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Key to the Families, Based on Adults

Key to the Families, Based on Adults

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33. Key to the Families, Based on Adults



lation with clypeus thus narrower than full width of

labrum (Fig. 33-2b); labrum usually broader than long,

but in some parasitic forms (where scopa is absent)

labrum elongate; forewing with two or three submarginal

cells, rarely only one; scopa, when present, on hind leg,

particularly the tibia, and usually absent on metasomal

sterna .................................................... Apidae (Sec. 85)

3(1). Glossa pointed at apex, sometimes with flabellum...... 4

—. Glossa bluntly rounded, truncate, or bilobed at apex

(except pointed in males of three hylaeine genera from

Australia-New Guinea area); flabellum absent ................ 7

4(3). Lacinia represented by scalelike lobe with hairs near

base of galea (Fig. 33-1b, d); mentum and lorum forming proboscidial lobe (Figs. 33-3b-f, 33-4b), both at least

partly sclerotized; lorum not flat .................................... 5

—. Lacinia inconspicuous or displaced, not a scalelike lobe

at base of galea (Fig. 21-2a, b); mentum and lorum not

forming proboscidial lobe (Figs. 33-3h, i, 34-4a), mentum sometimes membranous; lorum membranous or

nearly flat sclerotized membrane (apron) between cardines (Figs. 33-3h, 33-4a) .............................................. 6

5(4). Lorum more or less platelike but produced in middle

for attachment to base of mentum; facial fovea present in

females (Fig. 33-2c) and some males, fovea sometimes a

groove rather than broad as in figure; subantennal area almost always defined by two subantennal sutures below



123



each antennal socket (Fig. 33-2c) ..................................

.......... Andreninae and Panurginae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 49)

—. Lorum slender, V-shaped or Y-shaped, as in L-T bees

(Fig. 33-1a); facial fovea absent; a single subantennal suture below each antennal socket (as in Fig. 33-2d) ........

.......................................................... Melittidae (Sec. 68)

6(4). Lacinia a small, hairless sclerite hidden between expanded stipites; subantennal area defined by two subantennal sutures below each antennal socket (as in Fig. 332c); stigma nearly absent; first flagellar segment as long

as scape or longer .......... Oxaeinae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 60)

—. Lacinia represented by small, hairy lobe on anterior surface of labiomaxillary tube above rest of maxilla (Fig. 212a); a single subantennal suture below each antennal

socket (Fig. 33-2d); stigma well developed; first flagellar

segment much shorter than scape ...... Halictidae (Sec. 61)

7(3). Apex of glossa bluntly rounded, without preapical

fringe or apical glossal lobes; episternal groove absent below scrobal groove; scopa present on hind tibia, but absent on femur ................................ Stenotritidae (Sec. 36)

—. Apex of glossa truncate to bilobed (except pointed in

males of three genera in Australia-New Guinea region);

episternal groove usually present below scrobal groove;

scopa, when present, well developed on hind femur as

well as tibia ........................................ Colletidae (Sec. 37)



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THE BEES OF THE WORLD



c

a

b



d



f



e



g



h



i



Figure 33-3. Diagrams of basal sclerites of labium, posterior views



(Halictidae). Abbreviations used here and in Figure 33-4 are: LA, lo-



of lorum, mentum, and basal part of prementum, extended and



ral apron; L, lorum; M, mentum; PM, prementum; F, basal fragmen-



arranged in a single plane, and lateral views of same sclerites in



tum of prementum; A, basal apodeme of prementum; S, area of lo-



more natural position. a, Anthophora occidentalis Cresson (Api-



rum lying against shaft of cardo, or in L-T and melittid bees, against



dae); b, Melitta leporina (Panzer) (Melittidae); c, Melitturga clavi-



apex of cardo. (Only the profiles of unsclerotized mentums or por-



cornis (Latreille) (Andrenidae); d, Panurgus calcaratus (Scopoli)



tions of mentums are shown, as dotted lines. Dots represent mem-



(Andrenidae); e, Pseudopanurgus aethiops (Cresson) (An-



brane. Dotted areas above lorums represent the membranous pos-



drenidae); f, Megandrena enceliae (Cockerell) (Andrenidae); g, An-



terior surface of the labiomaxillary tube, extending toward its



drena erythrogaster (Ashmead) (Andrenidae); h, Protoxaea glo-



attachment to the head.) From Michener, 1985a.



