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Exhibit 8.4: International Strategic Alliances for Small Multinational Companies

Exhibit 8.4: International Strategic Alliances for Small Multinational Companies

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Exhibit 8.4: International

Strategic Alliances for Small

Multinational Companies



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Choosing an Alliance Type

•• Three

Three main

main types

types ofof strategic

strategic alliances

alliances

•• Informal

Informal international

international cooperative

cooperative alliances

alliances

•• Formal

Formal international

international cooperative

cooperative alliances

alliances

•• International

International joint

joint venture

venture



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Informal International

Cooperative Alliance

•• Non-legally

Non-legally binding

binding agreements

agreements between

between companies

companies

from

from two

two or

or more

more countries

countries

•• Agreements

Agreements ofof any

any kind

kind

•• Provide

Provide links

links anywhere

anywhere on

on their

their value

value chains

chains

Limited

Limited involvement

involvement between

between companies

companies



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Formal Cooperative Alliances

••

••

••



Higher

Higher degree

degree ofof involvement

involvement than

than informal

informal alliances

alliances

Formal

Formal contract

contract

Popular

Popular inin high

high tech

tech industries

industries because

because ofof high

high costs

costs

and

and risks

risks



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



International Joint Ventures

(IJV)

•• Separate

Separate legal

legal entity

entity owned

owned by

by two

two or

or more

more parent

parent

companies

companies from

from different

different countries

countries

•• No

No need

need for

for equal

equal ownership

ownership

•• Equity

Equity based

based on

on cash

cash or

or other

other contributions

contributions

•• Ex.:

Ex.: One

One partner

partner brings

brings technology

technology while

while other

other

partner

partner brings

brings financial

financial contributions

contributions



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 8.5: Types of Alliances



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Negotiating the Agreement

IJV

IJV negotiation

negotiation issues

issues

equity

equity contributions

contributions

management

management structure

structure

prenuptial

prenuptial agreements

agreements



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 8.6: Selected

Questions for a StrategicAlliance Agreement



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Organizational Design in

Strategic Alliances

••

••

••



Depends

Depends on

on the

the type

type ofof alliance

alliance chosen

chosen

Informal

Informal ICAs

ICAs often

often have

have no

no formal

formal design

design issues

issues

Formal

Formal ICAs

ICAs may

may require

require separate

separate organization

organization unit

unit

housed

housed inin one

one company

company

IJVParent

IJVParent companies

companies set

set up

up separate

separate legal

legal entity

entity



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



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Exhibit 8.4: International Strategic Alliances for Small Multinational Companies

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