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3 CO[sub(2)] Storage Capacity and Injectivity

3 CO[sub(2)] Storage Capacity and Injectivity

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520



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



chemistry of, 430–434, 431f, 432f

for climate change and mitigation,

435–437, 436t

composition of, 421–422

concerns related to, 443–446

crop productivity enhancement and,

439–440

explanation of, 421, 423

physical properties of, 430

production techniques and, 427–430

property optimization and, 434–435

research needs for, 446

soil quality improvement and, 437–

438, 444–446

sustainability and, 441–442

transformation principle and, 425–

427, 426f

biodiversity, soil C dynamics and, 79

biofuels

algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration and

production of, 353–355,

354f

carbon neutral, 210–211

production techniques for, 427

biological carbon pump (BCP), 457,

458

biological conversion of CO2, to fuel,

201–203, 202f

biological technologies

advanced biological processes for

CCS, 87–95, 94f

background of, 11, 65–66, 115, 319

biological processes for carbon

capture, 66–76, 67f, 69f

biological processes for CO2

sequestration, 76–87, 83f

biotic versus abiotic CCS, 95–96

carbon capture and, 11

summary, 96–98

biomass/biomass materials

agricultural and cropland residues,

312–313

carbon capture from, 67–72, 67f, 69f



energy crops, 311–312, 312t

explanation of, 309–310

food waste, 313

material categories, 310, 310t

wood and, 310–311, 310t

biomass burning, 77

biotic CCS, abiotic CCS vs., 95–96

biotic communities, 319–320

biotic sequestration

explanation of, 76

microbial processes, 81–87, 83f

ocean, 76–77

soil, 77–81

bisphenol-based engineering polymers,

204

black carbon. See biochar/biochar

technology

brine, 293

BSCSP Kevin Dome Phase III

Development Test, 184–185

cap-and-trade policy, 509, 510t, 511t

capital investment, as CCS barrier, 17–

18, 18f

capture ready plants, 22

carbonaceous materials, as CO2

scrubbers, 251–252

carbonate-based CO2 absorption

systems, 43

carbonate mineral dissolution, 120–121

in ocean, 460–461

carbon-based energy, 7

carbon burial techniques

biomass, 309–313, 310t, 312t

carbon capture and storage of

industrial CO2, 304–309,

305t, 306f–308f (See also

carbon capture and storage

(CCS))

organic wastes, 313–319, 316t

carbon capture

biological processes for, 66–76, 67f,

69f, 113

from biomass, 67–72, 67f, 69f



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



from concentrated sources, 54–57,

54f–56f

conclusions on, 59–60

from mobile sources and

atmosphere, 58–59

from other point and non-point

sources, 57–59, 58t

by photosynthetic microorganisms,

72–76

for various sources, 53

carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

biochar and, 422–423, 434 (See also

biochar/biochar technology)

function of, 339–340

life cycle stages and risk

management of, 164–166,

164f, 166f, 166t, 167t

regulatory framework and, 163–164

carbon capture and sequestration

(biological technologies) (CCS)

advanced, 87–95, 94f

algae-based, 339–359, 341f, 344t,

351f, 351t, 354f

background of, 11, 65–66

biological processes for carbon

capture, 66–76, 67f, 69f

biological processes for CO2

sequestration, 76–87, 83f

biotic versus abiotic, 95–96

summary, 96–98

carbon capture and sequestration

(physical/chemical

technologies) (CCS)

background of, 37–38, 39f, 113

chemical-looping combustion, 53

from concentrated sources, 54–57,

54f–56f

conclusions on, 59–60

cryogenic distillation, 51–52, 52f

enzyme-based system, 52–53

ionic liquids, 52

from other point and non-point

sources, 57–59, 58t



521



separation with membranes, 47–51,

48f

separation with solvents, 38, 40–44,

40f

separation with sorbents, 44–47, 45f

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

alternative biological technologies

for, 11, 11t

background of, 7–8

complex value chain related to, 20

conclusions related to, 515–516

economic issues related to, 500–502,

501t–503t, 503f (See also

economic issues)

