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8: Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates

8: Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates

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97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1181



SECTION 17.3



APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



1181



v EXAMPLE 1 A spring with a mass of 2 kg has natural length 0.5 m. A force of 25.6 N

is required to maintain it stretched to a length of 0.7 m. If the spring is stretched to a

length of 0.7 m and then released with initial velocity 0, find the position of the mass at

any time t.

SOLUTION From Hooke’s Law, the force required to stretch the spring is



k͑0.2͒ ෇ 25.6

so k ෇ 25.6͞0.2 ෇ 128. Using this value of the spring constant k, together with m ෇ 2

in Equation 1, we have

2



d 2x

ϩ 128x ෇ 0

dt 2



As in the earlier general discussion, the solution of this equation is

x͑t͒ ෇ c1 cos 8t ϩ c2 sin 8t



2



We are given the initial condition that x͑0͒ ෇ 0.2. But, from Equation 2, x͑0͒ ෇ c1.

Therefore c1 ෇ 0.2. Differentiating Equation 2, we get

xЈ͑t͒ ෇ Ϫ8c1 sin 8t ϩ 8c2 cos 8t

Since the initial velocity is given as xЈ͑0͒ ෇ 0, we have c2 ෇ 0 and so the solution is

x͑t͒ ෇ 15 cos 8t



Damped Vibrations



m



FIGURE 3



We next consider the motion of a spring that is subject to a frictional force (in the case of

the horizontal spring of Figure 2) or a damping force (in the case where a vertical spring

moves through a fluid as in Figure 3). An example is the damping force supplied by a

shock absorber in a car or a bicycle.

We assume that the damping force is proportional to the velocity of the mass and acts

in the direction opposite to the motion. (This has been confirmed, at least approximately,

by some physical experiments.) Thus

damping force ෇ Ϫc



dx

dt



Schwinn Cycling and Fitness



where c is a positive constant, called the damping constant. Thus, in this case, Newton’s

Second Law gives

m



d 2x

dx

෇ restoring force ϩ damping force ෇ Ϫkx Ϫ c

dt 2

dt



or

3



m



d 2x

dx

ϩc

ϩ kx ෇ 0

2

dt

dt



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97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1182



1182



CHAPTER 17



SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



Equation 3 is a second-order linear differential equation and its auxiliary equation is

mr 2 ϩ cr ϩ k ෇ 0. The roots are



4



r1 ෇



Ϫc ϩ sc 2 Ϫ 4mk

2m



r2 ෇



Ϫc Ϫ sc 2 Ϫ 4mk

2m



According to Section 17.1 we need to discuss three cases.

CASE I c 2 Ϫ 4 mk Ͼ 0 (overdamping)



x



In this case r1 and r 2 are distinct real roots and

0



x ෇ c1 e r1 t ϩ c2 e r2 t



t



x



0



t



Since c, m, and k are all positive, we have sc 2 Ϫ 4mk Ͻ c, so the roots r1 and r 2 given

by Equations 4 must both be negative. This shows that x l 0 as t l ϱ. Typical graphs of

x as a function of t are shown in Figure 4. Notice that oscillations do not occur. (It’s possible for the mass to pass through the equilibrium position once, but only once.) This is

because c 2 Ͼ 4mk means that there is a strong damping force (high-viscosity oil or grease)

compared with a weak spring or small mass.



FIGURE 4



CASE II c 2 Ϫ 4mk ෇ 0 (critical damping)



Overdamping



This case corresponds to equal roots

r1 ෇ r 2 ෇ Ϫ



c

2m



and the solution is given by

x ෇ ͑c1 ϩ c2 t͒eϪ͑c͞2m͒t

It is similar to Case I, and typical graphs resemble those in Figure 4 (see Exercise 12), but

the damping is just sufficient to suppress vibrations. Any decrease in the viscosity of the

fluid leads to the vibrations of the following case.

CASE III c 2 Ϫ 4mk Ͻ 0 (underdamping)



Here the roots are complex:



ͮ



r1

c

෇Ϫ

Ϯ ␻i

r2

2m



x



x=Ae– (c/2m)t



where

0



t



x=_Ae–



FIGURE 5



Underdamping



(c/ 2m)t



␻෇



s4mk Ϫ c 2

2m



The solution is given by

x ෇ eϪ͑c͞2m͒t͑c1 cos ␻ t ϩ c2 sin ␻ t͒

We see that there are oscillations that are damped by the factor eϪ͑c͞2m͒t. Since c Ͼ 0 and

m Ͼ 0, we have Ϫ͑c͞2m͒ Ͻ 0 so eϪ͑c͞2m͒t l 0 as t l ϱ. This implies that x l 0 as t l ϱ;

that is, the motion decays to 0 as time increases. A typical graph is shown in Figure 5.



