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37 can/could/would you … ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)

37 can/could/would you … ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)

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Unit



Exercises

37.1



Which goes with which?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



37.2



37



Could you pass the sugar?

Would you like to go to the cinema?

Can I use your toilet?

Do you mind if I leave work early?

Can you do me a favour?

Would you like something to eat?

Can I give you a hand?

I’d like some fresh air.



a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h



It depends what you want me to do.

No, that’s fine.

Me too. Let’s go out for a walk.

Sure. It’s the door on the left.

Yes, here you are.

No, it’s all right. I can manage, thanks.

Maybe. What’s on?

No, thanks. I’m not hungry.



1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



e



Complete the sentences. Choose from:

I’d like

Can I give



Would you like to try

Would you like to come



Do you mind

Would you like



Can I take

I’d like to



1 You’re driving and you see a friend walking along the road. You stop and say:

Hi Joe. Can I give you a lift?

2 You’re making a cold drink for your friend. Perhaps he wants ice. You ask:

ice in your drink?

3 You’re ordering something to eat in a cafe. You say:

a chicken salad, please.

4 You have an extra ticket for a concert. Maybe your friend will come. You ask:

to a concert tomorrow night?

5 You answer the phone. The caller wants to speak to Lisa. You say:

Lisa’s not here.

a message?

6 You need to see a dentist. You phone for an appointment. You say:

Hello.

make an appointment, please.

7 You work in a shoe shop. A customer asks you about some shoes. You ask:

them on?

8 You go into a cafe and see some people you know. You ask:

if I join you?

37.3



What would you say in these situations?

1 You’re carrying a lot of things. You can’t open the door yourself. There’s a man near the door.

You say to him: Could you open the door, please?

2 You’ve finished your meal in a restaurant and now you want the bill.

You ask the waiter:

3 You’ve filled in some forms in English. You want your friend to check them for you.

You ask your friend:

4 The woman in the next room is playing music. It’s very loud. You want her to turn it down.

You say to her:

5 You’re on a train. The window is open and you’re cold. You’d like to close it.

You ask the man next to you:

6 You’re on a bus. You have a seat, but an elderly man is standing. You offer him your seat.

You say to him:

7 You’re a tourist. You want to go to the station, but you don’t know how to get there.

You ask at your hotel:

8 You are in a clothes shop. You see some trousers you like and you want to try them on.

You say to the shop assistant:

9 You meet a very famous person. You want to get his/her autograph.

You ask:



75



Unit



if I do … and if I did …



38

A



Compare these examples:

(1) LISa: Shall we take the bus or the train?

JESS: If we take the bus, it will be cheaper.

For Jess, it is possible that they will take the bus,

so she says:

If we take the bus, it will be …

LISA



(2) Lisa and Jess decide to take the train.

Later, Jess talks to Joe.



If we take the bus,

it will be cheaper.



JESS



If we took the bus, it would be cheaper.



JOE: How are you going to travel?

JESS: We’re going to take the train. If we took the bus,

it would be cheaper, but the train is quicker.

Now Jess knows they are not going to take the bus,

so she says:

If we took the bus, it would be …



B



When we talk about something that will not happen,

or we don’t expect that it will happen, we use

if + past (if we went / if there was etc.).

But the meaning is not past:

What would you do if you won a lot of money?

(I don’t really expect this to happen)

If there was an election tomorrow, who would

you vote for?

(there will not be an election tomorrow)

I’d be surprised if they didn’t come to the party.

(I expect them to come)



JOE



JESS



If I won a lot of money …



Compare if I find and if I found:

I think I left my watch at your house. If you find it, can you call me?

but

If you found a wallet in the street, what would you do with it?



C



We do not normally use would in the if-part of the sentence:

I’d be very scared if somebody pointed a gun at me. (not if somebody would point)

If we went by bus, it would be cheaper. (not If we would go)

In the other part of the sentence (not the if-part) we use would (’d) / wouldn’t:

I’d be (= I would be) scared if somebody pointed a gun at me.

I’m not going to bed yet. I’m not tired. If I went to bed now, I wouldn’t sleep.

What would you do if you were bitten by a snake?

Could and might are also possible:

If I won a lot of money, I might buy a house.

(= it is possible that I would buy a house)

If it stopped raining, we could go out.

