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97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1181
SECTION 17.3
APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1181
v EXAMPLE 1 A spring with a mass of 2 kg has natural length 0.5 m. A force of 25.6 N
is required to maintain it stretched to a length of 0.7 m. If the spring is stretched to a
length of 0.7 m and then released with initial velocity 0, find the position of the mass at
any time t.
SOLUTION From Hooke’s Law, the force required to stretch the spring is
k͑0.2͒ 25.6
so k 25.6͞0.2 128. Using this value of the spring constant k, together with m 2
in Equation 1, we have
2
d 2x
ϩ 128x 0
dt 2
As in the earlier general discussion, the solution of this equation is
x͑t͒ c1 cos 8t ϩ c2 sin 8t
2
We are given the initial condition that x͑0͒ 0.2. But, from Equation 2, x͑0͒ c1.
Therefore c1 0.2. Differentiating Equation 2, we get
xЈ͑t͒ Ϫ8c1 sin 8t ϩ 8c2 cos 8t
Since the initial velocity is given as xЈ͑0͒ 0, we have c2 0 and so the solution is
x͑t͒ 15 cos 8t
Damped Vibrations
m
FIGURE 3
We next consider the motion of a spring that is subject to a frictional force (in the case of
the horizontal spring of Figure 2) or a damping force (in the case where a vertical spring
moves through a fluid as in Figure 3). An example is the damping force supplied by a
shock absorber in a car or a bicycle.
We assume that the damping force is proportional to the velocity of the mass and acts
in the direction opposite to the motion. (This has been confirmed, at least approximately,
by some physical experiments.) Thus
damping force Ϫc
dx
dt
Schwinn Cycling and Fitness
where c is a positive constant, called the damping constant. Thus, in this case, Newton’s
Second Law gives
m
d 2x
dx
restoring force ϩ damping force Ϫkx Ϫ c
dt 2
dt
or
3
m
d 2x
dx
ϩc
ϩ kx 0
2
dt
dt
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1182
CHAPTER 17
SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Equation 3 is a second-order linear differential equation and its auxiliary equation is
mr 2 ϩ cr ϩ k 0. The roots are
4
r1
Ϫc ϩ sc 2 Ϫ 4mk
2m
r2
Ϫc Ϫ sc 2 Ϫ 4mk
2m
According to Section 17.1 we need to discuss three cases.
CASE I c 2 Ϫ 4 mk Ͼ 0 (overdamping)
x
In this case r1 and r 2 are distinct real roots and
0
x c1 e r1 t ϩ c2 e r2 t
t
x
0
t
Since c, m, and k are all positive, we have sc 2 Ϫ 4mk Ͻ c, so the roots r1 and r 2 given
by Equations 4 must both be negative. This shows that x l 0 as t l ϱ. Typical graphs of
x as a function of t are shown in Figure 4. Notice that oscillations do not occur. (It’s possible for the mass to pass through the equilibrium position once, but only once.) This is
because c 2 Ͼ 4mk means that there is a strong damping force (high-viscosity oil or grease)
compared with a weak spring or small mass.
FIGURE 4
CASE II c 2 Ϫ 4mk 0 (critical damping)
Overdamping
This case corresponds to equal roots
r1 r 2 Ϫ
c
2m
and the solution is given by
x ͑c1 ϩ c2 t͒eϪ͑c͞2m͒t
It is similar to Case I, and typical graphs resemble those in Figure 4 (see Exercise 12), but
the damping is just sufficient to suppress vibrations. Any decrease in the viscosity of the
fluid leads to the vibrations of the following case.
CASE III c 2 Ϫ 4mk Ͻ 0 (underdamping)
Here the roots are complex:
ͮ
r1
c
Ϫ
Ϯ i
r2
2m
x
x=Ae– (c/2m)t
where
0
t
x=_Ae–
FIGURE 5
Underdamping
(c/ 2m)t
s4mk Ϫ c 2
2m
The solution is given by
x eϪ͑c͞2m͒t͑c1 cos t ϩ c2 sin t͒
We see that there are oscillations that are damped by the factor eϪ͑c͞2m͒t. Since c Ͼ 0 and
m Ͼ 0, we have Ϫ͑c͞2m͒ Ͻ 0 so eϪ͑c͞2m͒t l 0 as t l ϱ. This implies that x l 0 as t l ϱ;
that is, the motion decays to 0 as time increases. A typical graph is shown in Figure 5.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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SECTION 17.3
APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1183
v EXAMPLE 2 Suppose that the spring of Example 1 is immersed in a fluid with
damping constant c 40. Find the position of the mass at any time t if it starts from the
equilibrium position and is given a push to start it with an initial velocity of 0.6 m͞s.