in European Union, 15–17, 505–

507, 508t

function of, 1, 8, 217

industrial CO2 and, 304–309, 305t,

306f–308f

legal and regulatory issues related

to, 26–28, 504–511, 505t–

508t, 510t, 511t, 515

project deploymentand, 16–17

public concerns related to, 499–500

public health and environmental

risks of, 26

public perceptions of, 28–31, 29t,

30f, 511–512

public safety and support and, 20–21

social acceptability issues related to,

511–513, 515

system maturity aspects and, 14–15,

15f

technical issues related to, 513, 514t

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

barriers

complex value chain and, 20

high capital investment and, 17–18,

18f

overview of, 17

policy options and, 18–19

public safety and support and, 20–21



522



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



regulation and technical

performance uncertainties

and, 1

carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs

capital investment and, 17–18, 18f

implementation costs as, 21–24, 22f

policy options and, 18–19

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

issues

health, safety and environmental

risks as, 24–26

implementation costs as, 21–24, 22f

carbon capture and storage (CCS)

technologies

CO2 capture and, 9, 10f, 11, 11t

CO2 storage and, 12–14

CO2 transport and, 11–12

current status of, 14–17, 15f, 15t,

16t

issues related to, 513, 514t

public perception of, 28–31, 29t,

30f, 511–512

carbon capture toolbox, 57, 58t

carbon cycle, 340–342, 341f

carbon dioxide (CO2)

commercial applications for, 196

direct measurement of, 175–177,

176t

enzymatic sequestration of, 401–

413, 403t, 404f, 410f

from fossil fuel combustion, 221t

global temperature and, 113

health, safety and environmental

issues related to, 24–26

photocatalytic reduction of, 200–201

regulation of, 25

carbonic anhydrase (CA), 52–53

engineered escherichia coli with

periplasmic, 89–91

research on, 138

carbonic anhydrase enzymes for bioCCS

background of, 87–89



engineered escherichia coli with

periplasmic carbonic

anhydrase and, 89–91

low-cost biocatalyst and, 91–93

carbon-negative energy system

technology, 69–72, 69f

biochar and, 440–441

carbon reuses

background of, 195–196

chemical conversion to fuel and,

198–201, 200t

as fuel, 197–203, 198f, 200t, 202f

low carbon economy and, 207–211,

208f, 210f

as plastic, 203–207

statistics related to, 195

carbon sequestration. See also specific

forms of carbon sequestration

background of, 113

biochar for, 443–444 (See also

biochar/biochar technology)

future trends and, 144–146

geological, 126–134

leakage in different GCS reservoirs

and related processes, 139–

142

methods of, 113, 114f, 115, 281–

281–284

ocean, 115–126

potential risks and adverse effects of

leakage and, 142–143

terrestrial, 134–139

carbon sequestration by mineral

carbonation

background of, 281–284

benefits of, 296–297

categories of processes by, 288–294,

289f, 290f, 293f

mineral choice and, 284–287, 285t

pre-treatment and, 287–288

process thermodynamics and, 287,

287f

research on, 297–298



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



techno-economic and environmental

evaluation of, 295–296

carbon sequestration (GCS)

