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For the Brain, the Benefits of Being Bilingual

For the Brain, the Benefits of Being Bilingual

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That study showed that bilingual speakers suffered more ……………………, but were able

to think at the same level as …………………… with less damage. Dr. Gold says he believes

the new study confirms that bilingualism can …………………… brain performance.



34.



How Mobile Phones Are Changing Life in Africa

The …………………………………… there are about 650 million

……………………………………in African countries south of the Sahara desert.



mobile



That is greater than the number of users in the United States and the

……………………………………. Samia Melhem works for the World Bank to increase

……………………………………in Africa.

She says mobile phones are Africa's fastest-growing technology. She says more Africans have

………………………………than to clean water or sanitation. She says mobile technology

has brought about ……………………………………in how people live. CNN television

recently named seven ways life has been revolutionized by mobile phones.

They include political activism, ……………………………………, disaster management,

agriculture, and health. Banking is another industry that has been transformed by mobile

phones. Reports say at least ……………………………………in Gabon, Kenya, and Sudan

use mobile money.

Rene Mendy ……………………………………in the streets of Dakar, Senegal. But he never

had enough money to open ……………………………………. Now he uses a mobile phone

……………………………………called Orange Money.

With his telephone, he can add or ……………………………………as little as one dollar

from his account. He can ……………………………………and send money to family

members who live far away.

Orange Money says it serves ……………………………………customers in 10 countries.

The World Bank's Samia Melhem notes that the French company is

……………………………………from other mobile banking services.

That is ……………………………………. The cost of sending a payment by phone is far

lower than with ……………………………………agents like Western Union.



35.



Reducing High Rates of Wasted Food

How much of the ………………………… is going to waste? The Institution of Mechanical

Engineers …………………………that says as much as half of all food is wasted.

The Britain-based group says that …………………………if the world is to feed its

…………………………. Every year the world produces about 4 billion

…………………………. The report says that between one third and one half of it goes to

waste.

It says that in …………………………countries, between 37 and 80 percent of all

…………………………is lost. Colin Brown helped write the report for the Institution of

Mechanical Engineers. He says a lot of rice is lost because of the way it is harvested,

………………………….



The developed world also wastes food. The report says more …………………………

methods ensure that more food reaches markets. Still, Colin Brown says millions of tons of

food are thrown away because it is past its sell-by date or for ………………………….

He says a lot of food is thrown away because it no longer looks good, and not because it is no

longer ………………………….A spokesman for a group that …………………………in

Britain says the big food stores are not to blame.

He says they are only following European Union …………………………. The stores have

been pushing for an easing of those rules. He says that in 2009, …………………………in

getting a number of rules relaxed.

Many …………………………welcomed the report. They say it shows how much food is

being wasted at a time when millions of people do not get enough to eat. The group

…………………………says there is enough food in the world to feed every child. Yet, 2.3

million children die every year as a ………………………….



36.



Staying Safe in Freezing Weather (Part 1)

.………………………………. is a fact of life to many people in the

……………………………….of the world. Freezing weather can mean frostbite and

hypothermia unless a ………………………………..

Here are some ways to stay warm, ……………………………….in cold weather. Frostbite is

damage that happens when skin is exposed to ……………………………….for too long.

It mainly happens on the hands, feet, ……………………………….. People with minor cases

of frostbite that ……………………………….may not suffer any permanent damage. But if

deeper tissue is affected, a person is likely ……………………………….every time the area

gets cold.

Damage to blood vessels is ……………………………….. This kind of injury can lead to a

gangrene infection. Sometimes the only way ……………………………….an injury like this

is to remove frostbitten areas like ………………………………..

Hypothermia is a condition in which the body cannot ……………………………….as it

loses.

Signs

of

hypothermia

include

uncontrollable

shaking,

very

……………………………….and difficulty thinking clearly. If untreated, hypothermia can

………………………………..

To avoid cold-related injuries, here is a simple way to remember

……………………………….to staying warm. Think of COLD -- C.O.L.D. The C stands for

cover. ……………………………….and scarf to keep heat from escaping through the head,

………………………………..

And wear mittens which are warmer than gloves. The O stands for overexertion.

……………………………….that will make you sweaty. Wet clothes and cold weather are a

……………………………….. L is for layers.

Wearing loose, lightweight clothes, one layer on top of another, is better than wearing a

……………………………….layer

of

clothing.

And

D

is

for

dry.

………………………………., stay as dry as possible.



37.



Avoiding Future Famines in Somalia

The humanitarian situation in Somalia …………………….. United Nations officials say the

improvement is the …………………….. of aid delivery, more rainfall and success against

militants.

Luca Alinovi is head of the United Nations …………………….. Organization for Somalia.

He says the …………………….. in a sustainable way.

But he says those gains are at risk if the …………………….. fails to support the Somali

people. He warns of a …………………….. to conditions like those in 2011. That was when a

famine …………………….. was declared in parts of Somalia.

Many people died. Many others walked for weeks to reach areas with ……………………...

Luca Alinovi says the FAO used cash-based interventions to help during the famine and the

…………………….. after it.