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97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1183



SECTION 17.3



APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



1183



v EXAMPLE 2 Suppose that the spring of Example 1 is immersed in a fluid with

damping constant c ෇ 40. Find the position of the mass at any time t if it starts from the

equilibrium position and is given a push to start it with an initial velocity of 0.6 m͞s.

SOLUTION From Example 1, the mass is m ෇ 2 and the spring constant is k ෇ 128, so



the differential equation 3 becomes

2



d 2x

dx

ϩ 40

ϩ 128x ෇ 0

2

dt

dt

d 2x

dx

ϩ 20

ϩ 64x ෇ 0

dt 2

dt



or



The auxiliary equation is r 2 ϩ 20r ϩ 64 ෇ ͑r ϩ 4͒͑r ϩ 16͒ ෇ 0 with roots Ϫ4 and

Ϫ16, so the motion is overdamped and the solution is

x͑t͒ ෇ c1 eϪ4t ϩ c2 eϪ16t



Figure 6 shows the graph of the position function for the overdamped motion in Example 2.



We are given that x͑0͒ ෇ 0, so c1 ϩ c2 ෇ 0. Differentiating, we get



0.03



xЈ͑t͒ ෇ Ϫ4c1 eϪ4t Ϫ 16c2 eϪ16t

xЈ͑0͒ ෇ Ϫ4c1 Ϫ 16c2 ෇ 0.6



so



0



1.5



Since c2 ෇ Ϫc1 , this gives 12c1 ෇ 0.6 or c1 ෇ 0.05. Therefore

x ෇ 0.05͑eϪ4t Ϫ eϪ16t ͒



FIGURE 6



Forced Vibrations

Suppose that, in addition to the restoring force and the damping force, the motion of the

spring is affected by an external force F͑t͒. Then Newton’s Second Law gives

m



d 2x

෇ restoring force ϩ damping force ϩ external force

dt 2

෇ Ϫkx Ϫ c



dx

ϩ F͑t͒

dt



Thus, instead of the homogeneous equation 3 , the motion of the spring is now governed

by the following nonhomogeneous differential equation:



5



m



d 2x

dx

ϩc

ϩ kx ෇ F͑t͒

2

dt

dt



The motion of the spring can be determined by the methods of Section 17.2.



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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.



97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1184



1184



CHAPTER 17



SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



A commonly occurring type of external force is a periodic force function

F͑t͒ ෇ F0 cos ␻ 0 t



where



␻0



␻ ෇ sk͞m



In this case, and in the absence of a damping force (c ෇ 0), you are asked in Exercise 9 to

use the method of undetermined coefficients to show that



6



x͑t͒ ෇ c1 cos ␻ t ϩ c2 sin ␻ t ϩ



F0

cos ␻ 0 t

m͑␻ 2 Ϫ ␻ 02 ͒



If ␻ 0 ෇ ␻, then the applied frequency reinforces the natural frequency and the result is

vibrations of large amplitude. This is the phenomenon of resonance (see Exercise 10).



Electric Circuits

R



switch

L

E

C



In Sections 9.3 and 9.5 we were able to use first-order separable and linear equations to

analyze electric circuits that contain a resistor and inductor (see Figure 5 in Section 9.3 or

Figure 4 in Section 9.5) or a resistor and capacitor (see Exercise 29 in Section 9.5). Now

that we know how to solve second-order linear equations, we are in a position to analyze

the circuit shown in Figure 7. It contains an electromotive force E (supplied by a battery

or generator), a resistor R, an inductor L, and a capacitor C, in series. If the charge on the

capacitor at time t is Q ෇ Q͑t͒, then the current is the rate of change of Q with respect

to t: I ෇ dQ͞dt. As in Section 9.5, it is known from physics that the voltage drops across

the resistor, inductor, and capacitor are



FIGURE 7



RI



L



dI

dt



Q

C



respectively. Kirchhoff’s voltage law says that the sum of these voltage drops is equal to the

supplied voltage:

L



dI

Q

ϩ RI ϩ

෇ E͑t͒

dt

C



Since I ෇ dQ͞dt, this equation becomes



7



L



d 2Q

dQ

1

ϩR

ϩ

Q ෇ E͑t͒

2

dt

dt

C



which is a second-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients. If the charge

Q0 and the current I 0 are known at time 0, then we have the initial conditions

Q͑0͒ ෇ Q0



QЈ͑0͒ ෇ I͑0͒ ෇ I 0



and the initial-value problem can be solved by the methods of Section 17.2.



Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.



97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1185



SECTION 17.3



APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



1185



A differential equation for the current can be obtained by differentiating Equation 7

with respect to t and remembering that I ෇ dQ͞dt :

L



d 2I

dI

1

ϩR

ϩ

I ෇ EЈ͑t͒

dt 2

dt

C



v EXAMPLE 3 Find the charge and current at time t in the circuit of Figure 7 if

R ෇ 40 ⍀, L ෇ 1 H, C ෇ 16 ϫ 10Ϫ4 F, E͑t͒ ෇ 100 cos 10t, and the initial charge and

current are both 0.

