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12 F: Supervisors are in the best position to evaluate performance in relation to strategic organizational goals.

12 F: Supervisors are in the best position to evaluate performance in relation to strategic organizational goals.

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Chapter 6



6.38



Note: This form includes possible information for the overall rating provided

to the hypothetical employee in question 6.39. Note that the respondent may

provide very different information and ratings, which are acceptable as long as

the information provided is consistent with the ratings.



Performance Review Form

Employee Name: ________________________

Title: __________________________________

Manager:

______________________________

Date of Appraisal Meeting: _________________

Employee Performance Reviews improve employee performance and

development

by

encouraging

communication,

establishing

performance expectations, identifying developmental needs, and

setting goals to improve performance.

Use the form below to list examples of outstanding performance or

achievements, as well as areas of performance that need

improvement. Please provide open comments on your employee’s

performance. Complete each section and list examples of performance

where applicable.

1. Job Description/Key Responsibilities/Required Tasks:

Responsible for selling company software programs to schools in designated

districts. Individuals are responsible for project managing the preparation of

customized sales material for each school in their districts. Salespeople are

also responsible for preparing and giving sales presentations to relevant

district employees. Finally, the salesperson is responsible for identifying and

cultivating key relationships in his/her districts.

2. Note expected accomplishments versus actual accomplishments

(Please rate as Did not meet expectations—1, Met expectations—2,

or Exceeded expectations—3 and provide comments):

Sally was expected to reach a reasonable amount of sales in all of her

districts, and she performed at a lower rate compared to her peers. She did

establish new relationships with several districts previously using other

software companies. She gave an acceptable number of sales presentations

and her sales materials meet company standards.

3. List the areas where the employee developed, such that they

will be able to take on additional responsibilities or be eligible

for high-profile assignments:



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Part II: System Implementation_____________________________________________________________



Sally made significant strides developing new relationships within inner city

school districts and she will receive three more new inner city school

districts as a result of her accomplishments.

4. Areas of development for upcoming quarter (i.e.,

communication skills, teamwork, project management skills,

budgeting experience, etc.):

Sally must raise her sales figures in the upcoming quarter. She must also

improve her technical expertise and her ability to tailor her sales

presentations to her clients.

5. Goals for upcoming quarter (Please list S.M.A.R.T. goals):

She will enroll in and successfully complete the “Closing Sales Part II”

training course by the end of the first month in the quarter. She will also

follow a more experienced salesperson on two sales calls during the first

two weeks of the second month in the quarter. She will improve her sales

figures in two of her five current districts by the end of the quarter.

Please circle the number below that best describes the employee’s

performance in the following areas. (Please see attached job

description for definitions of the following competencies and

behavioral indicators that signal the presence of the following

competencies):

Competencies & Indicators

Project Management: meets project

deadlines, keeps stakeholders up-todate on developments, holds

organized project meetings

Sales Performance: clients comment

positively on performance, organizes

sales material, demonstrates good

persuasion skills, tailors

presentations to clients

New Clients: seeks out new clients,

attends conferences to build

relationships, closes new contracts

Client Relationships: receives high

customer service ratings, gives

excellent customer service, upgrades

services to clients as needed, clients

ask for by name



Needs

Acceptable Excellent

Improvement



1



2



3



1



2



3



1



2



3



1



2



3



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Chapter 6



Technical Expertise: answers

questions about software,

successfully teaches new team

members and clients software

attributes

Average Performance Score Including Key

Accountabilities



1



2



3



2



Employee Use Only

Please provide comments and examples of behaviors to describe

your performance in the past quarter.



________________________ ________ _____________________ _______

Manager Signature

Date

Employee Signature

Date



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Part II: System Implementation_____________________________________________________________



6.39



Please see the ratings in question 6.38 for the judgmental method of computing an

overall score. (Note that the respondent may provide very different information

and ratings, which are acceptable as long as the information provided is consistent

with the ratings.) Based on some of the performance elements being rated

between 1 and 3, we gave Sally an overall rating of a 2 (instead of the average of

1.6). See the table below for the overall score calculated using the mechanical

procedure. (This rating came up even lower, at 1.4.) Using this method ensures

that the rater’s personal biases are controlled and that the elements that are most

important to organizational success are given the most weight.

Areas of Performance

Actual Accomplishments

Project Management

Sales Performance

New Clients

Client Relationships



WeightScore

.3

1

.1

3

.2

1

.1

1

.2

2



Technical Expertise

Overall Score of Performance



.1



1



W*S

.3

.3

.2

.1

.4

1



1.4



6.40



Based on the nature of this sales job, we recommend that peers, clients, and the

immediate supervisor all rate performance. The supervisor is qualified to rate

actual accomplishments versus expected accomplishments, new clients, and

technical expertise. The supervisor is suited to rate these areas because he will be

privy to sales information for each subordinate. Furthermore, the supervisor will

know the number of new clients that the individual has contacted and the

technical expertise based on direct evaluation of performance as well as customer

feedback. The customer is best suited to rate performance regarding sales

performance and client relationships, because the client is the individual

witnessing the performance and interacting in the relationships. Peers are best

suited to rate technical expertise and project management, because they will know

how well peers know the software based on the classes that they take together,

and they will know project management because they are the individuals who the

salesperson will be managing. If ratings come into dispute, the supervisor’s rating

will carry more weight over peers and an average of customer and supervisor

ratings will be used in the event they are in disagreement.