He says the aid …………………….. urged Somalis to stay where they were. Earlier

interventions, he says, were based more on simply …………………….., shelter and other

basic needs. Twenty twelve was a good year for rainfall in Somalia. ……………………..

cross the country.

So, irrigation can be used in a lot of areas. Luca Alinovi says …………………….. in

irrigation could increase agricultural production to …………………….. of more than half of

Somalia.

Another issue affecting the humanitarian situation has been the …………………….. against

the militant group al Shabab. Forces from the African Union, known as AMISOM,

…………………….. those from the Somali government and Kenya have driven militants

from many areas.

But, Luca Alinovi says many …………………….. remain under al-Shabab's control and the

military ……………………...



38.



China's Air Pollutio

China has been struggling to ………………….. record levels of smog over Beijing. Recently,

officials in several Chinese cities ………………….. to trade carbon credits as a way to

reduce …………………...

For many years, China considered ………………….. more important than the environment.

The nation ………………….. for energy. But it has also become the world's

………………….. of carbon gasses.

Beijing's smoggy days have made …………………... Small particles in the air reduce

visibility and threaten …………………... Smog has been a concern in the city for years.

But a ………………….. in pollution levels in January ………………….. sharp criticism

from many Chinese. Pollution from coal-burning ………………….. and factories is a big

part of the problem.

Now, officials hope to ………………….. pollution by creating systems to trade carbon

credits. The ………………….., or platforms, would enable companies to …………………..

for lowering greenhouse gas emissions.



The credits can then be traded. ………………….. of these market-based platforms is to get

businesses to invest in …………………... Markets for carbon credits …………………..

open this year in seven cities, including Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.

Officials say the government has ………………….. with pilot programs because carbon

trading is something new. China ………………….. a national carbon trading program by

2016.

Still, public pressure continues building on the government to ………………….. to thick air

pollution. Wu Changhua is with The …………………... She says the Chinese people are

looking at more than jobs. They want a ………………….. too.



39.



Building Machines With Human-Like Senses

Every year, IBM ………………….. five new technologies that the company believes will

………………….. within the next five years.

The list is called "5 in 5." IBM says it considers its ………………….. and the new directions

of ………………….. when identifying the technologies.

This year, ………………….. devices that will extend our five senses. Imagine

………………….. online and touching your computer or smartphone to feel the cloth. IBM's

………………….. of innovation, Bernie Meyerson, says this technology could be

………………….. in the next five years.

Touch is just one of the senses that technology will …………………... IBM says smart

machines will soon be able to listen to the ………………….. and give us information about

the sounds they hear.

For example, Bernie Meyerson says an ………………….. recognition system will tell new

parents why their baby is crying. Smart machines will also help identify …………………...

If you sneeze on your computer or cell phone, the device will study the molecules that came

out of …………………...

It will then tell you whether you need to …………………... Another prediction is that

computers will be better able to not just ………………….. but understand what they show

and act on that information.

Bernie Meyerson says IBM scientists are also developing a computer system that can

………………….. and combine molecules to create the most popular …………………...

Mark Maloof is a computer scientist at Georgetown University.

He says it will be e………………….. to see what young people will do with the mobile

technology, ………………….. and computing power of tomorrow.



40.



Ideas for Climate-Friendly Food Production

.…………………. produces a lot of the greenhouse gasses that scientists link to

…………………. and climate change. Agriculture can also be …………………. of climate

change.

A new report says high temperatures and …………………. are disrupting agriculture in

many parts of the world. The report is called "Innovations in Sustainable Agriculture:

Supporting Climate-Friendly ………………….."



The Worldwatch Institute in Washington …………………. it. The report suggests ways that

the agriculture industry could …………………. on the environment. Danielle Nierenberg

was one of the report's authors.

She says industrial agriculture uses a lot of fossil fuels. She says the chemicals used in

fertilizers, pesticides and …………………. depend on fossil fuels. Danielle Nierenberg says

animal production has an especially big effect on the environment.

She notes that the …………………. being eaten in countries like Brazil, China and India is

growing. …………………., more industrial animal facilities or factory farms are being built

in the developing world. Those …………………. need fossil fuels to operate.

They also require …………………. transportation. She said all those things can

…………………. to climate change. The report …………………. six land and water use

practices that it says are sustainable.

These include growing trees on …………………. to reduce soil erosion and planting cover

…………………. to make soil less affected by drought, heat and pests.

Other recommended practices include recycling …………………., drip irrigation, and

replacing chemical with natural fertilizer.



41.



EU Countries Agree on Financial Framework

European Union countries have struggled to …………………… ground as they tried to work

out a …………………… in Belgium. But this month, they agreed on the European Union's

multiannual …………………… framework, or MMF, for the …………………… from 2014

to 2020. The MMF sets the EU's …………………… at about $1.3 trillion.

That is one percent of the …………………… of the EU.Members agreed to reduce

…………………… by more than three percent for the period. This is the first time that

members have accepted ……………………. European Council President Herman Van

Rompuy spoke after the agreement …………………….

