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Appendix 5 Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.)

Appendix 5 Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.)

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Appendix 6

Spelling

6.1



Nouns, verbs and adjectives can have the following endings:

noun + -s/-es (plural)



books



ideas



matches



verb + -s/-es (after he/she/it)



works



enjoys



washes



verb + -ing



working



enjoying



washing



verb + -ed



worked



enjoyed



washed



adjective + -er (comparative)



cheaper



quicker



brighter



adjective + -est (superlative)



cheapest



quickest



brightest



adjective + -ly (adverb)



cheaply



quickly



brightly



When we use these endings, there are sometimes changes in spelling. These changes are listed below.

6.2



Nouns and verbs + -s/-es

The ending is -es when the word ends in -s/-ss/-sh/-ch/-x:

bus/buses

miss/misses

wash/washes

match/matches

search/searches

box/boxes

Note also:

potato/potatoes

do/does



6.3



tomato/tomatoes

go/goes



Words ending in -y (baby, carry, easy etc.)

If a word ends in a consonant* + y (-by/-ry/-sy/-vy etc.)

y changes to ie before the ending -s:

baby/babies

story/stories

hurry/hurries

study/studies



country/countries

apply/applies



secretary/secretaries

try/tries



y changes to i before the ending -ed:

hurry/hurried

study/studied



apply/applied



try/tried



y changes to i before the endings -er and -est:

easy/easier/easiest heavy/heavier/heaviest



lucky/luckier/luckiest



y changes to i before the ending -ly:

easy/easily

heavy/heavily



temporary/temporarily



y does not change before -ing:

hurrying

studying



applying



trying



y does not change if the word ends in a vowel* + y (-ay/-ey/-oy/-uy):

play/plays/played

monkey/monkeys

enjoy/enjoys/enjoyed

An exception is: day/daily

Note also: pay/paid

lay/laid

6.4



say/said



Verbs ending in -ie (die, lie, tie)

If a verb ends in -ie, ie changes to y before the ending -ing:

die/dying

lie/lying

tie/tying



* a e i o u are vowel letters.

The other letters (b c d f g etc.) are consonant letters.



298



buy/buys



Appendix 6

6.5



Words ending in -e (hope, dance, wide etc.)

Verbs

If a verb ends in -e, we leave out e before the ending -ing:

hope/hoping

smile/smiling

dance/dancing



confuse/confusing



Exceptions are be/being and verbs ending in -ee:

see/seeing

agree/agreeing

If a verb ends in -e, we add -d for the past (of regular verbs):

hope/hoped

smile/smiled

dance/danced



confuse/confused



Adjectives and adverbs

If an adjective ends in -e, we add -r and -st for the comparative and superlative:

wide/wider/widest

late/later/latest

large/larger/largest

If an adjective ends in -e, we keep e before -ly in the adverb:

polite/politely

extreme/extremely

absolute/absolutely

If an adjective ends in -le (simple, terrible etc.), the adverb ending is -ply, -bly etc. :

simple/simply

terrible/terribly

reasonable/reasonably

6.6



Doubling consonants (stop/stopping/stopped, wet/wetter/wettest etc.)

Sometimes a word ends in vowel + consonant. For example:

stop

plan

rub

big

wet

thin

prefer



regret



Before the endings -ing/-ed/-er/-est, we double the consonant at the end. So p → pp, n → nn etc.

For example:

stop

plan

rub

big

wet

thin



p → pp

n → nn

b → bb

g → gg

t → tt

n → nn



stopping

planning

rubbing

bigger

wetter

thinner



stopped

planned

rubbed

biggest

wettest

thinnest



If the word has more than one syllable (prefer, begin etc.), we double the consonant at the end only if

the final syllable is stressed:

preFER / preferring / preferred

perMIT / permitting / permitted

reGRET / regretting / regretted

beGIN / beginning

If the final syllable is not stressed, we do not double the final consonant:

VISit / visiting / visited

deVELop / developing / developed

HAPpen / happening / happened

reMEMber / remembering / remembered

In British English, verbs ending in -l have -ll- before -ing and -ed whether the final syllable is stressed

or not:

travel / travelling / travelled

cancel / cancelling / cancelled

For American spelling, see Appendix 7.