(= we would be able to go out)



76



will ➜ Units 21–22 if and when ➜ Unit 25D would ➜ Unit 36

if … was/were ➜ Unit 39C if I had known ➜ Unit 40



if I knew ➜ Unit 39



Unit



Exercises

38.1



38



Complete the sentences. Choose from:

did

1

2

3

4

5

6

7



dropped



found



happened



lost



was



went



If you found a wallet in the street, what would you do with it?

it, it would break into small pieces.

Be careful with that vase. If you

This notebook is very important to me. I’d be very upset if I

it.

I don’t expect to lose my job but if that

, I’d have to find another one.

We’re thinking about our holiday for next year. If we

to Italy, would you come with us?

I don’t think he’ll fail the exam. I’d be very surprised if he

.

If there

a fire in the building, would you know how to put the fire out?



38.2



What do you say in these situations?

1 Of course you don’t expect to win the lottery. Which do you say?

a If I win the lottery, I’ll buy a big house.

b If I won the lottery, I’d buy a big house.

✓ (b is correct)

2 You’re not going to sell your car because it’s old and not worth much. Which do you say?

a If I sell my car, I won’t get much money for it.

b If I sold my car, I wouldn’t get much money for it.

3 You often see Sarah. A friend of yours wants to contact her. Which do you say?

a If I see Sarah, I’ll tell her to call you.

b If I saw Sarah, I’d tell her to call you.

4 You don’t expect that there will be a fire in the building. Which do you say?

a What will you do if there is a fire in the building?

b What would you do if there was a fire in the building?

5 You’ve never lost your passport. You can only imagine it.

a I don’t know what I’ll do if I lose my passport.

b I don’t know what I’d do if I lost my passport.

6 Somebody stops you and asks the way to a bank. Which do you say?

a If you go right at the end of this street, you’ll see a bank on your left.

b If you went right at the end of this street, you’d see a bank on your left.

7 You’re in a lift. There is an emergency button. Nobody is going to press it. Which do you say?

a What will happen if somebody presses that button?

b What would happen if somebody pressed that button?



38.3



Complete the sentences.

1 I’d be very scared if somebody pointed (somebody / point) a gun at me.

2 I can’t afford to buy a car. If

(I / buy) a car, I’d have to borrow the money.

3 If you had a party, who

(you / invite)?

4 Don’t lend James your car. If

(he / ask) me, I wouldn’t lend him mine.

5 I don’t think Gary and Emma will get married.

(I / be) amazed if they did.

6 If

(somebody / give) me $20,000,

(I / have) a long holiday.

7

(you / be) nervous if

(you / meet) a famous person?

8 What

(you / do) if

(you / be) in a lift

and

(it / stop) between floors?



38.4



Write sentences beginning If … .

1 We’re not going to take the 10.30 train. (we / arrive too early)

If we took the 10.30 train, we’d arrive too early.

2 We’re not going to stay at a hotel. (it / cost too much)

If we

, it

3 There’s no point in telling you what happened. (you / not / believe)

If I

4 Sally has no plans to leave her job. (it / hard to find another one)

If she

5 Kevin is not going to apply for the job. (he / not / get it).



77



Unit



if I knew … I wish I knew …



39

A



Study this example situation:

Sarah wants to phone Paul, but she can’t do this because

she doesn’t know his number. She says:

I’d phone him if I knew his number.

(I’d phone = I would phone)

Sarah doesn’t know Paul’s number, so she says ‘if I knew’.

She imagines what she would do if she knew his number.

… if I knew his number …



When we imagine a situation like this, we use if + past (if I knew / if you were / if we didn’t etc.).

But the meaning is present, not past:

There are many things I’d like to do if I had more time. (but I don’t have time)

If I didn’t want to go to the party, I wouldn’t go. (but I want to go)

If you were in my position, what would you do?

It’s a pity he can’t drive. It would be useful if he could.



B



We use the past in the same way after wish (I wish I knew / I wish you were etc.).

We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be:

I wish I knew Paul’s phone number.

(= I don’t know it and I regret this)

I wish I had an umbrella.

Do you ever wish you could fly?

(you can’t fly)

It’s very crowded here. I wish there weren’t

so many people. (there are a lot of people)

I wish I didn’t have to work tomorrow, but

unfortunately I do.