life-cycle risk management and,

143–144, 145t

monitoring and verification

techniques for, 143–144

Carbon Sequestration Regional

Partnerships, 66

carbon tax, 509, 510t, 511t

carbon zero experimental biochar kiln,

427–428

CCS. See carbon capture and

sequestration (CCS); carbon

capture and storage (CCS) and

related entries

C4 plants

genetic engineering to increase,

378–384, 379t, 382f, 383f,

385f, 386–387

increase in, 382–384, 383f, 385f,

386–387

chemical absorption. See also CO2

scrubbing technologies

amine absorption, 40–41

aqueous ammonia, 41–42

carbonate-based systems, 43

explanation of, 40

modified Solvey process, 42

chemical conversion of CO2, to fuel,

198–201, 200t

chemical-looping combustion (CLC),

53

chemical technologies. See

physical/chemical technologies

chemical trapping, in geological

formations, 127

chilled-ammonia process, 259–260

climate change

biochar technology to combat, 435–

437, 436t

current technology options for

mitigation of, 8

human activities resulting in, 303



523



soil carbon and, 323–325, 324t, 325f

CO2 absorption

chemical, 40–43

physical, 43–44

solvents used for, 38, 40, 240

coal beds, storage in unmineable, 481

coal-fired power plants

carbon dioxide drying and

compression for, 226–227,

227t

CO2 capture technologies for, 218–

222, 219t, 219t–221t

oxy-fuel technologies for, 224–226

post-combustion technologies for,

219–222, 220t, 221t

pre-combustion technologies for,

222–224

coal-powered electricity industry. See

CO2 capture technologies

CO2 binding, in marine environment,

14

CO2 capture

challenges of, 239

chilled ammonia processes for, 259–

260

explanation of, 9, 10f, 11, 11t

CO2 capture technologies

background of, 217–218

categories of, 218, 233

for coal-fired power plants, 218–

222, 219t–221t

drying, conditioning and

compression and, 226–227,

227t

implementation of, 231–232, 232f

new technologies for, 232, 233t

oxy-fuel, 224–226

pre-combustion, 222–224

sorption-based, 227–231, 228t, 230t

CO2 dehydration, techniques for, 226–

227

CO2 emissions

adverse effects of, 211



524



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



forestry activities to mitigate, 369–

370 (See also

photosynthesis)

by industry, 304, 305t

need for immediate action to reduce,

303–304

statistics for, 195

trends in, 37–38, 281

CO2 injection

analysis of, 482

direct, 118–121

in ocean, 123–125, 458–460

composting

as carbon burial option, 316–318,

316t

landfills vs, 318–319

conservation tillage, 79–80

CO2 resistant cements, 491

CO2 scrubbing technologies

advantages and disadvantages of,

241–242

cost information for, 261–262

future outlook for, 265–266

historical background of, 255–256

in industrial plants, 256–260, 257t

liquids and, 242–248, 243f, 247f

miscellaneous materials and, 254–

255

overview of, 239–241, 240f

research in, 262–265, 263f

solids and, 248–254

CO2 sink project (Germany), 13–14

CO2 sinks, capacity of, 115, 115t

CO2 storage

deep saline aquifer, 132, 481

effectiveness of, 27

in geological formations, 128–129

liabilities related to, 20

methods for, 12–14

oil and gas reservoir, 480

in oil and gas reservoirs, 129

in sedimentary rocks, 132

site capacity and, 479–480

unmineable coal beds, 481



CO2 stream specifications, 227, 227t

CO2 transport, methods for, 11–12,

492–493

cover crops, 80

microbial biomass and, 86–87

CQUESTRA model, 488

cropland residues, 312–313

crop productivity, biochar and, 439–

440, 444–446

crop rotation, 82–84, 83f

cross-well electromagnetic (EM)

method, 174–175

cryogenic distillation, 51–52, 52f

cyanobacteria, 74–76, 463

deep saline aquifers, 132, 481, 493

deforestation. see also reforestation

best management practices for, 373–

375

causes of, 371–372

economic issues in, 375

effects of, 372–373

explanation of, 370–371

global, 371

dimethyl ether (DME), 199–200, 223

direct aqueous carbonation, 290

direct carbonation, 288, 289f

direct gas-solid carbonation, 288–289

direct measurement techniques, 175–

177, 176t

earth deformation techniques, 175

economic issues

algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration and, 356–357

biochar technology and, 441–442

CCS and, 17–19, 18f, 21–24, 22f,

500–502, 501t–503t, 503f

CO2 scrubbing technologies and,

261–262

geological carbon sequestration and,

133–134

ecosystem stress monitoring, 180–181

electrical monitoring methods, 174–175



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



electrical resistance tomography (ERT),

174, 175

electricity, costs issues related to, 19

electricity industry. See CO2 capture

technologies

electric vehicles, 209–210, 210f

energy crops, 311–312, 312t

enhanced coal-bed methane recovery

explanation of, 13

GCS with, 131–132

enhanced gas recovery (EGR)