Note that

we do not double the final consonant if the word ends in two consonants (-rt, -lp, -ng etc.):

start / starting / started

help / helping / helped

long / longer / longest

we do not double the final consonant if there are two vowel letters before it (-oil, -eed etc.):

boil / boiling / boiled

need / needing / needed

explain / explaining / explained

quiet / quieter / quietest

cheap / cheaper / cheapest

loud / louder / loudest

we do not double y or w at the end of words. (At the end of words y and w are not consonants.)

stay / staying / stayed

grow / growing

new / newer / newest



299



Appendix 7

American English

There are a few grammatical differences between British English and American English:

Unit



BRITISH



AMERICAN



7A–B and

13A



The present perfect is often used for new or

recent happenings:

I’ve lost my key. Have you seen it?

Sally isn’t here. She’s gone out.



The past simple is more common for new or

recent happenings:

I lost my key. Did you see it?

Sally isn’t here. She went out.



The present perfect is used with just and

already:

I’m not hungry. I’ve just had lunch.

a: What time is Mark leaving?

b: He’s already left.



The past simple is more common with just

and already:

I’m not hungry. I just had lunch.

a: What time is Mark leaving?

b: He already left.



17C



have a bath, have a shower

have a break, have a holiday



take a bath, take a shower

take a break, take a vacation



21D

and 22D



Will or shall can be used with I/we:

I will/shall be late this evening.

Shall I … ? and shall we … ? are used to ask

for advice etc. :

Which way shall we go?



Shall is unusual:

I will be late this evening.

Should I … ? and should we … ? are used to

ask for advice etc. :

Which way should we go?



28



British speakers use can’t to say they believe

something is not probable:

Sarah hasn’t contacted me. She

can’t have got my message.



American speakers use must not in this

situation:

Sarah hasn’t contacted me. She

must not have gotten my message.



32



You can use needn’t or don’t need to:

We needn’t hurry.

or We don’t need to hurry.



Needn’t is unusual. The usual form is don’t

need to:

We don’t need to hurry.



34A–B



insist, demand etc. + should

I insisted that he should apologise.

We demanded that something

should be done about the problem.



insist, demand etc. + subjunctive (see Unit 34B)

I insisted that he apologize.*

We demanded that something be

done about the problem.



51B



Have you? / Isn’t she? etc.

a: Lisa isn’t very well today.

b: Isn’t she? What’s wrong with her?



You have? / She isn’t? etc.

a: Lisa isn’t very well today.

b: She isn’t? What’s wrong with her?



59D



I’d rather you did something

Are you going to tell Anna, or would

you rather I told her?



I’d rather you do something

Are you going to tell Anna, or would

you rather I tell her?



70B



Accommodation is usually uncountable:

There is plenty of excellent

accommodation in the city.



Accommodation can be countable:

There are plenty of excellent

accommodations in the city.



74B



to/in hospital (without the)

Joe had an accident and was taken

to hospital.



to/in the hospital

Joe had an accident and was taken

to the hospital.



* Many verbs ending in -ise in British English (apologise/organise/specialise etc.) are spelt with -ize (apologize/

organize/specialize etc.) in American English.



300



Appendix 7

Unit



BRITISH



AMERICAN



79C



Nouns like government/team/family etc.

can have a singular or plural verb:

The team is/are playing well.



These nouns normally take a singular verb in

American English:

The team is playing well.



121B



at the weekend / at weekends

Will you be here at the weekend?



on the weekend / on weekends

Will you be here on the weekend?



124D



at the front / at the back (of a group etc.)

(in a theatre) Let’s sit at the front.



in the front / in the back (of a group etc.)

(in a theater) Let’s sit in the front.



131C



different from or different to

The film was different from/to

what I’d expected.



different from or different than

The movie was different from/

than what I’d expected.



137A



round or around

He turned round. or

He turned around.



around (not usually round)

He turned around.



137C



fill in or fill out (a form etc.)

Please fill in this form. or

Please fill out this form.



fill out (a form)

Please fill out this form.



141B



get on (with somebody)

Richard gets on well with his

neighbours.



get along (with somebody)

Richard gets along well with his

neighbors.