SOLUTION With the given values of L, R, C, and E͑t͒, Equation 7 becomes



8



d 2Q

dQ

ϩ 40

ϩ 625Q ෇ 100 cos 10t

2

dt

dt



The auxiliary equation is r 2 ϩ 40r ϩ 625 ෇ 0 with roots

r෇



Ϫ40 Ϯ sϪ900

෇ Ϫ20 Ϯ 15i

2



so the solution of the complementary equation is

Qc͑t͒ ෇ eϪ20t ͑c1 cos 15t ϩ c2 sin 15t͒

For the method of undetermined coefficients we try the particular solution

Qp͑t͒ ෇ A cos 10t ϩ B sin 10t

Then



QpЈ͑t͒ ෇ Ϫ10A sin 10t ϩ 10B cos 10t

QpЉ͑t͒ ෇ Ϫ100A cos 10t Ϫ 100B sin 10t



Substituting into Equation 8, we have

͑Ϫ100A cos 10t Ϫ 100B sin 10t͒ ϩ 40͑Ϫ10 A sin 10t ϩ 10B cos 10t͒

ϩ 625͑A cos 10t ϩ B sin 10t͒ ෇ 100 cos 10t

or



͑525A ϩ 400B͒ cos 10t ϩ ͑Ϫ400 A ϩ 525B͒ sin 10t ෇ 100 cos 10t



Equating coefficients, we have

525A ϩ 400B ෇ 100

Ϫ400A ϩ 525B ෇ 0



21A ϩ 16B ෇ 4

or

or



Ϫ16A ϩ 21B ෇ 0



84

64

The solution of this system is A ෇ 697

and B ෇ 697

, so a particular solution is



Qp͑t͒ ෇



1

697



͑84 cos 10t ϩ 64 sin 10t͒



Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.



97817_17_ch17_p1186-1194.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1186-1194 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1186



1186



CHAPTER 17



SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



and the general solution is

Q͑t͒ ෇ Qc͑t͒ ϩ Qp͑t͒

4

෇ eϪ20t ͑c1 cos 15t ϩ c2 sin 15t͒ ϩ 697

͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒



Imposing the initial condition Q͑0͒ ෇ 0, we get

84

Q͑0͒ ෇ c1 ϩ 697

෇0



84

c1 ෇ Ϫ 697



To impose the other initial condition, we first differentiate to find the current:

I෇



dQ

෇ eϪ20t ͓͑Ϫ20c1 ϩ 15c2 ͒ cos 15t ϩ ͑Ϫ15c1 Ϫ 20c2 ͒ sin 15t͔

dt

40

ϩ 697

͑Ϫ21 sin 10t ϩ 16 cos 10t͒



I͑0͒ ෇ Ϫ20c1 ϩ 15c2 ϩ 640

697 ෇ 0



464

c2 ෇ Ϫ 2091



Thus the formula for the charge is

Q͑t͒ ෇



4

697



ͫ



ͬ



eϪ20t

͑Ϫ63 cos 15t Ϫ 116 sin 15t͒ ϩ ͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒

3



and the expression for the current is

1

I͑t͒ ෇ 2091

͓eϪ20t͑Ϫ1920 cos 15t ϩ 13,060 sin 15t͒ ϩ 120͑Ϫ21 sin 10t ϩ 16 cos 10t͔͒



NOTE 1 In Example 3 the solution for Q͑t͒ consists of two parts. Since eϪ20t l 0 as



t l ϱ and both cos 15t and sin 15t are bounded functions,

0.2



Qc͑t͒ ෇



Qp



0



Q



1.2



4

Ϫ20t

2091



e



͑Ϫ63 cos 15t Ϫ 116 sin 15t͒ l 0



So, for large values of t,

Q͑t͒ Ϸ Qp͑t͒ ෇



_0.2



FIGURE 8

5

7



dx

d 2x

ϩ c

ϩ kx ෇ F͑t͒

dt 2

dt

d 2Q

dQ

1

L

ϩR

ϩ

Q ෇ E͑t͒

dt 2

dt

C

m



as t l ϱ



4

697



͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒



and, for this reason, Qp͑t͒ is called the steady state solution. Figure 8 shows how the graph

of the steady state solution compares with the graph of Q in this case.

NOTE 2 Comparing Equations 5 and 7, we see that mathematically they are identical.

This suggests the analogies given in the following chart between physical situations that, at

first glance, are very different.



Spring system

x

dx͞dt

m

c

k

F͑t͒



displacement

velocity

mass

damping constant

spring constant

external force



Electric circuit

Q

I ෇ dQ͞dt

L

R

1͞C

E͑t͒



charge

current

inductance

resistance

elastance

electromotive force



Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.