riosa (Fox) (Andrenidae); i, Lasioglossum calceatum (Scopoli)



33. Key to the Families, Based on adults



125



b



a



d



c



e



f



g



Figure 33-4. Diagrams of basal sclerites of labium, as explained for



subsericea Cockerell (Colletidae); f, Amphylaeus morosus (Smith)



Figure 33-3. a, Systropha curvicornis (Scopoli) (Halictidae); b, Lon-



(Colletidae); g, Ctenocolletes albomarginatus Michener (Stenotriti-



chopria herbsti Vachal (Colletidae); c, Colletes inaequalis Say (Col-



dae). (For abbreviations, see legend, Fig. 33-3.) From Michener,



letidae); d, Caupolicana hirsuta Spinola (Colletidae); e, Euryglossa



1985a.



34. Notes on Certain Couplets in the Key to Families

(Section 33)

Couplet 1. See Section 19 for illustrations of variation in

these characters. Some L-T bees do not agree with the

statement on the labial palpus. In some subgenera of

Chelostoma (a small, slender, holarctic megachilid), the

third segment (as well as the first two) is broad; it is rather

rigidly attached to the second, only one segment being

nonflattened. In certain African and Malagasy social parasites in the Allodapini, the last two segments of the labial

palpus do not contrast with the first two, as they do in

most L-T bees; in one genus, Effractapis, the labial palpus

has only three segments.

S-T bees rarely have more than the normal four segments of the labial palpus; extra segments are known in

three palearctic species of Andrena (Andreninae) and

three species of South American Leioproctus (Colletinae)

(see Sec. 39). A stipital comb and associated concavity occur in the central Asian Eremaphanta (Dasypodainae), as

in L-T bees. The few S-T bees in which the first two segments of the labial palpus are elongate include the Brazilian Protomeliturga (Panurginae) and the North American

Andrena (Callandrena) micheneriana LaBerge (Andreninae).

Couplet 2. On the hind legs of female Fideliini (Africa,

Chile), long hair suggests a scopa, but pollen is carried

only on the metasomal scopa. And in the South African

Aspidosmia (Anthidiini) the hind tibia bears long hairs

not only suggestive of a scopa but carrying pollen in museum specimens.

In the Apidae the labrum is ordinarily little, if at all,

longer than broad, but in some pasitine Nomadinae, parasitic bees without a scopa, mostly small, the labrum is

much longer than broad.



126



Couplet 3. The hylaeine genera whose males have a

pointed glossa are Meroglossa, Palaeorhiza, and Hemirhiza, all found in Australia and the New Guinea region.

Like other Hylaeinae and unlike the families that run to

4 in this couplet, these three genera lack scopal hairs (the

scopa is also absent in parasitic Halictidae) and have hairless, groovelike facial foveae.

Couplets 5 and 6. The only bees having two subantennal sutures below each antenna, such that the sutures

are well separated at their lower ends, are in the Andrenidae (including Oxaeinae). A few other bees, e.g., the

Stenotritidae, have two subantennal sutures on each side,

but the sutures meet or nearly meet at their lower ends,

producing a triangular subantennal area. In the Chilean

Euherbstia (Andreninae) these sutures approach one another, leaving the margin of the subantennal area on the

clypeus short, and in the Brazilian Chaeturginus (Panurginae) the subantennal sutures on each side nearly

meet at the upper clypeal margin, but the subantennal

area is long, over three times as long as wide, not a short

triangle as in the stenotritids. A few Panurginae (Mexican

and Arizona species of Protandrena s. l. and a Brazilian

species of Chaeturginus) have only one subantennal suture on each side. Such forms differ from Melittidae in

the yellow or white facial areas in the male, the truncate

marginal cell, and the presence of facial foveae.