SOLUTION From Example 1, the mass is m 2 and the spring constant is k 128, so
the differential equation 3 becomes
2
d 2x
dx
ϩ 40
ϩ 128x 0
2
dt
dt
d 2x
dx
ϩ 20
ϩ 64x 0
dt 2
dt
or
The auxiliary equation is r 2 ϩ 20r ϩ 64 ͑r ϩ 4͒͑r ϩ 16͒ 0 with roots Ϫ4 and
Ϫ16, so the motion is overdamped and the solution is
x͑t͒ c1 eϪ4t ϩ c2 eϪ16t
Figure 6 shows the graph of the position function for the overdamped motion in Example 2.
We are given that x͑0͒ 0, so c1 ϩ c2 0. Differentiating, we get
0.03
xЈ͑t͒ Ϫ4c1 eϪ4t Ϫ 16c2 eϪ16t
xЈ͑0͒ Ϫ4c1 Ϫ 16c2 0.6
so
0
1.5
Since c2 Ϫc1 , this gives 12c1 0.6 or c1 0.05. Therefore
x 0.05͑eϪ4t Ϫ eϪ16t ͒
FIGURE 6
Forced Vibrations
Suppose that, in addition to the restoring force and the damping force, the motion of the
spring is affected by an external force F͑t͒. Then Newton’s Second Law gives
m
d 2x
restoring force ϩ damping force ϩ external force
dt 2
Ϫkx Ϫ c
dx
ϩ F͑t͒
dt
Thus, instead of the homogeneous equation 3 , the motion of the spring is now governed
by the following nonhomogeneous differential equation:
5
m
d 2x
dx
ϩc
ϩ kx F͑t͒
2
dt
dt
The motion of the spring can be determined by the methods of Section 17.2.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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1184
CHAPTER 17
SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
A commonly occurring type of external force is a periodic force function
F͑t͒ F0 cos 0 t
where
0
sk͞m
In this case, and in the absence of a damping force (c 0), you are asked in Exercise 9 to
use the method of undetermined coefficients to show that
6
x͑t͒ c1 cos t ϩ c2 sin t ϩ
F0
cos 0 t
m͑ 2 Ϫ 02 ͒
If 0 , then the applied frequency reinforces the natural frequency and the result is
vibrations of large amplitude. This is the phenomenon of resonance (see Exercise 10).
Electric Circuits
R
switch
L
E
C
In Sections 9.3 and 9.5 we were able to use first-order separable and linear equations to
analyze electric circuits that contain a resistor and inductor (see Figure 5 in Section 9.3 or
Figure 4 in Section 9.5) or a resistor and capacitor (see Exercise 29 in Section 9.5). Now
that we know how to solve second-order linear equations, we are in a position to analyze
the circuit shown in Figure 7. It contains an electromotive force E (supplied by a battery
or generator), a resistor R, an inductor L, and a capacitor C, in series. If the charge on the
capacitor at time t is Q Q͑t͒, then the current is the rate of change of Q with respect
to t: I dQ͞dt. As in Section 9.5, it is known from physics that the voltage drops across
the resistor, inductor, and capacitor are
FIGURE 7
RI
L
dI
dt
Q
C
respectively. Kirchhoff’s voltage law says that the sum of these voltage drops is equal to the
supplied voltage:
L
dI
Q
ϩ RI ϩ
E͑t͒
dt
C
Since I dQ͞dt, this equation becomes
7
L
d 2Q
dQ
1
ϩR
ϩ
Q E͑t͒
2
dt
dt
C
which is a second-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients. If the charge
Q0 and the current I 0 are known at time 0, then we have the initial conditions
Q͑0͒ Q0
QЈ͑0͒ I͑0͒ I 0
and the initial-value problem can be solved by the methods of Section 17.2.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185.qk_97817_17_ch17_p1176-1185 11/9/10 10:29 AM Page 1185
SECTION 17.3
APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1185
A differential equation for the current can be obtained by differentiating Equation 7
with respect to t and remembering that I dQ͞dt :
L
d 2I
dI
1
ϩR
ϩ
I EЈ͑t͒
dt 2
dt
C
v EXAMPLE 3 Find the charge and current at time t in the circuit of Figure 7 if
R 40 ⍀, L 1 H, C 16 ϫ 10Ϫ4 F, E͑t͒ 100 cos 10t, and the initial charge and
current are both 0.