97817_17_ch17_p1186-1194.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1186-1194 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1187



SECTION 17.3



APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS



1187



We can also transfer other ideas from one situation to the other. For instance, the steady

state solution discussed in Note 1 makes sense in the spring system. And the phenomenon

of resonance in the spring system can be usefully carried over to electric circuits as electrical resonance.



17.3



Exercises

10. As in Exercise 9, consider a spring with mass m, spring con-



1. A spring has natural length 0.75 m and a 5-kg mass. A force



stant k, and damping constant c ෇ 0, and let ␻ ෇ sk͞m .

If an external force F͑t͒ ෇ F0 cos ␻ t is applied (the applied

frequency equals the natural frequency), use the method of

undetermined coefficients to show that the motion of the

mass is given by



of 25 N is needed to keep the spring stretched to a length of

1 m. If the spring is stretched to a length of 1.1 m and then

released with velocity 0, find the position of the mass after

t seconds.

2. A spring with an 8-kg mass is kept stretched 0.4 m beyond



its natural length by a force of 32 N. The spring starts at its

equilibrium position and is given an initial velocity of 1 m͞s.

Find the position of the mass at any time t.



x͑t͒ ෇ c1 cos ␻ t ϩ c2 sin ␻ t ϩ

11. Show that if ␻ 0



␻, but ␻͞␻ 0 is a rational number, then the

motion described by Equation 6 is periodic.



3. A spring with a mass of 2 kg has damping constant 14, and



a force of 6 N is required to keep the spring stretched 0.5 m

beyond its natural length. The spring is stretched 1 m beyond

its natural length and then released with zero velocity. Find

the position of the mass at any time t.



12. Consider a spring subject to a frictional or damping force.



(a) In the critically damped case, the motion is given by

x ෇ c1 ert ϩ c2 tert. Show that the graph of x crosses the

t-axis whenever c1 and c2 have opposite signs.

(b) In the overdamped case, the motion is given by

x ෇ c1e r t ϩ c2 e r t, where r1 Ͼ r2. Determine a condition

on the relative magnitudes of c1 and c2 under which the

graph of x crosses the t-axis at a positive value of t.



4. A force of 13 N is needed to keep a spring with a 2-kg mass



;



stretched 0.25 m beyond its natural length. The damping constant of the spring is c ෇ 8.

(a) If the mass starts at the equilibrium position with a

velocity of 0.5 m͞s, find its position at time t.

(b) Graph the position function of the mass.



1



2



13. A series circuit consists of a resistor with R ෇ 20 ⍀, an



5. For the spring in Exercise 3, find the mass that would



inductor with L ෇ 1 H, a capacitor with C ෇ 0.002 F, and a

12-V battery. If the initial charge and current are both 0, find

the charge and current at time t.



produce critical damping.

6. For the spring in Exercise 4, find the damping constant that



would produce critical damping.



14. A series circuit contains a resistor with R ෇ 24 ⍀, an induc-



; 7. A spring has a mass of 1 kg and its spring constant is

k ෇ 100. The spring is released at a point 0.1 m above its

equilibrium position. Graph the position function for the following values of the damping constant c: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30.

What type of damping occurs in each case?



F0

t sin ␻ t

2m␻



;



tor with L ෇ 2 H, a capacitor with C ෇ 0.005 F, and a 12-V

battery. The initial charge is Q ෇ 0.001 C and the initial current is 0.

(a) Find the charge and current at time t.

(b) Graph the charge and current functions.



; 8. A spring has a mass of 1 kg and its damping constant is

c ෇ 10. The spring starts from its equilibrium position with a

velocity of 1 m͞s. Graph the position function for the following values of the spring constant k: 10, 20, 25, 30, 40. What

type of damping occurs in each case?



15. The battery in Exercise 13 is replaced by a generator pro-



ducing a voltage of E͑t͒ ෇ 12 sin 10t. Find the charge at

time t.

16. The battery in Exercise 14 is replaced by a generator produc-



9. Suppose a spring has mass m and spring constant k and let



␻ ෇ sk͞m . Suppose that the damping constant is so small

that the damping force is negligible. If an external force

F͑t͒ ෇ F0 cos ␻ 0 t is applied, where ␻ 0 ␻, use the method

of undetermined coefficients to show that the motion of the

mass is described by Equation 6.



;



Graphing calculator or computer required



;



ing a voltage of E͑t͒ ෇ 12 sin 10t.

(a) Find the charge at time t.

(b) Graph the charge function.

17. Verify that the solution to Equation 1 can be written in the



form x͑t͒ ෇ A cos͑␻ t ϩ ␦͒.



1. Homework Hints available at stewartcalculus.com



Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.



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