Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
Car Index' as a Measure of Economic Progress for Middle Class

Car Index' as a Measure of Economic Progress for Middle Class

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

But a little known economic ....................... is beginning to gain acceptance. The so-called

"car index" is an ....................... to measure the world's middle class .......................the number

of

people

who

.......................

cars.

Experts say that the number of people who own cars in the developing world

is ....................... increasing. That is because there are about 70 countries with

a .......................of about 3 billion people who are quickly ....................... an

important

.......................

level:

$4,000

per

person.

Experts say when that level is ......................., a country's middle class increases very quickly.

This rise in ....................... income means greater demand for goods that are .......................

non-essential.

And many of these goods are ....................... in Japan, Germany and the United States. The

International Monetary Fund says .......................spending in developed nations

has

.......................

since

the

economic

.......................of

2008.

The fund's .......................director, Christine Lagarde, points to the .......................in Europe

and problems in the United States economy as threats to ........................ Growth could be

slower

than

the

IMF

had

.......................

earlier

in

the

year.

On the other hand, .......................show consumer spending in developing countries has

increased three times ....................... than in developed economies.



5.



Students Try to Cut Federal Budget in Online Game

Some people think of politics as a game. But an online game ............................people think of

themselves doing one of the ............................in American politics: cutting the

federal ............................. The game is called Budget Hero.

Students in Los Angeles and other cities have been playing it. Budget Hero lets

them ............................ how they want to spend federal tax dollars. The game uses

information from the Congressional Budget Office.

It shows what ............................each cost-cutting proposal would have. High school student

Dory Bennett says she thinks spending cuts are needed to keep the economy growing and

keep the American ............................

"I want to grow up, go to college, get ............................, have kids maybe, a dog and a

house." The students ............................ the same issues facing lawmakers in Washington. The

game was developed in two thousand eight.

In the newest ............................, students make decisions about what spending is important to

them. Do they want to ............................? Spend more on environmental ............................?

What about defense spending? Making these decisions helps clarify their ............................

Jane Harmon is a ............................ Democratic representative from California.

She ............................ in Congress for almost twenty years. She now heads the Woodrow

Wilson Center for International Scholars, which helped ............................ Budget Hero.

Ms. Harmon says the students are having more ............................ than Congress at cutting the

budget. More than one million people have played it ............................, she says, and she

thinks they have learned ............................two things: "One, how hard it is, but two, that it

can be done if there's a will to do it." Student Jeffrey Burke agrees.

“The hardest thing for us to ............................was the little cuts like the gas money and stuff,

increasing taxes on gas, because we felt it would have effects everywhere from



the ............................shipping our stuff across the country, or when you order from Amazon

or whatever, to you drive when you're going to work.

I think we need to look at the little things and ............................ that just because they're

small money doesn't mean they're small effects. "Joaquin Alvarado is with

American ............................ Media, an organization that also helped ............................ the

game.

He says many of the players "will literally in the ............................ ask that Congress play this

game to just get a little rational around the questions that have to be answered."



6.



Some Websites Judge You by the Kind of Computer You Use

Recently the Wall Street Journal had a report about the ............................ company Orbitz.

The newspaper said Orbitz shows Mac users ............................ travel choices at the top of

search ............................ than users of Windows.

The company began doing this after research ............................ that people who use Mac

computers spend up ............................ more for hotels than people with PCs. Former Orbitz

employee Cameron Yuill is ............................ of a digital media and technology company

called AdGent. He says, "Mac users ............................ to be more affluent than PC users, so

why not ............................ them with the messages that are going to resonate with them?"

This kind of price discrimination is also known as dynamic pricing. Cameron Yuill says it is a

very common ............................, especially in the travel industry. He puts it this way, "Next

time you're on a ........., ask the person next to you what they paid for their .................

" For example, if you are a business traveler or you bought your ticket at

the ............................, you will always get charged more. Companies have

always ................... information about their customers. But now they have a lot more ways to

do it.