142B



knock down (a building)

Some old houses were knocked

down to make way for a new

shopping centre.



tear down a building

Some old houses were torn down to

make way for a new shopping mall.



144D



do up a house etc.

That old house looks great now that

it has been done up.



fix up a house etc.

That old house looks great now that

it has been fixed up.



Appendix



BRITISH



AMERICAN



1.3



Burn, spell etc. can be regular or irregular

(burned or burnt, spelled or spelt etc.).



Burn, spell etc. are normally regular

(burned, spelled etc.).



The past participle of get is got:

Your English has got much better.

(= has become much better)



The past participle of get is gotten:

Your English has gotten much better.



Have got is also an alternative to have:

I’ve got a car. (= I have a car)



Have got = have (as in British English):

I’ve got a car.



British spelling:

travel → travelling / travelled

cancel → cancelling / cancelled



American spelling:

travel → traveling / traveled

cancel → canceling / canceled



6.6



301



Additional exercises

These exercises are divided into the following sections:

Present and past (Units 1–6)

Present and past (Units 1–14)

Present and past (Units 1–17)

Past continuous and used to (Units 6, 18)

The future (Units 19–25)

Past, present and future (Units 1–25)

Modal verbs (can/must/would etc.) (Units 26–36)

if (conditional) (Units 25, 38–40)

Passive (Units 42–45)

Reported speech (Units 47–48, 50)

-ing and to … (Units 53–66)

a/an and the (Units 69–78)

Pronouns and determiners (Units 82–91)

Adjectives and adverbs (Units 98–108)

Conjunctions (Units 25, 38, 112–118)

Prepositions (time) (Units 12, 119–122)

Prepositions (position etc.) (Units 123–128)

Noun/adjective + preposition (Units 129–131)

Verb + preposition (Units 132–136)

Phrasal verbs (Units 137–145)



Present and past

1



302



Exercise 1

Exercises 2–4

Exercises 5–8

Exercise 9

Exercises 10–13

Exercises 14–15

Exercises 16–18

Exercises 19–21

Exercises 22–24

Exercise 25

Exercises 26–28

Exercise 29

Exercise 30

Exercise 31

Exercise 32

Exercise 33

Exercise 34

Exercise 35

Exercise 36

Exercises 37–41



Units 1–6, Appendix 2



Put the verb into the correct form: present simple (I do), present continuous (I am doing),

past simple (I did) or past continuous (I was doing).

1 We can go out now. It isn’t raining (it / not / rain) any more.

2 Katherine was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (I / arrive).

3

(I / get) hungry. Let’s go and have something to eat.

4 What

(you / do) in your spare time? Do you have any hobbies?

5 The weather was horrible when

(we / arrive). It was cold and

(it / rain) hard.

6 Louise usually

(phone) me on Fridays, but

(she / not / phone) last Friday.

7 a: When I last saw you,

(you / think) of moving to a new flat.

b: That’s right, but in the end

(I / decide) to stay where I was.

8 Why

(you / look) at me like that? What’s the matter?

9 It’s usually dry here at this time of the year.

(it / not / rain) much.

10 I waved to Ben, but he didn’t see me.

(he / not / look) in my

direction.

11 Lisa was busy when

(we / go) to see her yesterday. She had an

exam today and

(she / prepare) for it.

(we / not / want) to disturb her, so

(we / not / stay) very long.

12 When I first

(tell) Tom what happened,

(he / not / believe) me.

(he / think) that

(I / joke).



Additional exercises



Present and past

2



Units 1–14, Appendix 2



Which is correct?

1 Everything is going well. We didn’t have / haven’t had any problems so far.

(haven’t had is correct)

2 Lisa didn’t go / hasn’t gone to work yesterday. She wasn’t feeling well.

3 Look! That man over there wears / is wearing the same sweater as you.

4 I went / have been to New Zealand last year.

5 I didn’t hear / haven’t heard from Jess recently. I hope she’s OK.

6 I wonder why James is / is being so nice to me today. He isn’t usually like that.

7 Jane had a book open in front of her, but she didn’t read / wasn’t reading it.

8 I wasn’t very busy. I didn’t have / wasn’t having much to do.

9 It begins / It’s beginning to get dark. Shall I turn on the light?

10 After leaving school, Mark worked / has worked in a hotel for a while.

11 When Sue heard the news, she wasn’t / hasn’t been very pleased.

12 This is a nice hotel, isn’t it? Is this the first time you stay / you’ve stayed here?

13 I need a new job. I’m doing / I’ve been doing the same job for too long.

14 ‘Anna has gone out.’ ‘Oh, has she? What time did she go / has she gone?’