explanation of, 13

GCS with, 130–131

enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, 12–14

enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

experience in, 26

explanation of, 12–13

enhanced soil carbon trapping

background of, 319

carbon and biological activities in

environments and, 319–320,

320f

conclusions about, 328–329

enhanced soil carbon sequestration

and, 325–328, 326t

soil environment, soil carbon and

climate change and, 320–

325, 321f, 324t, 325f

enzymatic sequestration

applications for, 409–410

background of, 401

carbon dioxide sequestration and,

404–409, 404f

carbonic anhydrase and, 402–403

CO2 reduction to formate and, 410–

411, 410f

CO2 reduction to methane and, 411

CO2 reduction to methanol and, 41

mineralization of CO2 via CaCO3

formation and, 401–402

technical limitations and future

outlook for, 412–413

enzyme-based systems, separation and,

52–53



525



enzymes, terrestrial carbon

sequestration by, 137–138

escherichia coli, 89–91

European Union (EU), 15–17, 505–507,

508t

eutrophication control, 355–356

facilitated transport membranes (FTM),

50–51

Feed-In-Tariffs (Germany), 19

feedstocks, biochar yield and, 423–425,

424f, 424t

fertilizer recovery, algae-based carbon

capture and sequestration and,

355–356

flow rate measurement, 177

fluid chemistry techniques, 178

food waste, 313

forests/forestry

best management practices and,

373–375

deforestation and, 370–376

economic options and, 375

reforestation and, 376–378

terrestrial carbon sequestration by,

136–137

voluntary approaches and, 375–387

forest soils, 81

fossil decarbonization

hydrogen production and, 209

low carbon economy options and,

207–208, 208f

fossil fuel consumption, 8, 59

fuels

biological conversion of CO2 to,

201–203, 202f

chemical conversion of CO2 to,

198–201, 200t

photochemical production of

synthetic, 200–201

production of carbon free or carbon

neutral, 209–211, 210f

gas absorption membranes, 48–49



526



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



gas separation membranes, 47f, 48–49

geological carbon sequestration (GCS)

background of, 475–476

basic requirements for, 128

CO2 injectivity and, 482

cost estimates for, 133–134

in deep saline aquifers, 132, 481

with enhanced coal methane

recovery, 131–132

with enhanced gas recovery, 130–

131

with enhanced oil recovery, 129–

130

function of, 126, 305–307, 306f

geochemical reactions at sites and,

126–127

leak potential in fresh water aquifer

and, 489

leak potential in saline aquifer and,

487–488, 493

mitigation strategies for sealing

geologically stored CO2

and, 490–492

modeling CO2 transport to

sequestration site and, 476–

479

monitoring and verification

techniques for, 133

in oil and gas reservoirs, 129

research on other options for, 133

in sedimentary rocks, 132

sink modeling and, 482–487, 484f,

485t

storage capacity of sites and, 479–

481

trapping mechanisms and, 127–128

trends in, 145

in various geological formations,

128–129

geological formations

chemical trapping in, 127

CO2 storage in, 128–129

hydrodynamic trapping in, 127

physical trapping in, 127



trapping mechanisms in, 127–128

geological storage of CO2

background of, 159–160

in coal seams, 162–163

in deep saline formations, 160–161

in depleted or nearly depleted

gas/oil reserves, 161–162,

162t

geophysical techniques, for detection of

subsurface CO2, 172–175, 173t

global warming potential (GWP)

