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Exhibit 12.2: Cultural Differences in Communication Styles

Exhibit 12.2: Cultural Differences in Communication Styles

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Nonverbal Communication

••

••



Communication

Communication without

without words

words

Includes

Includes array

array ofof behaviors

behaviors that

that enhance/supplement

enhance/supplement

spoken

spoken communication

communication

•• Include

Include

Kinesics,

Kinesics, proxemics,

proxemics, haptics,

haptics, oculesics,

oculesics, and

and

olfactics

olfactics



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Kinesics

•• Communication

Communication through

through body

body movements

movements

•• E.g.,

E.g., facial

facial expressions,

expressions, body

body posture

posture

•• Most

MostAsian

Asian cultures

cultures use

use bowing

bowing toto show

show respect

respect

•• No

No universal

universal code

code for

for what

what body

body movements

movements mean

mean

Easy

Easy toto misinterpret

misinterpret gestures

gestures



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Proxemics

•• Use

Use ofof space

space toto communicate

communicate

•• Each

Each culture

culture has

has appropriate

appropriate distances

distances for

for

communication

communication

•• The

The personal

personal bubble

bubble ofof space

space may

may range

range from

from 99

inches

inches toto over

over 20

20 inches

inches

•• North

NorthAmericans

Americans prefer

prefer more

more distance

distance than

than Latin

Latin

and

andArab

Arab cultures

cultures

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Seating in a Typical Japanese Office



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Haptics or Touching

•• Shaking

Shaking hands,

hands, embracing,

embracing, or

or kissing

kissing when

when greeting

greeting

one

one another

another

•• No

No touching

touching

•• E.g.,

E.g., Japan,

Japan, U.S.,

U.S., England,

England, and

and many

many Northern

Northern

European

European countries

countries

•• Moderate

Moderate touching

touching

•• E.g.,

E.g.,Australia,

Australia, China,

China, Ireland,

Ireland, and

and India

India

Touching

Touching

E.g.,

E.g., Latin

LatinAmerican

American countries,

countries, Italy,

Italy, and

and Greece

Greece

Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Oculesics

•• Communication

Communication through

through eye

eye contact

contact or

or gaze

gaze

•• U.S.

U.S. and

and Canada:

Canada: people

people are

are very

very comfortable

comfortable and

and

expect

expect eye

eye contact

contact toto be

be maintained

maintained

•• China

China and

and Japan:

Japan: eye

eye contact

contact isis considered

considered very

very

rude

rude and

and disrespectful

disrespectful



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



The Basics of Cross-Cultural

Communication

•• Olfactics:

Olfactics: use

use ofof smells

smells as

as aa means

means ofof nonverbal

nonverbal

communication

communication

•• U.S.:

U.S.: find

find body

body odor

odor offensive

offensive

•• Arab:

Arab: consider

consider body

body odors

odors natural

natural



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Practical Issues in CrossCultural Business

Communication

•• Interpreter’s

Interpreter’s role:

role: toto provide

provide aa simultaneous

simultaneous translation

translation

ofof aa foreign

foreign language

language

•• Require

Require greater

greater linguistic

linguistic skills

skills than

than speaking

speaking aa

language

language or

or translating

translating written

written documents

documents

•• Have

Have the

the technical

technical knowledge

knowledge and

and vocabulary

vocabulary toto deal

deal

with

with technical

technical details

details common

common inin business

business

transactions

transactions

•• Have

Have toto ensure

ensure the

the accuracy

accuracy and

and common

common

understanding

understanding ofof agreements

agreements

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Tips for Successful Use of

Interpreters

••

••

••

••



Spend

Spend time

time with

with the

the interpreter

interpreter

Go

Go over

over technical

technical and

and other

other issues

issues with

with interpreter

interpreter for

for

proper

proper understanding

understanding

Insist

Insist on

on frequent

frequent interruptions

interruptions when

when it’s

it’s necessary

necessary

Look

Look for

for feedback

feedback and

and comprehension

comprehension by

by watching

watching the

the

eyes

eyes



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Tips for Successful use of

Interpreters (cont.)

••

••



Discuss

Discuss the

the message

message beforehand

beforehand

Request

Request that

that your

your interpreter

interpreter apologize

apologize for

for your

your

inability

inability toto speak

speak inin the

the local

local language

language

•• Confirm

Confirm that

that all

all key

key components

components ofof the

the message

message have

have

been

been properly

properly comprehended

comprehended



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Communication with

Nonnative Speakers

•• Use

Use the

the most

most common

common words

words with

with most

most common

common

meanings

meanings

•• Select

Select words

words with

with few

few alternative

alternative meanings

meanings

•• Follow

Follow rules

rules ofof grammar

grammar strictly

strictly

•• Speak

Speak with

with clear

clear breaks

breaks between

between words

words

•• Avoid

Avoid sports

sports words

words or

or words

words borrowed

borrowed from

from literature

literature



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



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Exhibit 12.2: Cultural Differences in Communication Styles

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