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Exhibit 5.1: Content of the Four Basic Multinational Strategies

Exhibit 5.1: Content of the Four Basic Multinational Strategies

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Resolving the Global-Local

Dilemma: Formulating a

Multinational Strategy

•• Selection

Selection ofof strategy

strategy depends

depends on

on degree

degree ofof

globalization

globalization inin an

an industry

industry

•• Globalization

Globalization drivers:

drivers: conditions

conditions inin aa industry

industry that

that favor

favor

transnational

transnational or

or international

international strategies

strategies

•• Four

Four categories

categories ofof global

global drivers:

drivers: markets,

markets, costs,

costs,

governments,

governments, and

and competition

competition



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Global Markets

••

••

••



Are

Are there

there common

common customer

customer needs?

needs?

Are

Are there

there global

global customers?

customers?

Can

Can you

you transfer

transfer marketing?

marketing?



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Costs











Are

Are there

there global

global economies

economies ofof scale?

scale?

Are

Are there

there global

global sources

sources ofof low-cost

low-cost raw

raw materials?

materials?

Are

Are there

there cheaper

cheaper sources

sources ofof highly

highly skilled

skilled labor?

labor?

Are

Are product-development

product-development costs

costs high?

high?



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Governments

Do

Do the

the targeted

targeted countries

countries have

have favorable

favorable trade

trade

policies?

policies?

•• Do

Do the

the target

target countries

countries have

have regulations

regulations that

that restrict

restrict

operations?

operations?



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The Competition







What

What strategies

strategies do

do your

your competitors

competitors use?

use?

What

What isis the

the volume

volume ofof imports

imports and

and exports

exports inin the

the

industry?

industry?



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Competitive Advantage in the

Value Chain

•• Location

Location ofof competitive

competitive advantage

advantage inin value

value chain

chain

determines

determines choice

choice ofof generic

generic strategy

strategy

•• Upstream

Upstream advantages:

advantages: low-cost

low-cost or

or high-quality

high-quality design

design

•• Favor

Favor transnational

transnational strategy

strategy or

or an

an international

international

strategy

strategy

•• Downstream

Downstream advantages:

advantages: marketing,

marketing, sales,

sales, service

service

Favor

Favor multidomestic

multidomestic strategy

strategy

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Competitive Advantage in the

Value Chain (cont.)

•• Mixed

Mixed conditions

conditions

•• Competitive

Competitive strength

strength downstream

downstream inin industry

industry with

with

strong

strong globalization

globalization drivers

drivers

•• Competitive

Competitive strength

strength upstream

upstream inin industries

industries with

with

local

local adaptation

adaptation pressures

pressures

Both

Both favor

favor regional

regional strategies

strategies



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 5.2: Pressures for

Globalization vs. Localization



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Transnational or International:

Which Way for the Global

Company?

•• Select

Select aa transnational

transnational over

over an

an international

international strategy

strategy

when:

when:

•• Benefits

Benefits ofof dispersing

dispersing activities

activities worldwide

worldwide offset

offset the

the

costs

costs ofof coordinating

coordinating aa more

more complex

complex organization

organization

•• Select

Select an

an international

international strategy

strategy over

over aa transnational

transnational

when:

when:

•• Cost

Cost savings

savings ofof centralization

centralization offset

offset the

the lower

lower costs

costs

ofof higher

higher quality

quality raw

raw materials/labor

materials/labor from

from worldwide

worldwide

locations

locations

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Participation Strategies:

The Content Options

Participation

Participation strategies:

strategies: the

the choice

choice ofof how

how toto enter

enter

each

each international

international market

market

•• Exporting

Exporting

Licensing

Licensing

Strategic

Strategic alliances

alliances

Foreign

Foreign direct

direct investment

investment



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Exporting

••

••



Easiest

Easiest way

way toto sell

sell aa product

product inin international

international market

market

Passive

Passive exporter:

exporter: company

company that

that treats

treats and

and fills

fills

overseas

overseas orders

orders like

like domestic

domestic orders

orders

•• Alternatively,

Alternatively, aa company

company can

can put

put extensive

extensive resources

resources

into

into exporting

exporting with

with dedicated

dedicated export

export department

department



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Exhibit 5.1: Content of the Four Basic Multinational Strategies

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