Eric Martin is a ............................ at Boost Partners, a management ............................

company. He says a salesperson in a store can only ............................ certain things about you

based on your ............................. Online sellers, however, have far more information to work

with, ............................ information about which website ................... you to them.

Eric Martin says, "The people that you ............................ you online can't see you at all

physically. But they know that, ............................, when you came to Orbitz you may have

been directed there by Kayak." Kayak is itself a ............................ site, and that may then lead

Orbitz to believe that you're searching for .............................

Information about the referring site is only one of the things that a site like Orbitz will

consider. Is the person a ............................? Which hotels has this person viewed in the past?

Websites ............................ this kind of information by placing small files known as cookies

on a person's computer.

In the case of Orbitz, Mac and PC users were actually given the ............................. However,

they appeared in different ............................. For Mac users, the higher-priced hotels showed

up higher in the ............................. Orbitz says ninety percent of its users book a hotel

that ............................ on the first page, and mostly in the ............................ listings.



7.



The World at 7 Billion, and Growing

United Nations ....................... that the world reached ....................... people on October

thirty-first. No one can be sure. The United States Census Bureau does not ....................... the

seven billionth baby until ........................

....................... are growing faster than economies in many poor countries in Africa and some

in Asia. At the same time, low fertility ....................... in Japan and many European nations

have raised ....................... about labor shortages.

Population experts at the United Nations estimated that the world reached ....................... in

October ........................ They predict nine billion by ....................... and ten billion by the end

of

the

century.

China's population of one and a third billion is ....................... the world's largest. India is

second at 1.2 billion. But India is expected to ....................... China and reach one and a half

billion

people

around

........................

India will also have one of the world's ....................... populations. Economists say this is a

chance for a so-called demographic dividend. India could ....................... from the skills of

young people in a growing economy at a time when other countries have ........ populations.

But economists say ....................... of economic growth, although high, may

not ....................... enough jobs. Also, ....................... education system is failing to

meet ....................... and schooling is often of poor quality. Another concern

is

........................

Nearly half of India's children under the age of five are malnourished. Sarah Crowe at the

United Nations Children's ....................... in New Delhi says these two problems "could keep

India back." The malnourishment ....................... many children are unable to grow to

their ....................... in school, and later to earn money and pay into the economy.

Out of every two hundred million children who start school, she says, only ten

percent ....................... grade twelve. Michal Rutkowski is the director of .......................

development in ....................... at the World Bank. He says the seven billionth person was

likely

to

be

a

girl

born

in

.......................

Uttar

Pradesh.

Uttar Pradesh is one of India's ....................... and most crowded states, with .......................

two hundred million people. He says reaching seven billion people in the world is a good

time for a call to ........................ He says, "Public policy needs to become really,

really ....................... about gender equality and about ....................... to services.



8.



Breastfeeding in the First Hour After Birth

Sometimes ............................ taken at the right time can do a lot of good. A new report says

more than 800,000 babies could ................each year if all mothers begin breastfeeding within

the first hour after giving birth. Save the Children ............................ the report.

It calls breastfeeding one of the best ways to ............................ malnutrition. Hunger is

a ............................ killer of children under the age of five. Carolyn Miles is ............................

of Save the Children. She ............................ that getting mothers to start breastfeeding can

sometimes be the ............................

.The first milk from mothers is called colostrum. This is a highly ............................ form of

breast milk. Colostrum helps build the baby's ............................ system and works best in the

first hours after a mother ............................



Colostrum is ............................, sticky breast milk. The World Health Organization calls it the

" ............................ food for the newborn." Save the Children ............................ it as a child's

"first immunization." But Carolyn Miles says, in some ............................, there is a

mistaken ............................ that colostrum is dangerous.

She says mothers in a lot of places around the world ............................ the colostrum. The

World Health Organization says mothers should ............................ their babies only breast

milk for the ............................