CCS and, 24–25

effects of, 37

gravity recorders, 174

gravity surveys, 174

greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

algae-based carbon capture and

sequestration and, 350–352,

351t

carbon dioxide and, 217

carbon sequestration and, 113, 114f,

115, 369

CCS system and, 24–25

long-term solution to reduce, 7

need for immediate reduction of,

303–304

health issues, CO2 and, 24

hybrid membranes, 50

hydrodynamic trapping, in geological

formations, 127

hydrogen fueled vehicles, 210

hyperspectral imaging, 181

indirect carbonation, 290–291

industrial catalysts, carbon reuse and,

206–207

industrial plants, CO2 scrubbing

technologies in, 256–260, 257t

industry, CO2 emissions by, 304, 305t

inorganic membranes, 50

InSAR data, 175

integrated gasification combined cycle

(IGCC), 222–223



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC), 7, 37, 163, 239

International Organization for

Standardization (ISO), 163

ionic liquids

as CO2 scrubbers, 246–248, 247f

function of, 52

iron fertilization, ocean, 121–123, 125–

126, 462–464

ISO 14064, 163

ISO 14065, 163

Kyoto Protocol, 441, 506–507, 509

land, CO2 transport via, 12

landfills

as carbon burial option, 313–314

composting vs., 318–319

gases in, 315–316

sources of organic wastes in, 314–

315

leakage

in different GCS reservoirs and

related processes, 139–142

in fresh water aquifer, 489

potential risks and adverse effects

of, 142–143

in saline aquifer, 487–488, 493

seafloor, 180

legal/regulatory issues

CCS and, 163–164, 504

domestic framework for, 505–507,

506t, 507t

function of, 26–28

international law and regulations

and, 504, 505t, 508–509,

508t, 510t

uncertainties in, 19–20

life cycle stages, of CCS projects, 164–

166, 164f, 166f, 166t, 167t

liquid CO2 scrubbing technologies

amines, 242–243, 243f

aqueous ammonia, 245–246

ionic liquids, 246–248, 247f



527



sterically hindered amines, 244–245

lithium compounds, physical adsorption

and, 47

low-carbon economy

CCS and, 207, 503t

fossil decarbonization options and,

207–208, 208f

risk of CCS and, 209

macroalgae, 73–74

macronutrient fertilization, ocean, 464

metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as

CO2 scrubbers, 253–254

microalgae, 72–73, 97

microbial enhanced CCS, 93–95, 94f

microbial process for carbon

sequestration

background of, 81–82

crop rotations and, 82–84, 83f

organic farming and cover crops

and, 86–87

tillage and, 84–86

microorganisms, terrestrial carbon

sequestration by, 137–138

mineral carbonate, 133

mineral carbonation. See also carbon

sequestration by mineral

carbonation

background of, 281–284

benefits of CO2 sequestration by,

296–297

carbonation potential and, 286

categories of, 288–294, 289f, 290f,

293f

compared with other CO2

sequestration options, 284t

process thermodynamics and, 287,

287f

research on, 297–298

techno-economic and environmental

evaluation of, 295–296

mixed-matrix membranes, 50

modified Solvay process, 42



528



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



molecular sieves, physical adsorption

and, 46

monitoring, reporting and verification

(MRV) protocol

background of, 163

for carbon sequestration and, 143–

144

case studies in, 182–185

conclusions related to, 186–187

current issues and research needs

for, 185–186

for ecosystem stress, 180–181

function of, 25–26

general procedures of, 167–169,

168f

for geological carbon sequestration,

133

integration and analysis and, 181–

182

key monitoring techniques of, 169–

180, 170t, 173t, 176t, 179f

life cycle stages and risk

management and, 164–166,

164f, 166f, 166t, 167t

objectives of, 167

regulatory framework and guidance

for, 163–164

monitoring plan design, 168–169

monitoring tools, 170–171, 170t

monoethanolamine (MEA), 40–41

near-surface monitoring tools, 170

nutrient management, 80–81

nutrient mining, 78

ocean carbon sequestration (OCS)

background of, 455–457, 456t

carbonate mineral dissolution and,

460–461

concerns related to, 308–309

direct injection of CO2 for, 118–121

direct release of CO2 and, 458–460

function of, 76–77, 115–116, 307–

309



future perspectives on, 466–467

impact of, 123–125, 465–466

iron fertilization and, 121–123, 125–

126, 462–464

major mechanisms of, 457–458

ocean nourishment and, 461–464

principles of, 116–117

ocean nourishment

approaches to, 464

cyanobacteria and, 463

function of, 461–462

impact of experiments in, 125–126

iron, 121–123, 462–463

macronutrient, 464

sequestration by, 121–123

urea, 123, 463

oil and gas reservoirs, 480

olivine, 282–283

organic farming, 86–87

organic wastes

as carbon burial option, 313–319

composting, 316–319

landfills, 313–316, 318–319

oxy-fuel combustion systems

air-fired combustion vs., 225–226

energy penalties and, 22

explanation of, 9, 10f, 55–56, 55f

features, 224

use of, 224–225

patch fertilization, 464

periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, 89–91

pH effect

on algae, 344–345

carbon dioxide concentration and,

406–407

photobioreactors, 350

photocatalytic reduction, 200–203

photosynthesis. See also deforestation;

