

principle ofof equality

equality (based

(based on

on equal

equal division

division ofof

rewards)

rewards)

•• More

More likely

likely inin collectivistic

collectivistic cultures

cultures

•• The

The principle

principle ofof need

need (based

(based on

on individual

individual needs)

needs)

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 13.10: Rewards from Peers for

Contributions to a Student Group

Project



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Goal Setting Theory

•• Assumption

Assumption that

that the

the mere

mere existence

existence ofof aa goal

goal isis

motivating

motivating

•• The

The principles

principles ofof goal

goal setting

setting

•• Set

Set clear

clear and

and specific

specific goals

goals

•• Assign

Assign difficult

difficult but

but achievable

achievable goals

goals

•• Increase

Increase employee

employee acceptance

acceptance ofof goals

goals

•• Provide

Provide incentives

incentives toto achieve

achieve goals

goals

Give

Give feedback

feedback on

on goal

goal attainment

attainment

Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



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Exhibit 13.9: Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture and Motivators at Work

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