Compare:

I’m glad I live here. (I live here and that’s good)

I wish I lived here. (I don’t live here unfortunately)



C



After if and wish, you can use were instead of was (if I were / I wish it were etc.).

You can also use was. So you can say:

If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that coat.

or

If I was you, …

I’d go for a walk if it weren’t so cold.

or

… if it wasn’t so cold.

I wish Anna were here.

or

I wish Anna was here.



D



We do not usually say ‘if … would’. We use would (’d) in the other part of the sentence:

If I were rich, I would travel a lot. (not If I would be rich)

Who would you ask if you needed help? (not if you would need)

In the same way we say:

I wish I had something to read. (not I wish I would have)

I wish she were here now. (not I wish she would be)

For ‘I wish … would …’ see Unit 41.



E



78



Could sometimes means ‘would be able to’ and sometimes ‘was/were able to’:

She could get a better job

(she could get = she would be able to get)

if she could speak another language.

(if she could speak = if she was able to speak)

I wish I could help you.

(I wish I could = I wish I was able)

could ➜ Units 26–27 if I do / if I did ➜ Unit 38

if I had known / I wish I had known ➜ Unit 40 wish ➜ Unit 41



Exercises

39.1



39.2



Unit



39



Put the verb into the correct form.

1 If I knew (I / know) his number, I would phone him.

2 I wouldn’t buy (I / not / buy) that coat if I were you.

3

(I / help) you if I could, but I’m afraid I can’t.

4 This soup isn’t very nice.

(it / taste) better if it wasn’t so salty.

5 We live in a city and don’t need a car, but we would need one if

(we / live) in the country.

6 If we had the choice,

(we / live) in the country.

7 I’d make a lot of changes if

(I / be) the manager of the company.

8 I wouldn’t call someone in the middle of the night if

(it / not / be) important.

9 If I were you,

(I / not / wait).

(I / go) now.

10 You’re always tired because you go to bed so late. If

(you / not / go)

to bed so late every night,

(you / not / be) tired all the time.

11 I think there are too many cars. If

(there / not / be) so many cars,

(there / not / be) so much pollution.

12 We all need jobs and money, but what

(you / do) if

(you / not / have) to work?

Write a sentence with if … for each situation.

1 We don’t see you very often because you live so far away.

If you didn’t live so far away, we’d see you more often.

2 I like these shoes but they’re too expensive, so I’m not going to buy them.

I

them if

so

3 We’d like to go on holiday, but we can’t afford it.

We

if

4 It would be nice to have lunch outside but it’s raining, so we can’t.

We

5 I don’t want his advice, and that’s why I’m not going to ask for it.

If



39.3



Write sentences beginning I wish … .

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



I don’t know many people (and I’m lonely). I wish I knew more people.

I don’t have much free time (and I need more). I wish

Helen isn’t here (and I need to see her).

It’s cold (and I hate cold weather).

I live in a big city (and I don’t like it).

I can’t find my phone (which is a problem).

I’m not feeling well (which isn’t good).

I have to get up early tomorrow (but I’d prefer to sleep late).



9 I don’t know much about science (and I should know more).

39.4



Write your own sentences beginning I wish … .

1 (somewhere you’d like to be now – on the beach, in New York, in bed etc.)

I wish I

2 (something you’d like to have – a motorbike, more friends, lots of money etc.)

3 (something you’d like to be able to do – sing, travel more, cook etc.)

4 (something you’d like to be – famous, more intelligent, good at sport etc.)



➜ Additional exercises 19–21 (pages 313–14)



79



Unit



if I had known …



40

A



I wish I had known …



Study this example situation:

Last month Gary was in hospital for a few days. Rachel didn’t know this.

A few days ago they met by chance. Rachel said:

If I’d known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.

(= I didn’t know, so I didn’t go to visit you)

If I’d known = If I had known. This tells us that she didn’t know before.

We use if + had (’d) … to talk about the past (if I’d known / if you’d done etc.):

I didn’t see you when you passed me in the street. If I’d seen you, I would have said hello.

They didn’t go out last night. They would have gone out if they hadn’t been so tired.

(but they were tired)

If you’d been looking where you were going, you wouldn’t have walked into the wall.