He said the compromise budget might not ……………………. But, he said, it should help all

EU members.German Chancellor Angela Merkel praised the ……………………. She said

the agreement makes …………………… more predictable and enables members to act in

Europe's …………………….

Some EU leaders have been …………………… greater spending controls in their home

countries. They wanted the EU to show that it too is willing to cut costs.British

…………………… David Cameron welcomed the agreement. Before the two-day meeting in

Brussels, he had …………………… to veto the budget, if there were no steps toward

……………………. But the agreement still might not …………………….

The European parliament must ……………………. And some members of the parliament

say it fails to …………………… many problems like the sharp differences in wealth

between …………………… people. If the measure is approved, it will ……………………

28 European Union countries. The EU says Croatia is expected to …………………… in

July.



42.



Training Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia

The Ethiopian government and the United Nations ..................................., or UNDP, have

launched a three-year program. They................................... more than 200,000 entrepreneurs.

Government and UNDP officials say the businesses ................................... by these men and

women could create more than 1 million jobs in Ethiopia.

The country's minister of urban ..................................., Mekuria Haile, says Ethiopians need

to change their way of thinking. He says that ................................... looking for jobs, people

need to become................................... entrepreneurs who create jobs.

The Ethiopian government and the UNDP are interested in people wanting to set

up ...................................-sized companies. The development program is expected to cost $26

million dollars. So far, the UNDP................................... $6 million.

The program is based on four ...................................: institutional development,

entrepreneurship training, business development .................................... Eugene Owusu

works in Ethiopia for the UNDP.

He says more needs to be done to ...................................bureaucratic rules and increase access

to credit in the country. Ethiopia has one of the world's ................................... economies.

But it is 174th on the UNDP's Human Development Index. Human development

has ................................... in Ethiopia during the past 20 years. But almost one third of the

people ....................................

And the need for jobs and economic growth is urgent. In Africa,

Ethiopia's ................................... is second only to Nigeria. And Prime Minister Hailemariam

Desalegn says a majority of the country is ................................... of 25.



43.



How an Allowance Helps Children Learn About Money

Many children first learn the ....................... of money by receiving an allowance. The

purpose is to let children learn from experience at an age when financial

.......................are not very ........................ The amount of money that parents give to their

children to spend as they wish .......................from family to family.

Timing is another ........................ Some children get a weekly allowance. Others get a

monthly allowance. In ......................., parents should make clear what, if anything, the child

is expected to pay for with the money.

At first, young children may spend all of their allowance soon after they .......................it. If

they do this, they will learn the hard way that spending must be done within a

.......................Parents are usually ............... not to offer more money until the next

allowance.

The ....................... is to show young people that a budget .......................choices between

spending and saving. Older children may be .......................enough to save money for larger

costs,

like

clothing

or

.......................

Many people who have written on the ....................... of allowances say it is not a good idea

to pay your child for work around the home. These jobs are a .......................part of family

life. Paying children to do .......................around the house, however, can be useful. It can

even

.......................

an

understanding

of

how

a

business

works.

Allowances give children a ....................... to experience the things they can do with money.



They can ....................... it in the form of gifts or giving to a good cause. They can spend it by

buying things they want. Or they can save and maybe even ........................ Saving helps

children understand that costly .......................require sacrifice: you have to cut costs and plan

for

the

.......................

Requiring children to save part of their allowance can also open the door to future saving and

investing. Many banks .......................services to help children and teenagers learn about

personal ........................ A savings account is an excellent way to learn about

the ....................... of compound interest. Compounding works by paying interest

on

.......................

So, for ......................., one dollar invested at two percent interest for two years will earn two

cents in the first year. The second year, the money will ....................... two percent of one

dollar and two cents, and so on. That may not ....................... like a lot. But over time it adds

up.



44.



In England, a Hotel for Chickens

More and more British people are ..........................their own chickens. But these chicken

owners have a ..........................: what to do with their chickens when they go

on ........................... A woman named Julie Smith has .......................... their prayers.

She has opened a chicken hotel in the English countryside to .......................... the birds when

their owners are ...........................Julie Smith named her hotel the Fowlty Towers. The name

is a .......................... on words from the British television .......................... about a hotel

called Fawlty Towers.

But Julie's hotel houses fowl, or chickens. And she wants to ..........................they have a

wonderful stay. She gives them lots of individual ..........................and feeds them

fresh .......................... every day.

She .......................... the eggs they lay, and gives them to their owners when

they ........................... She even takes the chickens for walks in her hen stroller. England has

faced ..........................times during the global ...........................

Julie Smith ..........................that she has been able to develop a business around

her ........................... Her specialized business has done well. She has thirteen chickens of her

own. They are .......................... hens.

That means she uses the eggs and sells them. Also, she knows she is providing a service for

her ........................... Now clients even come to her from outside the .......................... of Kent

where she lives, in .......................... England.

Recently she kept a woman's hens when she went into the .......................... to have a baby. At

night, the chickens stay in hen houses. But during the day they can free-range in

a ........................... But, Julie Smith only takes hens, which are ..........................birds. No

male birds are ..........................



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