Unfortunately, subantennal sutures are easily seen only

when the background is yellow or white. When the face

is black, as in nearly all females and many males, these sutures are inconspicuous, often requiring removal of hairs

if they are to be seen, and may be impossible to see if the

surface is coarsely punctate.



35. Practical Key to Family-Group Taxa,

Based on Females

Because the key to families (Sec. 33) depends heavily on

characters that are difficult to see in dry specimens with

the mouthparts in repose, a key based on more readily observable characters seems worthwhile. This key does not

usually lead to families, but rather directs the user to tribes

or subfamilies. It is based on females; for males, it is best

to make the necessary examinations of mouthparts and

use the key to families, Section 33.

The tibial hairs of Pararhophites (Megachilidae) look

like a scopa but may not function for pollen carrying. For

the purposes of this key, they are considered to be a scopa

(see couplet 1).

Users of the key will find that both Xylocopinae and

Apinae run to Apidae, couplet 11. See Section 85 for distinctions between the two.

Ancyla (Ancylini) and the Ctenoplectrini are apids that

would run to Melittidae (couplet 11) on the basis of the

palpal character. Ancyla, from xeric palearctic areas, is a

genus of nondescript small anthophoriform bees hard to

characterize without examination of the mouthparts.

The Ctenoplectrini, from paleotropical and oriental areas, are easily recognized in the female by the broad, finely

comblike inner hind tibial spur and the long oil-collecting hairs on the metasomal sterna, the hairs reduced but

nonetheless evident in the parasitic genus Ctenoplectrina.

The specification “cleptoparasites and social parasites

within Apinae” in couplet 23 means the tribes Ericrocidini, Isepeolini, Melectini, Osirini, Protepeolini, Rhathymini, and parts of Tetrapediini, Euglossini, and

Bombini. See the key in Section 85.



Key to the Family-Group Taxa of Bees,

Based on Adult Females

1. Scopa, consisting of hairs for carrying pollen, present

(Figs. 6-4, 8-5b, 8-7b, 10-11a) ...................................... 2

—. Scopa absent (Figs. 8-5a, 8-7a, 8-8a) .......................... 18

2(1). Scopa consisting of erect branched hairs, longest on

S2, shorter on S1 and S3 (Fig. 46-1b), scopal hairs often

present also on hind legs [body hylaeiform; submarginal

cells two, second much smaller than first (Fig. 46-1)]

neotropics) .............. Xeromelissinae (Colletidae) (Sec. 46)

—. Scopa variable, but hairs not erect, not longest, and

branched on S2 .............................................................. 3

3(2). Scopa well developed on metasomal sterna (Fig. 8-7b)

but absent on hind legs [submarginal cells two, usually

about equal in length (Figs. 76-1a, 80-1, 81-1, 82-1, 832, 84-1), except three in Fideliini, which have long hairs

on hind legs that are not used in carrying pollen] ..........

......................................................Megachilidae (Sec. 75)

—. Scopa on hind legs (Figs. 6-4, 8-5b, 10-11a), sometimes

also on sterna ................................................................ 4

4(3). Scopa (sometimes as a tibial corbicula) on hind tibia

and usually basitarsus, elsewhere not well developed, tibial scopa thus looking considerably larger than that of femur (Figs. 6-4, 10-11a) .................................................. 5