15 ‘You look tired.’ ‘Yes, I’ve played / I’ve been playing basketball.’

16 Where are you coming / do you come from? Are you American?

17 I’d like to see Tina again. It’s a long time since I saw her / that I didn’t see her.

18 Robert and Maria have been married since 20 years / for 20 years.



3



Complete each question using a suitable verb.

1 a: I’m looking for Paul. Have you seen him?

b: Yes, he was here a moment ago.

2 a: Why did you go to bed so early last night?

b: I was feeling very tired.

?

3 a: Where

b: Just to the shop at the end of the street. I’ll only be ten minutes.

TV every day?

4 a:

b: No, only if there’s something special on.

5 a: Your house is lovely. How long

b: Nearly ten years.



here?



6 a: How was your parents’ holiday?

b: Yes, they really enjoyed it.



a nice time?



Sarah recently?

7 a:

b: Yes, we had lunch together a few days ago.

8 a: Can you describe the woman you saw? What

b: A red sweater and black jeans.

9 a: I’m sorry to keep you waiting.

b: No, only about ten minutes.



?

long?



to get from here to the airport?

10 a: How long

b: Usually about 45 minutes. It depends on the traffic.

11 a:

b: No, this is the first time. I like it.



this song before?



to the United States?

12 a:

b: No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago.



303



Additional exercises

4



Use your own ideas to complete B’s sentences.

1 a:

b:

2 a:

b:

3 a:

b:

4 a:

b:

5 a:

b:

6 a:

b:

7 a:

b:

8 a:

b:

9 a:

b:



What’s Chicago like? Is it a good place to visit?

I’ve no idea. I’ve never been

How well do you know Ben?

Very well. We

Did you enjoy your holiday?

Yes, it was really good. It’s the best holiday

Is David still here?

No, I’m afraid he isn’t.

I like your suit. I haven’t seen it before.

It’s new. It’s the first time

How did you cut your knee?

I slipped and fell when

Do you ever go swimming?

Not these days. I haven’t

How often do you go to the cinema?

Very rarely. It’s nearly a year

I bought some new shoes. Do you like them?

Yes, they’re very nice. Where



Present and past

5



there.

since we were children.

.

about ten minutes ago.

.

tennis.

a long time.

to the cinema.

them?



Units 1–17, 110, Appendix 2



Put the verb into the correct form: past simple (I did), past continuous (I was doing), past

perfect (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1

SARAH



Yesterday afternoon Sarah went (go) to the station to meet Paul. When she

(get) there, Paul

(already / wait)

for her. His train

(arrive) early.

Hello.



2



BEN



When I got home, Ben

but he

asleep and

TV off and just then he



304



(lie) on the sofa. The TV was on,

(not / watch) it. He

(fall)

(snore) loudly. I

(turn) the

(wake) up.



Additional exercises

3



Last night I

(just / go) to bed and

a book when suddenly I

(hear) a noise. I

(get) up to see what it was, but I

(not / see) anything, so I

(go) back to bed.



(read)



Where’s my passport?



4



Lisa had to go to New York last week, but she almost

(miss) the

plane. She

(stand) in the queue at the check-in desk when she

suddenly

(realise) that she

(leave) her

passport at home. Fortunately she lives near the airport, so she

(have)

time to take a taxi home to get it. She

(get) back to the airport

just in time for her flight.

5



Hi.



Did you have

a good game?



Yes, great.



Come and

have a drink.



I’m sorry, but …



I

(meet) Peter and Lucy yesterday as I

(walk) through the park. They

(be) to the Sports Centre where they

(play) tennis. They

(go) to a cafe and

(invite) me to join them, but I

(arrange) to meet another friend and

(not / have) time.