Carolyn Miles says babies do not need anything else. After six months, the WHO says

breastfeeding should continue .............other foods up to two years of age or beyond.

The Save the Children report, called " ............................ for Babies," ............................

barriers to breastfeeding. These ............................ cultural beliefs as well as

a ............................ health workers in developing countries.

Carolyn Miles says health workers, with ............................, can help mothers start and

continue to breastfeed.



9.



As the World Ages, Economies Will Change

The world is getting older. As more people ........................ each year, fewer

.......................people will be there to ....................... them. This has effects not only in

the ......................., but in the world of finance.

The bond rating ....................... Moody’s says the aging ....................... will lead to a drop in

household ....................... This could mean that total investments will fall and .......................

could slow.

Some reports have ....................... Japan, Italy and Germany as the world’s “Super

Aged” ........................ That is the name for countries in which .......................of the

population is at least 65 years old.

Elena Duggar is ....................... of Moody’s Sovereign Risk Division. She says changes in

many populations are .......................quickly. In five years, six more countries

will ....................... the list of super-aged nations.

And 34 nations will be super-aged by the year 2030. Elena Duggar says this will have a

big ....................... on labor and savings. Kishore Kulkarni is with the

Metropolitan ....................... University of Denver.

He says .......................n is one way to reduce the ....................... of an aging population.

Older ....................... spend money differently that younger ones and experts say that

difference ....................... the economies of countries.

But, Kishore Kulkarni believes that ....................... career training and

productivity ....................... from technology could .......................for the drop in the number

of workers. He also says that an aging population will be less of a problem in countries were

older people are highly .......................

And most ....................... agree that young workers will have to .......................and retire later

than today’s older workers.



10.



Africa Could Lose 30 Percent of Its Plants and Animals by 2100

............................ researchers met ........................... in Cameroon to talk about threats to

Africa’s land and animals. They said they believe the continent may ........................... as

much as ...............of its animal and plant species by the end of this ......................

They blame the losses on the ........................... of the Earth, ........................... growth

and ........................... development.The researchers represent 20 African, American and

European universities. They say countries south of the Saharan ........................... are

losing ........................... faster than any place on ...........................

Wood companies are ...........................trees to meet growing ........................... from China,

Europe and the United States. The population is growing three percent each year.

There are now homes, ...........................and farms on land that once was forest. Many African

animals and plants ...........................have a place to live as a ............................ Climate

change also continues to ...........................species.

Thomas Smith is with the University of California. He says Africa may lose 40 percent of

its ........................... species because of expected rises in ............................ The African

chimpanzee is among the mammals ............................

Mary Katherine Gonder is a ........................... at Drexel University in Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania. She ........................... chimpanzees in the Congo Basin. She says their forest

home is ............................

She also says ...........................continue to kill the animals to ........................... as food. The

researchers say it is important to develop ........................... friendly economies.

The Congo Basin area of ........................... and central Africa has the second-largest

equatorial ...........................in the world. It is important to the lives of millions of people.



11.



Turn Negative Writing Experiences Into Positive Ones

Today we hear expert ............................. for academic writing. Jennifer Ahern-Dodson is

an ............................. professor of the Practice in Writing Studies at Duke University

in ............................. Carolina.

Ms. Ahern-Dodson likes to start a ............................. with both students and professors

planning to write a paper or .............................. She asks about their earlier

writing .............................. Were they negative or positive?

She says you are not ............................. if you have had problems with your writing.

Everyone ............................. with writing. "Writing is hard. It's hard for all

writers .............................," she says.

And at some point you are going to ............................. a roadblock," she adds.

She ............................. to think about earlier experiences. When the writing is going well,

what was happening? When the writing was not ............................., what was happening?

She says most people's negative writing experiences happened

very ............................. formula or page limit was .............................



because



a



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Car Index' as a Measure of Economic Progress for Middle Class

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×