—. Scopa on hind femur (Fig. 8-5b), where a ventral cor-



bicula is usually evident, scopal hairs usually also present

on trochanter, tibia, and basitarsus and sometimes on

metasomal sterna ........................................................ 12

5(4). Facial fovea rather small but well defined (Fig. 59-1);

two subantennal sutures well separated on clypeal margin below each antenna (Fig. 33-2c) [apex of marginal

cell truncate or sometimes obliquely cut off (Figs. 50-1f,

53-1, 53-2, 54-1, 56-1, 58-1, 58-2, 59-2) and thus

pointed, but apex well separated from wing margin] ...... 6

—. Facial fovea absent or vaguely defined; one subantennal

suture below each antenna (Fig. 33-2d) or if two, then

the two nearly meeting on clypeal margin ...................... 7

6(5). Facial fovea deep, with conspicuous hairs (Fig. 50-1a,

b) (Peru) .............. Alocandreninae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 50)

—. Facial fovea shallow, hairless, shining ..........................

.................................. Panurginae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 52)

7(5). Two subantennal sutures below each antenna, the two

nearly meeting at clypeal margin (Chile) ......................

.................................. Andreninae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 51)

—. One subantennal suture below each antenna (Fig. 332d) ................................................................................ 8

8(7). Body largely yellow; labrum with basolateral angles

strongly developed, thus broadest at extreme base where

articulated to clypeus (as in Fig. 33-2a); subantennal suture short, directed toward outer margin of antennal

socket (pygidial and prepygidial fimbriae absent)

(Palearctic deserts) ........................................................

.......................... Pararhophitini (Megachilidae) (Sec. 77)

—. Body usually exhibiting little or no yellow; labrum with

basolateral angles little developed, thus not broadest at

extreme base and articulation with clypeus shorter (as in

Fig. 33-2b); subantennal suture usually directed toward

middle or inner margins of antennal socket .................... 9

9(8). Episternal groove extending below scrobal groove (as

in Fig. 20-5b) although frequently shallow (antennae

arising below middle of face) ........................................

.................................... Rophitinae (Halictidae) (Sec. 62)

—. Episternal groove not extending below scrobal groove

(Fig. 20-5a, c) .............................................................. 10

10(9). Glossa short, apex broadly rounded (inner hind tibial spur pectinate) (Australia)........ Stenotritidae (Sec. 36)

—. Glossa pointed, often with flabellum .......................... 11

11(10). L-T bees, first two segments of labial palpus elongate, flattened (Figs. 10-4a, 19-1b); episternal groove

commonly present down to or curving into and joining

scrobal groove (Fig. 20-5c) ...................... Apidae (Sec. 85)

—. S-T bees, first two segments of labial palpus similar in

form to subsequent segments (Figs. 10-4c, 19-5b); episternal groove almost completely absent ........................

..........................................................Melittidae (Sec. 68)

12(4). Facial fovea well developed, covered with short hairs

(two subantennal sutures below each antenna, often difficult to see) (Fig. 33-2c) ..............................................

..................................Andreninae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 51)

—. Facial fovea absent or not well defined, not bearing distinctive short hairs, but if defined, then bare ................ 13

127



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THE BEES OF THE WORLD



13(12). Stigma absent (Fig. 60-2a); two subantennal sutures

below each antenna (as in Fig. 51-1a) (Western Hemisphere) .......................... Oxaeinae (Andrenidae) (Sec. 60)

—. Stigma present, although sometimes no wider than prestigma as measured to wing margin; ordinarily only one

subantennal suture below each antenna (Fig. 33-2d)......14

14(13). Stigma almost always shorter than prestigma, vein

r arising almost at its apex, margin of stigma in marginal

cell concave or straight and not much longer than width

of stigma (Fig. 43-1); large, robust, euceriform, hairy

bees (Western Hemisphere) ..........................................