6



Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verb into the correct form: present

perfect (I have done), present perfect continuous (I have been doing), past perfect (I had

done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1 Amanda is sitting on the ground. She’s out of breath.

(she / run) She has been running.

2 Where’s my bag? I left it under this chair.

(somebody / take / it)

3 We were all surprised when Jess and Nick got married last year.

(they / only / know / each other / a few weeks)

4 It’s still raining. I wish it would stop.

(it / rain / all day)

5 Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn’t know where I was.

(I / dream)



305



Additional exercises

6 It was lunchtime, but I wasn’t hungry. I didn’t want to eat anything.

(I / have / a big breakfast)

7 Every year Robert and Tina spend a few days at the same hotel by the sea.

(they / go / there for years)

8 I’ve got a headache.

(I / have / it / since I got up)

9 Next month Gary is going to run in a marathon.

(he / train / very hard for it)

7



Put the verb into the correct form.

Sarah and Joe are old friends. They meet by chance at a train station.

SaRaH:

JOE:

SaRaH:



JOE:

SaRaH:

JOE:

SaRaH:



JOE:

SaRaH:

JOE:

SaRaH:

JOE:



SaRaH:



JOE:

SaRaH:

JOE:

SaRaH:

JOE:



SaRaH:

JOE:



SaRaH:

JOE:



306



Hello, Joe. (1)

(I / not / see)

you for ages. How are you?

I’m fine. How about you?

(2)

(you / look) good.

Thanks. You too.

So, (3)

(you / go) somewhere or

(4)

(you / meet) somebody?

(5)

(I / go) to London for a business meeting.

Oh. (6)

(you / often / go) away on business?

Quite often, yes. And you? Where (7)

(you / go)?

Nowhere. (8)

(I / meet) a friend. Unfortunately

her train (9)

(be) delayed –

(10)

(I / wait) here for nearly an hour.

How are your children?

They’re all fine, thanks. The youngest (11)

(just / start)

school.

How (12)

(she / get) on?

(13)

(she / like) it?

Yes, (14)

(she / think) it’s great.

(15)

(you / work) at the moment? The last time I

(16)

(speak) to you, (17)

(you / work) for an insurance company.

That’s right. Unfortunately the company (18)

(go) out

of business a couple of months after (19)

(I / start)

work there, so (20)

(I / lose) my job.

And (21)

(you / not / have) a job since then?

Not a permanent job. (22)

(I / have) a few temporary

jobs. By the way, (23)

(you / see) Matt recently?

Matt? He’s in Canada.

Really? How long (24)

(he / be) in Canada?

About a year now. (25)

(I / see) him a few days before

(26)

(he / go). (27)

(he / be)

unemployed for months, so (28)

(he / decide) to try his

luck somewhere else. (29)

(he / really / look forward)

to going.

So, what (30)

(he / do) there?

I have no idea. (31)

(I / not / hear) from him since

(32)

(he / leave). Anyway, I have to go and catch my

train. It was really good to see you again.

You too. Bye! Have a good trip!

Thanks. Bye.



Additional exercises

8



Put the verb into the most suitable form.

1 Who

(invent) the bicycle?

2 ‘Do you still have a headache?’ ‘No,

(it / go). I’m OK now.’

3 I was the last to leave the office last night. Everybody else

(go)

home when I

(leave).

4 What

(you / do) last weekend?

(you / go) anywhere?

5 I like your car. How long

(you / have) it?

6 It’s a shame the trip was cancelled. I

(look) forward to it.

7 Jane is an experienced teacher and loves her job.

(she / teach)

for 15 years.

8 Emily

(buy) a new dress last week, but

(she / not / wear) it yet.

9 A few days ago

(I / meet) a man at a party whose face

(be)

very familiar. At first I couldn’t think where

(I / see)

him before. Then suddenly

(I / remember) who

(he / be).

10

(you / hear) of Agatha Christie?

(she / be)

a writer who

(die) in 1976.

(she / write)

more than 70 detective novels, but

(I / not / read) any of them.

11 a: What

(this word / mean)?

b: I’ve no idea.