forests/forestry; reforestation

future trends in, 388–389

genetic engineering to increase C4

plants and, 378–384, 379t,

382f, 383f, 385f, 386–387



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



outlook for, 389–390

phytoplankton, 76, 320, 464

photosynthetic microorganisms, carbon

capture by, 72–76

pH-swing process, 291–292

physical absorption, 43

physical adsorption, 43–44

physical/chemical technologies

background of, 37–38, 39f, 113, 218

chemical-looping combustion, 53

for CO2 capture, 218, 219t

from concentrated sources, 54–57,

54f–56f

conclusions on, 59–60

cryogenic distillation, 51–52, 52f

enzyme-based system, 52–53

ionic liquids, 52

from other point and non-point

sources, 57–59, 58t

separation with membranes, 47–51,

48f

separation with solvents, 38, 40–44,

40f

separation with sorbents, 44–47, 45f

physical pump, ocean sequestration

and, 457, 458

physical trapping, in geological

formations, 127

phytoplankton photosynthesis, 76, 320,

464

pipes

offshore, 479

system design, 477–478

transport models, 477, 492–493

pipline transport, 11–12

plastic, carbon reuse as, 203–207

polyethylene glycol, 223

polymeric membranes, 49–50

post-combustion capture

for coal-fired power plants, 219–

222, 220t, 221t

energy penalties and, 22

explanation of, 9, 10f, 56–57, 56f

pre-combustion capture



529



for coal-fired power plants, 222–224

energy penalties and, 22–23

explanation of, 9, 10f, 54, 54f

pressure measurement, 177–178

propylene carbonate, 44

public perceptions, 28–31, 29t, 30f,

511–512

Purisol technology, 223

pyrolysis process, 425–427, 426t, 433,

440, 441

Rectisol technology, 43–44, 223–224

reforestation. See also deforestation

benefits of, 376–378

regulatory issues. See legal/regulatory

issues

Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS),

19

retrofitting, 22

reuses. See carbon reuses

RuBisCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate

carboxylase/oxygenase), 378–

383, 386–387

RuBP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate), 378–

380

salt cavern storage, 133

SECARB Phase III "early test" at

Cranfield Field, 182–184

seismic monitoring methods, 172–174

Selexol technology, 43–44, 223

separation with membranes

explanation of, 47–48

gas separation membranes and, 47f,

48–49

membranes types and, 49–51

separation with solvents

chemical absorption and, 40–43

explanation of, 38, 40, 40f

physical absorption and, 43–44

separation with sorbents

physical adsorption and, 44–45, 45f

physical adsorption -based

applications and, 46–47



530



CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE



sequestration. See carbon capture and

sequestration (CCS)

shipping, CO2 transport via, 12

ship transport, 479

sink modeling, geological carbon

sequestration and, 482–487,

484f, 485t

soil

biochar in, 422–423, 437–438, 444–

446

formation of, 321–322

layers of, 320–321, 321f

properties of, 322

soil carbon. See also biochar/biochar

technology

climate change and, 323–325, 324t,

325f

explanation of, 323

soil carbon sequestration. See also

biochar/biochar technology

arid regions and, 328

explanation of, 325–326, 326t

no-till farming and, 326–327

organic manures and, 327

single culture cropping and, 328

soil nutrients and, 327

soil gas flux measurements, 178–179

soil sequestration

background of, 77–79

conservation tillage and, 79–80

crop covers and, 80

forest soils and, 81

nutrient management and, 80–81

solid CO2 scrubbing technologies

amine sorbents, 254–255

carbonaceous, 251–252

carbonate-based, 255

function of, 248–249

metal-based, 249–251

metal-organic frameworks as, 253–

254

silicon-containing, 252–253

zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as,

255



solid sorbents, CO2 scrubbing and, 260

sorption-based CO2 capture

technologies

function of, 227

liquid, 228–229

physical processes and, 227–228,

228t

solid, 229–230, 230t

stakeholder perceptions, 512–513

sterically hindered amines, 244–245

storage. See CO2 storage

subsurface monitoring

techniques for, 172–175, 173t

tools for, 170–171

synthetic fuels

future of, 211

photochemical production of, 200–

201

synthetic gas, 199

synthetic methanol, 199–200

temperature monitoring, 177

terra preta pot, 428–429

terrestrial carbon sequestration (TCS)

by agricultural management

practices, 134–135

explanation of, 134

by forests, 136–137

by microorganisms and enzymes,

137–138

trends in, 145–146

by wetlands, 135–136, 136t

tillage, 84–86

time-lapse 3D reflection surveys, 173

TOUCHREACT/ECO2, 484

TOUGH (Transport of Unsaturated

Groundwater and Heat), 484

trapping mechanisms, in geological

formations, 127–128

two barrel charcoal retort, 428

two barrel charcoal retort with

afterburner, 428



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3 CO[sub(2)] Storage Capacity and Injectivity

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