.............................. Diphaglossinae (Colletidae) (Sec. 42)

—. Stigma longer than prestigma, vein r arising near its

middle or at least well before its apex, margin of stigma

in marginal cell straight or convex, much longer than

width of stigma; andreniform bees, much more slender

than those of above alternative...................................... 15

15(14). Episternal groove extending little below scrobal

groove ............................ Nomiinae (Halictidae) (Sec. 63)

—. Episternal groove extending far below scrobal groove

(Fig. 20-5b), commonly onto venter of thorax .............. 16

16(15). Basal vein only feebly arcuate (Fig. 39-5); glossa

bilobed (Fig. 19-2a, b) ....Colletinae (Colletidae) (Sec. 39)

—. Basal vein strongly curved (Fig. 65-5); glossa acutely

pointed (Figs. 19-2c, d, 28-1a-c) .................................. 17

17(16). T5 with prepygidial fimbria divided by medial longitudinal zone or triangle of short, dense hairs (Fig. 651j) and minute, dense punctations (the hairs sometimes

absent) .......................... Halictinae (Halictidae) (Sec. 65)

—. T5 with prepygidial fimbria weak but continuous (Eastern Hemisphere) ........ Nomioidinae (Halictidae) (Sec. 64)

18(1). Episternal groove extending far below scrobal groove

(Fig. 20-5b) toward ventral surface of thorax (S6 exposed, not bifurcate) .................................................... 19

—. Episternal groove absent or curving into scrobal groove

(Fig. 20-5a, c), extending below scrobal groove only in

Caenoprosopidini (in which S6 is retracted, only its bifurcate apex exposed) .................................................. 21

19(18). Glossa pointed (Fig. 19-2c, d); basal vein strongly

curved (Fig. 65-5); submarginal cells usually three ........

........................ Cleptoparasites in Halictinae, both tribes

(Halictidae) (Sec. 65)

—. Glossa bilobed or broadly truncate (Fig. 19-2a, b); basal



vein gently arcuate (Fig. 39-5); submarginal cells two,

second usually much smaller than first (Figs. 47-2, 48-2,

48-3) .......................................................................... 20

20(19). Supraclypeal area elevated abruptly above level of

antennal sockets (Fig. 47-3a); pygidial plate usually absent, but if present, then broad, its margins converging

posteriorly; anterior surface of T1 usually lacking longitudinal median groove .... Hylaeinae (Colletidae) (Sec. 47)

—. Supraclypeal area sloping up from level of antennal

sockets; pygidial plate present, the apical part slender,

parallel-sided or spatulate; anterior surface of T1 with

longitudinal median groove ..........................................

................................ Euryglossinae (Colletidae) (Sec. 48)

21(18). S6 retracted under S5 except for apex, metasomal

venter thus appearing to be five-segmented; apex of S6

bilobed, bifurcate, or produced to median spine, frequently bearing rows or clumps of stiff setae (Fig. 91-2)

........................................ Nomadinae (Apidae) (Sec. 91)

—. S6 more fully exposed, the metasomal venter thus recognizably six-segmented; apex of S6 not modified as

above .......................................................................... 22

22(21). Labrum with basolateral angles strongly developed,

labrum thus broad at extreme base, where articulated to

clypeus (Fig. 33-2a); labral shape more or less rectangular and usually longer than broad (forewing with two submarginal cells) ..............................................................

....................Cleptoparasites in Megachilinae, all tribes

(Megachilidae) (Sec. 79)

—. Labrum with basolateral angles weakly developed,

labrum thus not broadest at extreme base, articulation

with clypeus not extending full width of labrum (Fig. 332b); labral shape often less rectangular, often rounded

apically, usually broader than long ................................ 23

23(22). Epistomal suture between lateral extremity and subantennal suture arcuate, upper part of clypeus thus almost parallel-sided (Fig. 90-2); submarginal cells two

(Eastern Hemisphere) ..................................................

........ Social parasites within Allodapini (Apidae) (Sec. 90)

—. Epistomal suture not arcuate upward in such a way that

upper part of clypeus is almost parallel-sided; submarginal cells usually three ................................................

............Cleptoparasites and social parasites within Apinae

(Apidae) (Sec. 102)



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