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Exhibit 2.3: Managerial Implications of Uncertainty Avoidance

Exhibit 2.3: Managerial Implications of Uncertainty Avoidance

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Individualism/Collectivism

•• Focus

Focus isis on

on the

the relationship

relationship between

between the

the individual

individual and

and

the

the group

group

•• Countries

Countries high

high on

on individualism

individualism have

have norms,

norms, values,

values,

and

and beliefs

beliefs such

such as

as

•• People

People are

are responsible

responsible for

for themselves.

themselves.

•• Individual

Individual achievement

achievement isis ideal.

ideal.

•• People

People need

need not

not be

be emotionally

emotionally dependent

dependent on

on

organizations

organizations or

or groups.

groups.

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Individualism/Collectivism

•• Collectivist

Collectivist countries

countries have

have norms,

norms, values,

values, and

and beliefs

beliefs

such

such as

as

•• One’s

One’s identity

identity isis based

based on

on group

group membership.

membership.

•• Group

Group decision

decision making

making isis best.

best.

•• Groups

Groups protect

protect individuals

individuals inin exchange

exchange for

for their

their

loyalty

loyalty toto the

the group.

group.



Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Exhibit 2.4: Managerial

Implications of

Individualism/Collectivism



Copyrightâ 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved



Masculinity

Tendency

Tendency ofof aa culture

culture toto support

support traditional

traditional masculine

masculine

orientation

orientation

•• High

High masculinity

masculinity countries

countries have

have beliefs

beliefssuch

such as

as

•• Gender

Gender roles

roles should

should be

be clearly

clearly distinguished.

distinguished.

•• Men

Men are

are assertive

assertive and

and dominant.

dominant.

•• Machismo/exaggerated

Machismo/exaggerated maleness

maleness inin men

men isis good.

good.

•• Men

Men should

should be

be decisive.

decisive.

•• Work

Work takes

takes priority

priority over

over other

other duties.

duties.

Advancement,

Advancement, success,

success, and

and money

money are

are important.

important.

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Exhibit 2.3: Managerial Implications of Uncertainty Avoidance

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