(but you weren’t looking)

The view was wonderful. I would have taken some pictures if I’d had (= if I had had)

a camera with me. (but I didn’t have a camera)

Compare:

I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (now)

I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (past)



B



We do not say ‘if something would have happened’. We use would in the other part of the sentence:

If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not If I would have seen you)

The short form ’d can be would or had:

If I’d seen you,

(I’d seen = I had seen)

I’d have said hello.

(I’d have said = I would have said)



C



We use had done/known/been etc. in the same way after wish.

I wish something had happened = I am sorry that it didn’t happen

I wish something hadn’t happened = I am sorry that it happened

I wish I’d known that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (but I didn’t know)

I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (I ate too much)

Do you wish you’d studied science instead of languages? (you didn’t study science)

Compare:

I’m glad I saw him. (= I saw him)

I wish I’d seen him. (= I didn’t see him)

We do not say ‘wish … would have …’ .

The weather was cold. I wish it had been warmer. (not I wish it would have been)



D



Compare would (do) and would have (done):

If I’d gone to the party last night, I would be tired now. (I am not tired now – present)

If I’d gone to the party last night, I would have met lots of people. (I didn’t meet lots

of people – past)

Compare would have, could have and might have:



If the weather hadn’t been so bad,



80



had done ➜ Unit 15



















we would have gone out.

we could have gone out.

(= we would have been able to go out)

we might have gone out.

(= maybe we would have gone out)



if I do / if I did ➜ Unit 38



if I knew / I wish I knew ➜ Unit 39



wish ➜ Unit 41



Exercises



Unit



40



40.1



Put the verb into the correct form.

1 I didn’t see you. If I’d seen (I / see) you, I would have said (I / say) hello.

2 Sarah got to the station just in time to catch her train to the airport. If

(she / miss) the train,

(she / miss) her flight too.

3 Thanks for reminding me about Lisa’s birthday.

(I / forget)

if 

(you / not / remind) me.

4 I didn’t have your email address, so I couldn’t contact you. If

(I / have)

your email address,

(I / send) you an email.

5 Their trip was OK, but

(they / enjoy) it more if

the weather

(be) better.

6 Sorry we’re late. Our taxi got stuck in the traffic.

(it / be)

quicker if

(we / walk).

7 Why didn’t you tell me about your problem? If

(you / tell) me,

(I / try) to help you.

8 I’m not tired. If

(I / be) tired, I’d go home now.

9 I wasn’t tired last night. If

(I / be) tired, I would have

gone home earlier.



40.2



For each situation, write a sentence beginning with If.

1 I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t eat anything.

If I’d been hungry, I would have eaten something.

2 The accident happened because the road was icy.

If the road

3 I didn’t know that you had to get up early, so I didn’t wake you up.

If I

4 Unfortunately I lost my phone, so I couldn’t call you.

5 Karen wasn’t injured in the crash, because fortunately she was wearing a seat belt.

6 You didn’t have any breakfast – that’s why you’re hungry now.

7 I didn’t get a taxi because I didn’t have enough money.

8 Dan didn’t do well at school, so he couldn’t go to university.



40.3



Imagine that you are in these situations. For each situation, write a sentence with I wish.

1 You’ve eaten too much and now you feel sick.

You say: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much.

2 When you were younger, you never learned to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this.

You say:

3 You’ve painted the gate red. Now you think it doesn’t look good. Red was the wrong colour.

You say:

4 You decided to travel by car, but the journey was long and tiring. Going by train would have been better.

You say: I wish we

5 Last year you went to New York with a friend. You didn’t have time to do all the things you wanted to do.

You say:

6 You moved to a new flat a few months ago. Now you don’t like your new flat. You think that moving

was a bad idea.

You say:



➜ Additional exercises 19–21 (pages 313–14)



81



Unit



wish



41

A



We say ‘wish somebody luck / all the best / success’ etc. :

I wish you all the best in the future.

I saw Mark before the exam and he wished me luck.

We say ‘wish somebody something’ (luck, happiness etc.), but we do not say ‘I wish something happens’.

We use hope in this situation:

I’m sorry you’re not well. I hope you feel better soon. (not I wish you feel)

Compare I wish and I hope:

I wish you a pleasant stay at this hotel.

I hope you enjoy your stay at this hotel. (not I wish you enjoy)



B



We also use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it.

