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Exhibit 4.4: Relationships Among Resources, Capabilities, Distinctive Competencies, and Eventual Profitability

Exhibit 4.4: Relationships Among Resources, Capabilities, Distinctive Competencies, and Eventual Profitability

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Competitive Strategies in

International Markets

•• Competitive

Competitive strategies:

strategies: strategic

strategic moves

moves multinationals

multinationals

use

use toto defeat

defeat competitors

competitors

•• Offensive

Offensive competitive

competitive strategies:

strategies: direct

direct attacks

attacks toto

capture

capture market

market share

share

•• Defensive

Defensive competitive

competitive strategies:

strategies: attempts

attempts toto

discourage

discourage offensive

offensive strategies

strategies

•• Counter-parry:

Counter-parry: fending

fending off

off aa competitor’s

competitor’s attack

attack inin

one

one country

country by

by attacking

attacking inin another

another country

country

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Offensive Strategies

•• Direct

Direct attacks:

attacks: price

price cutting,

cutting, adding

adding new

new features,

features, or

or

going

going after

after poorly

poorly served

served markets

markets

•• End-run

End-run offensives:

offensives: seeking

seeking unoccupied

unoccupied markets

markets

•• Preemptive

Preemptive competitive

competitive strategies:

strategies: being

being first

first toto obtain

obtain

particular

particular advantageous

advantageous position

position

Acquisitions:

Acquisitions: buying

buying out

out aa competitor

competitor



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Defensive Strategies

••

••

••



Attempts

Attempts toto reduce

reduce risks

risks ofof being

being attacked

attacked

Convince

Convince an

an attacking

attacking firm

firm toto seek

seek other

other targets

targets

Blunt

Blunt the

the impacts

impacts ofof any

any attack

attack

•• Exclusive

Exclusive contracts

contracts with

with best

best suppliers

suppliers

•• New

New models

models toto match

match competitor’s

competitor’s lower

lower prices

prices

•• Public

Public announcements

announcements about

about the

the willingness

willingness toto fight

fight



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Counter-parry







Popular

Popular strategy

strategy for

for multinationals

multinationals

Respond

Respond toto attack

attack by

by attacking

attacking competitor

competitor inin another

another

country

country

•• Ex.:

Ex.: Kodak—When

Kodak—When Fuji

Fuji attacked

attacked Kodak

Kodak inin the

the U.S.,

U.S.,

Kodak

Kodak retaliated

retaliated by

by attacking

attacking Fuji

Fuji inin Japan.

Japan.

•• Goodyear

Goodyear also

also attacked

attacked Michelin

Michelin inin Europe

Europe as

as

response

response toto attack

attack inin U.S.

U.S.

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Multinational Diversification

Strategy

Business-level

Business-level strategies:

strategies: strategies

strategies for

for aa single

single

business

business operation

operation

•• Corporate-level

Corporate-level strategies:

strategies: how

how companies

companies choose

choose

their

their mixture

mixture ofof different

different businesses

businesses



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Diversification

•• Related

Related diversification:

diversification: companies

companies acquire

acquire businesses

businesses

that

that are

are similar

similar inin some

some way

way toto their

their original

original or

or core

core

business

business

•• Ex.:

Ex.: Nike

Nike adding

adding clothing

clothing line

line toto its

its shoe

shoe operations

operations

•• Unrelated

Unrelated diversification:

diversification: firms

firms acquire

acquire businesses

businesses inin

any

any industry

industry

•• Main

Main concern

concern isis whether

whether it’s

it’s aa good

good financial

financial

investment

investment

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Exhibit 4.5: Selection of Global Fortune

500 Diversified Multinationals



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 4.5: Selection of Global Fortune

500 Diversified Multinationals



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



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Exhibit 4.4: Relationships Among Resources, Capabilities, Distinctive Competencies, and Eventual Profitability

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