SOLUTION With the given values of L, R, C, and E͑t͒, Equation 7 becomes
8
d 2Q
dQ
ϩ 40
ϩ 625Q 100 cos 10t
2
dt
dt
The auxiliary equation is r 2 ϩ 40r ϩ 625 0 with roots
r
Ϫ40 Ϯ sϪ900
Ϫ20 Ϯ 15i
2
so the solution of the complementary equation is
Qc͑t͒ eϪ20t ͑c1 cos 15t ϩ c2 sin 15t͒
For the method of undetermined coefficients we try the particular solution
Qp͑t͒ A cos 10t ϩ B sin 10t
Then
QpЈ͑t͒ Ϫ10A sin 10t ϩ 10B cos 10t
QpЉ͑t͒ Ϫ100A cos 10t Ϫ 100B sin 10t
Substituting into Equation 8, we have
͑Ϫ100A cos 10t Ϫ 100B sin 10t͒ ϩ 40͑Ϫ10 A sin 10t ϩ 10B cos 10t͒
ϩ 625͑A cos 10t ϩ B sin 10t͒ 100 cos 10t
or
͑525A ϩ 400B͒ cos 10t ϩ ͑Ϫ400 A ϩ 525B͒ sin 10t 100 cos 10t
Equating coefficients, we have
525A ϩ 400B 100
Ϫ400A ϩ 525B 0
21A ϩ 16B 4
or
or
Ϫ16A ϩ 21B 0
84
64
The solution of this system is A 697
and B 697
, so a particular solution is
Qp͑t͒
1
697
͑84 cos 10t ϩ 64 sin 10t͒
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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1186
CHAPTER 17
SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
and the general solution is
Q͑t͒ Qc͑t͒ ϩ Qp͑t͒
4
eϪ20t ͑c1 cos 15t ϩ c2 sin 15t͒ ϩ 697
͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒
Imposing the initial condition Q͑0͒ 0, we get
84
Q͑0͒ c1 ϩ 697
0
84
c1 Ϫ 697
To impose the other initial condition, we first differentiate to find the current:
I
dQ
eϪ20t ͓͑Ϫ20c1 ϩ 15c2 ͒ cos 15t ϩ ͑Ϫ15c1 Ϫ 20c2 ͒ sin 15t͔
dt
40
ϩ 697
͑Ϫ21 sin 10t ϩ 16 cos 10t͒
I͑0͒ Ϫ20c1 ϩ 15c2 ϩ 640
697 0
464
c2 Ϫ 2091
Thus the formula for the charge is
Q͑t͒
4
697
ͫ
ͬ
eϪ20t
͑Ϫ63 cos 15t Ϫ 116 sin 15t͒ ϩ ͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒
3
and the expression for the current is
1
I͑t͒ 2091
͓eϪ20t͑Ϫ1920 cos 15t ϩ 13,060 sin 15t͒ ϩ 120͑Ϫ21 sin 10t ϩ 16 cos 10t͔͒
NOTE 1 In Example 3 the solution for Q͑t͒ consists of two parts. Since eϪ20t l 0 as
t l ϱ and both cos 15t and sin 15t are bounded functions,
0.2
Qc͑t͒
Qp
0
Q
1.2
4
Ϫ20t
2091
e
͑Ϫ63 cos 15t Ϫ 116 sin 15t͒ l 0
So, for large values of t,
Q͑t͒ Ϸ Qp͑t͒
_0.2
FIGURE 8
5
7
dx
d 2x
ϩ c
ϩ kx F͑t͒
dt 2
dt
d 2Q
dQ
1
L
ϩR
ϩ
Q E͑t͒
dt 2
dt
C
m
as t l ϱ
4
697
͑21 cos 10t ϩ 16 sin 10t͒
and, for this reason, Qp͑t͒ is called the steady state solution. Figure 8 shows how the graph
of the steady state solution compares with the graph of Q in this case.
NOTE 2 Comparing Equations 5 and 7, we see that mathematically they are identical.
This suggests the analogies given in the following chart between physical situations that, at
first glance, are very different.