When we use wish in this way, we use the past (knew/lived etc.), but the meaning is present:

I wish I knew what to do about the problem. (but I don’t know)

I wish you didn’t have to go so soon. (but you have to go)

Do you wish you lived near the sea? (you don’t live near the sea)

Jack’s going on a trip to Mexico soon. I wish I was going too. (but I’m not going)

To say that we regret something that happened before, we use wish + had known / had said etc. :

I wish I’d known about the party. I’d have gone if I’d known. (but I didn’t know)

It was a stupid thing to say. I wish I hadn’t said it. (but I said it)

See also Units 39 and 40.



C



I wish I could (do something) = I regret that I cannot do it:

I’m sorry you have to go. I wish you could stay longer. (but you can’t)

I’ve met that man before. I wish I could remember his name. (but I can’t)

I wish I could have (done something) = I regret that I could not do it:

I hear the party was great. I wish I could have gone. (but I couldn’t go)



D



You can say ‘I wish something would happen’. For example:

I wish it would stop raining.



It’s been raining all day. Tanya doesn’t like it. She says:

I wish it would stop raining.

Tanya would like the rain to stop, but this will probably not happen.

We use I wish … would when we would like something to happen

or change.



We often use I wish … would to complain about a situation:

The phone has been ringing for five minutes. I wish somebody would answer it.

I wish you’d do (= you would do) something instead of just sitting and doing nothing.

You can use I wish … wouldn’t … to complain about things that people do repeatedly:

I wish you wouldn’t keep interrupting me. (= please stop interrupting me)



E



We use I wish … would … to say that we want something to happen. We do not use I wish … would …

to say how we would like things to be. Compare:

I wish Sarah would come. (= I want her to come)

but

I wish Sarah was (or were) here now. (not I wish Sarah would be)

but



82



I wish somebody would buy me a car.

I wish I had a car. (not I wish I would have)



would ➜ Unit 36 I wish I knew ➜ Unit 39

I wish I had known ➜ Unit 40



I wish I was / I wish I were ➜ Unit 39C



Exercises

41.1



Put in wish(ed) or hope(d).

1 I wish you a pleasant stay at this hotel.

2 Enjoy your holiday. I

you have a great time.

3 Goodbye. I

you all the best for the future.

4 We said goodbye to each other and

each other luck.

5 We’re going to have a picnic tomorrow, so I

the weather is nice.

6 Congratulations on your new job. I

you every success.

7 Good luck in your new job. I

it works out well for you.



41.2



Complete the sentences.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



41.3



Unit



41



Jack is going on a trip to Mexico soon. I wish I was going too.

I’m very tired and I have so much to do. I wish I

so tired.

You didn’t tell me you were ill. Why not? I wish you

me.

I don’t have enough free time. I wish I

more free time.

I can’t make up my mind what to do. I wish I

decide.

I bought these shoes, but now I don’t like them. I wish I

them.

We have to go out now and I don’t want to go. I wish we

to go out now.

Unfortunately I couldn’t go to the wedding last month. I wish I could

.



What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with I wish … would … .

1 It’s raining. You want to go out, but not in the rain.

You say: I wish it would stop raining.

2 You’re waiting for Jane. She’s late and you’re getting impatient.

You say to yourself: I wish she

3 You’re looking for a job – so far without success. Nobody will give you a job.

You say: I wish somebody

4 You can hear a dog barking. It’s been barking a long time and you’re trying to study.

You say:

For the following situations, write sentences with I wish … wouldn’t … .

5 Your friend is driving very fast. She always drives fast and you don’t like this.

You say to her: I wish you

6 Joe leaves the door open all the time. This annoys you.

You say to Joe:

7 A lot of people drop litter in the street. You don’t like this.

You say: I wish people



41.4



Put the verb into the correct form.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14



It was a stupid thing to say. I wish I hadn’t said it. (I / not / say)

I’m fed up with this rain. I wish it would stop . (it / stop)

It’s a difficult question. I wish

the answer. (I / know)

I really didn’t enjoy the party. I wish

. (we / not / go)

I wish

. We’ve been waiting for 20 minutes. (the bus / come)

You’re lucky to be going away. I wish

with you. (I / can / come)

Our flat is rather small. I wish

a bit bigger. (it / be)

I should have listened to you. I wish

your advice. (I / take)

You keep interrupting me! I wish

. (you / listen)

You’re always complaining. I wish

all the time.