(I / never / see) it before. Look it up in the

dictionary.

12 a:

(you / get) to the theatre in time for the play last night?

b: No, we were late. By the time we got there,

(it / already / start).

13 I went to Sarah’s room and

(knock) on the door, but there

(be) no answer. Either

(she / go) out

or

(she / not / want) to see anyone.

14 Dan asked me how to use the photocopier.

(he / never / use)

it before, so

(he / not / know) what to do.

15 Lisa

(go) for a swim after work yesterday.

(she / need) some exercise because

(she / sit) in an office all

day in front of a computer.



Past continuous and used to

9



Units 6, 18



Complete the sentences using the past continuous (was/were -ing) or used to … . Use the

verb in brackets.

1 I haven’t been to the cinema for ages now. We used to go a lot. (go)

2 Ann didn’t see me wave to her. She was looking in the other direction. (look)

3 I

a lot, but I don’t use my car very much these days. (drive)

4 I asked the taxi driver to slow down. She

too fast. (drive)

5 Rosemary and Jonathan met for the first time when they

in the

same bank. (work)

6 When I was a child, I

a lot of bad dreams. (have)

7 I wonder what Joe is doing these days. He

in Spain when I last

heard from him. (live)

8 ‘Where were you yesterday afternoon?’ ‘I

volleyball.’ (play)

9 ‘Do you do any sports?’ ‘Not these days, but I

volleyball.’ (play)

10 George looked very smart at the party. He

a very nice suit. (wear)



307



Additional exercises



The future

10



Units 19–25, Appendix 3



What do you say to Joe in these situations? Use the words given in brackets. Use the

present continuous (I am doing), going to or will (I’ll).

1 You have made all your holiday arrangements. Your destination is Jamaica.

JOE: Have you decided where to go for your holiday yet?

I’m going to Jamaica. (I / go)

YOU:

2 You have made an appointment with the dentist for Friday morning.

JOE: Shall we meet on Friday morning?

YOU: I can’t on Friday.



(I / go)



3 You and some friends are planning a holiday in Spain. You have decided to rent a car, but

you haven’t arranged this yet.

JOE: How do you plan to travel round Spain? By train?

YOU: No,

(we / rent)

4 Joe reminds you that you have to call your sister. You completely forgot.

JOE: Did you call your sister?

YOU: No, I forgot. Thanks for reminding me.

5 You have already arranged to have lunch with Sue tomorrow.

JOE: Are you free at lunchtime tomorrow?

YOU: No,



(I / call / now)



(have lunch)



6 You are in a restaurant. You and Joe are looking at the menu. Maybe Joe has decided what to

have. You ask him.

YOU: What

? (you / have)

JOE: I don’t know. I can’t make up my mind.

7 Joe is reading, but it’s getting dark. He’s having trouble reading. You turn on the light.

JOE: It’s getting dark and it’s hard to read.

YOU: Yes,

(I / turn on)

8 You and Joe are sitting in a room with the window open. It’s getting cold. You decide to close

the window. You stand up and walk towards it.

JOE: What are you doing?

YOU:

(I / close)

11



308



Choose the best alternative.

1 ‘ Are you doing anything tomorrow evening?’ ‘No, why?’

C Will you do

(B is the best alternative)

A Do you do

B Are you doing

2 ‘I can’t open this bottle.’ ‘Give it to me.

it.’

A I open

B I’ll open

C I’m going to open

3 ‘Is Emily here yet?’ ‘Not yet. I’ll let you know as soon as

.’

A she arrives

B she’s arriving

C she’ll arrive

4 ‘Are you free tomorrow afternoon?’ ‘No,

.’

A I work

B I’m working

C I’ll work

5 ‘What time is the film tonight?’ ‘

at 8.40.’

A It starts

B It’s going to start

C It will start

6 ‘Are you going to the beach tomorrow?’ ‘Yes, if the weather

good.’

A is going to be

B will be

C is

7 ‘What time

tomorrow?’ ‘How about 8.30?’

A do we meet

B are we meeting

C shall we meet

8 ‘When

?’ ‘Tomorrow.’

A does the festival finish

B is the festival finished

C is the festival finishing



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Appendix 5 Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.)

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