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Exhibit 11.17: Labor Costs and Hours Worked Per Week in Selected Countries

Exhibit 11.17: Labor Costs and Hours Worked Per Week in Selected Countries

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A Comparative View of Labor

Relations

•• Patterns

Patterns ofof labor

labor relations

relations depend

depend on:

on:

Historical

Historical factors

factors

Ideology

Ideology reasons

reasons

Management

Management views

views ofof unions

unions



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Union-Membership Density

•• Proportion

Proportion ofof workers

workers inin aa country

country who

who belong

belong toto

unions

unions

•• Germany:

Germany: estimated

estimated 40%

40% belonged

belonged toto trade

trade unions

unions

•• U.S.:

U.S.: 14.2%

14.2% ofof nonagricultural

nonagricultural workforce

workforce

•• Denmark:

Denmark: over

over 80%

80% unionized

unionized

Great

Great Britain:

Britain: approximate

approximate 50%

50% unionized

unionized



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Exhibit 11.18: Union Density in

Selected Countries



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Historical and Institutional

Differences: Germany

•• Germany

Germany

•• Formalized,

Formalized, legalistic,

legalistic, and

and low-conflict

low-conflict bargaining

bargaining

between

between unions

unions and

and large

large corporations

corporations

•• French

French

•• Militant/strong

Militant/strong ideologies

ideologies

•• U.S.

U.S.

•• “Bread

“Bread and

and butter”

butter” issues:

issues: wages,

wages, benefits,

benefits, and

and

working

working conditions

conditions

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Exhibit 11.17: Labor Costs and Hours Worked Per Week in Selected Countries

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