(you / not / complain)

It’s freezing today. I wish

so cold. I hate cold weather. (it / not / be)

I wish

. It’s horrible! (the weather / change)

I wish

a piano. I’d love to have one. (I / have)

When we were in London last year, we didn’t have time to see all the things we wanted to see.

I wish

there longer. (we / can / stay)



83



Unit



Passive 1 (is done / was done)



42

A



Study this example:

This house was built in 1981.

‘This house was built’ is passive.

Compare active and passive:

this house in 1981. (active)



Somebody built

subject



object



This house was built in 1981. (passive)

subject



When we use an active verb, we say what the subject does:

My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1981.

It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.

When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject:

‘How old is this house?’ ‘It was built in 1981.’

Two hundred people are employed by the company.



B



When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody stole it, but we don’t know who)

Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it? – it’s not important who)

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by:

This house was built by my grandfather.

Two hundred people are employed by the company.



C



The passive is be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):

(be) done

(be) cleaned

(be) damaged

(be) built

(be) seen etc.

The past participle often ends in -ed (cleaned/damaged etc.), but many important verbs are

irregular (built/done/stolen etc.). See Appendix 1.

Compare active and passive, present simple and past simple:

Present simple

active:



clean(s) / see(s) etc.



passive: am/is/are + cleaned/seen etc.



Somebody cleans this room every day.

This room is cleaned every day.



Many accidents are caused by careless driving.

I’m not invited to parties very often.

How is this word pronounced?

Past simple

active:



Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.



cleaned/saw etc.



passive: was/were + cleaned/seen etc.



This room was cleaned yesterday.



We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.

‘Did you go to the party?’ ‘No, I wasn’t invited.’

How much money was stolen in the robbery?



84



Passive 2–3 ➜ Units 43–44



by ➜ Unit 128



Unit



Exercises

42.1



42



Complete the sentences. Use these verbs in the correct form, present or past:

cause

make

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12



damage

overtake



find

own



hold

send



injure

show



invite

surround



Many accidents are caused by careless driving.

Cheese

from milk.

The roof of the building

in a storm a few days ago.

A cinema is a place where films

.

You

to the party. Why didn’t you go?

This plant is very rare. It

in very few places.

Although we were driving fast, we

by a lot of other cars.

In the US, elections for president

every four years.

There was an accident last night, but fortunately nobody

.

You can’t see the house from the road. It

by trees.

I never received the letter. It

to the wrong address.

The company I work for

by a much larger company.



42.2



Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.

How is glass made?

1 Ask about glass. (how / make?)

2 Ask about television. (when / invent?) When

3 Ask about mountains. (how / form?)

4 Ask about DNA. (when / discover?)

5 Ask about silver. (what / use for?)



42.3



Put the verb into the correct form, present or past, active or passive.

1 a Two hundred people are employed (employ) by the company.

b The company employs (employ) 200 people.

2 a Water

(cover) most of the earth’s surface.

b How much of the earth’s surface

(cover) by water?

3 a While I was on holiday, my camera

(steal) from my hotel room.

b While I was on holiday, my camera

(disappear) from my hotel room.

4 a Robert’s parents

(die) when he was very young.

b Robert and his sister

(bring up) by their grandparents.

5 a The boat hit a rock and

(sink) quickly.

b Fortunately everybody

(rescue).

6 a Bill

(fire) from his job. He wasn’t very good at it.

b Sue

(resign) from her job because she didn’t enjoy it any more.

7 a It can be noisy living here, but it

(not / bother) me.

b It can be noisy living here, but I

(not / bother) by it.

8 a Maria had an accident. She

(knock) off her bike.

b Maria had an accident. She

(fall) off her bike.

9 a I haven’t seen these flowers before. What

(they / call)?

b I haven’t seen these flowers before. What

(you / call) them?



42.4



Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence.

The room is cleaned every day

1 Somebody cleans the room every day.

2 They cancelled all flights because of fog.

All

3 Somebody accused me of stealing money.

4 How do you use this word?

How

5 The price includes all taxes.

All

6 People warned us not to go out alone.

We

7 We don’t use this office any more.

This

8 They invited five hundred people to the

Five hundred

wedding.



.

.

money.

used?

in the price.

.

.

.



85



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