Spring system
x
dx͞dt
m
c
k
F͑t͒
displacement
velocity
mass
damping constant
spring constant
external force
Electric circuit
Q
I dQ͞dt
L
R
1͞C
E͑t͒
charge
current
inductance
resistance
elastance
electromotive force
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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SECTION 17.3
APPLICATIONS OF SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1187
We can also transfer other ideas from one situation to the other. For instance, the steady
state solution discussed in Note 1 makes sense in the spring system. And the phenomenon
of resonance in the spring system can be usefully carried over to electric circuits as electrical resonance.
17.3
Exercises
10. As in Exercise 9, consider a spring with mass m, spring con-
1. A spring has natural length 0.75 m and a 5-kg mass. A force
stant k, and damping constant c 0, and let sk͞m .
If an external force F͑t͒ F0 cos t is applied (the applied
frequency equals the natural frequency), use the method of
undetermined coefficients to show that the motion of the
mass is given by
of 25 N is needed to keep the spring stretched to a length of
1 m. If the spring is stretched to a length of 1.1 m and then
released with velocity 0, find the position of the mass after
t seconds.
2. A spring with an 8-kg mass is kept stretched 0.4 m beyond
its natural length by a force of 32 N. The spring starts at its
equilibrium position and is given an initial velocity of 1 m͞s.
Find the position of the mass at any time t.
x͑t͒ c1 cos t ϩ c2 sin t ϩ
11. Show that if 0
, but ͞ 0 is a rational number, then the
motion described by Equation 6 is periodic.
3. A spring with a mass of 2 kg has damping constant 14, and
a force of 6 N is required to keep the spring stretched 0.5 m
beyond its natural length. The spring is stretched 1 m beyond
its natural length and then released with zero velocity. Find
the position of the mass at any time t.
12. Consider a spring subject to a frictional or damping force.
(a) In the critically damped case, the motion is given by
x c1 ert ϩ c2 tert. Show that the graph of x crosses the
t-axis whenever c1 and c2 have opposite signs.
(b) In the overdamped case, the motion is given by
x c1e r t ϩ c2 e r t, where r1 Ͼ r2. Determine a condition
on the relative magnitudes of c1 and c2 under which the
graph of x crosses the t-axis at a positive value of t.
4. A force of 13 N is needed to keep a spring with a 2-kg mass
;
stretched 0.25 m beyond its natural length. The damping constant of the spring is c 8.
(a) If the mass starts at the equilibrium position with a
velocity of 0.5 m͞s, find its position at time t.
(b) Graph the position function of the mass.
1
2
13. A series circuit consists of a resistor with R 20 ⍀, an
5. For the spring in Exercise 3, find the mass that would
inductor with L 1 H, a capacitor with C 0.002 F, and a
12-V battery. If the initial charge and current are both 0, find
the charge and current at time t.
produce critical damping.
6. For the spring in Exercise 4, find the damping constant that
would produce critical damping.
14. A series circuit contains a resistor with R 24 ⍀, an induc-
; 7. A spring has a mass of 1 kg and its spring constant is
k 100. The spring is released at a point 0.1 m above its
equilibrium position. Graph the position function for the following values of the damping constant c: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30.
What type of damping occurs in each case?
F0
t sin t
2m
;
tor with L 2 H, a capacitor with C 0.005 F, and a 12-V
battery. The initial charge is Q 0.001 C and the initial current is 0.
(a) Find the charge and current at time t.
(b) Graph the charge and current functions.
; 8. A spring has a mass of 1 kg and its damping constant is
c 10. The spring starts from its equilibrium position with a
velocity of 1 m͞s. Graph the position function for the following values of the spring constant k: 10, 20, 25, 30, 40. What
type of damping occurs in each case?
15. The battery in Exercise 13 is replaced by a generator pro-
ducing a voltage of E͑t͒ 12 sin 10t. Find the charge at
time t.
16. The battery in Exercise 14 is replaced by a generator produc-
9. Suppose a spring has mass m and spring constant k and let
sk͞m . Suppose that the damping constant is so small
that the damping force is negligible. If an external force
F͑t͒ F0 cos 0 t is applied, where 0 , use the method
of undetermined coefficients to show that the motion of the
mass is described by Equation 6.
;
Graphing calculator or computer required
;
ing a voltage of E͑t͒ 12 sin 10t.
(a) Find the charge at time t.
(b) Graph the charge function.
17. Verify that the solution to Equation 1 can be written in the
form x͑t͒ A cos͑ t ϩ ␦͒.
1. Homework Hints available at stewartcalculus.com
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.