6.41



The desired features of all appraisal forms are:

o Simplicity

o Relevance

o Descriptiveness

o Adaptability

o Comprehensiveness

o Definitional clarity

o Communication



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Chapter 6



o Time orientation

6.42



The judgmental strategy for obtaining an overall performance score requires

consideration of every aspect of performance and then arriving at a defensible

summary.



6.43



The mechanical strategy for obtaining an overall performance score requires

consideration of the scores assigned to each section of the appraisal form and then

adding them up to obtain an overall score.



6.44



A supervisor is most likely to introduce bias in the judgmental strategy because, in

this strategy, there are no clear rules regarding the relative importance of various

performance dimensions, and there is no direction as to how to combine scores for

these dimensions into an overall score.



6.45



Open-ended sections such as the comments section of performance appraisal

forms are typically not used effectively because of two main challenges. First, it is

not easy to systematically categorize and analyze such comments. Second, the

quality, length, and content of these comments may be more a function of the

culture of the organization and the writing skills of the person filling out the form

than actual KSAs of the employee being rated.



6.46



The advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or

around the employee’s anniversary date are:

Advantage: Supervisor doesn’t have to do all the forms at one time.

Disadvantage: Because anniversary dates vary, resulting rewards cannot be tied to

the fiscal year.



6.47



The advantages and disadvantages of completing performance reviews on or

around the end of the fiscal year are:

Advantages: Cross-employee comparisons are much easier; rewards can be tied to

the fiscal year; goal setting is more easily aligned with organization goal setting.

Disadvantage: Supervisors have to complete forms for all employees at one time,

creating an added workload.



6.48



In the self-appraisal meeting, the employee’s self-appraisal is discussed. It is the

opportunity for the employee to share his/her perspective on his/her own

performance. This is not a time for the supervisor to pass judgment on the

employee’s self-appraisal.



6.49



Peer evaluations may cause problems because such evaluations may not be

readily accepted when employees believe that there is friendship bias; peers are

less discriminating among performance dimensions as compared to supervisors;

peers are often not given the same training supervisors receive regarding

appropriate evaluation of performance.



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Part II: System Implementation_____________________________________________________________



6.50



The advantages and disadvantages of using customers as a source of performance

information include the following:

Advantage: The feedback from customers can be particularly useful when a job

requires a high degree of interaction with the public or with customers.

Disadvantage: May involve a costly and time-consuming process.



6.51



Suggestions to improve the quality of self-appraisals are as follows:

o Use comparative as opposed to absolute measurement systems.

o Allow employees to practice their self-rating skills.

o Assure confidentiality.

o Emphasize the future.



6.52



The motivation to provide accurate ratings is determined by whether the rater

expects positive and negative consequences of accurate ratings and whether the

probability of receiving these rewards and punishments will be high if accurate

ratings are provided.



6.53



The motivation to distort ratings is determined by whether the rater expects any

positive and negative consequences of rating distortions and the probability of

experiencing such consequences if ratings are indeed distorted.



6.54



Motivations for rating inflation include:

o Maximize merit raise/rewards.

o Encourage employees.

o Avoid creating a written record.

o Avoid confrontation with employees.

o Promote undesired employees out of unit.

o Make manager look good to his/her supervisor.



6.55



Motivations for rating deflation include:

o Shock employees.

o Teach a rebellious employee a lesson.

o Send a message to employee that he/she should consider leaving.

o Build a strongly documented, written record of poor performance.



6.56



Two recommendations for reducing intentional rating distortion are:

o Have raters justify their ratings

o Have raters justify their ratings in a face-to-face meeting



6.57



The advantages and disadvantages of using supervisors as raters are as follows:

Advantages: Supervisors are in the best position to evaluate performance versus

the organization’s strategic goals; supervisors can make decisions about rewards;

and supervisors are able to differentiate among performance dimensions.

Disadvantages: Supervisors may not be able to directly observe performance and

their evaluations may be biased.



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



Chapter 6



6.58



The advantages and disadvantages of using peers as raters include:

Advantages: Peers are in an excellent position to assess the employee’s

contribution toward the team (teamwork).

Disadvantages: Peers may be influenced by context effects, possible friendship

bias, and they may be less discriminating.



6.59



When the performance management system uses different sources for ratings,

disagreement should be expected. It is important to ensure that employees take an

active role in selecting which sources will rate which dimensions and that the

employees receive feedback by source (i.e., customers said this about your

performance). In addition, different weights should be assigned to scores by

source, depending on their importance



6.60



Rater training programs should cover:

• Information—how the system works

o Reasons for implementing the performance management system

o Information on the appraisal form and system mechanics

• Motivation—what’s in it for me?

o Benefits of providing accurate ratings

o Tools for providing accurate ratings

• Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance

o How to identify and rank job activities

o How to observe, record, and measure performance

o How to minimize rating errors

• How to interact with employees when they receive performance information

o How to conduct an appraisal interview

o How to train, counsel, and coach



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall



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