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Chapter 81. Cretaceous and Palaeogene ostracod biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins of China

Chapter 81. Cretaceous and Palaeogene ostracod biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins of China

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TABLE

I-ETACEOUS



AND LOWER



TERTIARY

STRATIGRAPHY AND FOSSIL

ASSEMBLAGE SEQUENCES IN XINING

AND M~N HE

BASINS.

. .

Fossil Assemblages



StratiFormation/Epoch



I

Mahalagou



.-. .-.



-



Konggou Formation

E:-3

!ijiachuan Formation

Ei-E:



~



.



MinheFormation



KZ



E..

.- .-.

--._--.-- .

-.-.-.

--I ..

- . .-.

-. O .



0 . 0 .



0 . 0 .



*



0 .



0



.e



. 0 . 0 . 0 .



HekouFormation

K,



.....

.-. .-. .

- - -_

.-.-.



~-



0 . 0 . 0 . 0



. O



. O .



0 .



. .

-.-......



- - ..- .0 . 0 . 0 . 0



Datonghe Formation

J3+



Moedlerisphaera chinensis Huang and XuGrovesichara minheensis Yang Assemblage



Limnocythere hubeiensis Ye-L.

languida Song Assemblage



Gyrogona qianjiangica Z. Wang-Sphaerpchara minheensis Yang Assemblage



Talicypridea reticulata (Hou)-Cypridea

(Cypridea) cavernosa Galeeva-Cypridea

(Pseudocypridina) longa Hou-Eucypris

qinghaiensis Song Assemblage

Upper

Cypridea (Cypridea) sanmachiensis SongRhinocypris ventriconcava Hao-Ziziphocypris costata (Galeeva) Assemblage

Middle

Cypridea (Cypridea) unicostata GaleevaCypridea (Ulwellia) koskulensis Mandelstam Assemblage

Lower

Lycopterocypris infantilis-L. flaccida Song

Assemblage

Minheella minheensis Song and ChengJingguella hutouyaiensis Hao-Damonella

huangshuiensis Hao-Protolimnocythere pingua Cheng Assemblage



--- -



I

2



Conglomerate



Sandy conglomerate



languida



-



- .....

--0



llyocypris ellipsoidea-Eucypris milagouensis

Song-Cyprinotus

jucundus Song Assemblage



Cypris decaryi Gautheir-Limnocythere

hubeiensis Ye Assemblage



. 0 . 0 . 0 .



.e.



Charophyta



Ostracoda



I



Sandstone



Siltstone



Mudstone



Stephanochara breviovlis Lin and HuangNeochara squalida Z. Wang and Lin Assemhlage



Latochara curtula Z. Wang-Gyrogona hubeiensis Z. Wang-Charites guanpingensis

Z.Wang Assemblage



Middle

Flabellocharajurongica S. Wang and Zhang

-Aclistochara

caii S. Wang-Mesochara

stipitata Assemblage



upper

Minhechara columelaria Wei-Multispirochara subovalis Assemblage

Lower

Aclistochara datongheensis Wei-A.

bransoni Peck Assemblage



Gypsum Gypsum mudstone



11-



Ostracod Biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins, China 1165



The Honggou Formation is a series of interbedded mudstones, silty mudstones and sandstones.

The mudstone and silty mudstone are reddish-brown or brown, while the sandstone is light brown,

greyish-green and gypseous.

The Mahalagou Formation consists of light reddish-brown mudstone and light variegated

gypsolite with intercalated brown and yellowish-grey sandstone.



OSTRACOD

AND CHAROPHYTE

ASSEMBLAGES

(TABLE1)

Ostracod Assemblage 1, the Minheella minheensis-Jingguella hutouyaiensis-Damonella huangshuiensis-Prolimnocythere pinoua assemblage occurs in the middle part of the Datonghe Formation, where ostracod fossils are preserved in abundance. In the lower and upper parts of the formation ostracods are rarely found (Ha0 et al., 1983).

The endemic genus Minhella is very rich and diversified in the assemblage, next to it are Damonella and Jingguella; another indigenous form, Prolimnocythere, is as abundant as Minheella,

but less diversified. Minheella minheensis Song.and Cheng, Jingguella hutouyaineis Hao, Damonella

huangshuiensis Hao and Prolimnocythera pinoue are the species which dominate the assemblage.

Other important taxa occurring in association are Minheella ligulata Song, M.plicata Cheng, M.

aurita Song, Damonella ovata GOU,Jingguella ovata GOU,J. ovalis Song, Darwinula oblonga (Roemer), Ousocypris area Song and Cheng, Lycopterocypris eggeri Mandelstam (Ha0 et al., 1983)

(Table 2).

Two charophyte assemblages are recognized in the Datonghe Formation. The lower one, the

Aclistochara datongheansis-A . bransoni assemblage, occurs in the lower part below the horizon

containing the ostracod assemblage. The upper one, the Minhechara columelaris-Multispirochara

subovalis assemblage. is found in the middle part together with the ostracod assemblage. In addition to the most prevalent species which give their names to the assemblage, the other important



TABLE

2-OSTRACOD



AND CHAROPHYTE ASSEMBLAGES OF T H E DATONGHE

FORMATION

(J3-Ki).



\



Charophyta



Ostracoda



2 $\



g

v



a



$



1



. .



Characteristic

Components

Minheella minheensis

Song and Cheng

Jingguella hutouyaiensis Hao

Damonella huangshuiensis Hao

PrelimnocytherepinguaCheng



Important

Components

Minheella ligulata Song

M . plicata Cheng

M . surita Song

Damonella ovata Gou

Jingguella ovata Gou

Djungarica ovalis Song

Darwinula oblonga

(Roemer)

Ousocypris area Song

and Cheng

Lycopterocypris eggeri

Mandelstam



Characteristic

Components

Upper

Minhechara columelaris

Wei

Multispirochara subovalis Ha0

Lower

Aclistochara datongheensis Wei

A . bransoni Peck



Important

Components

Upper

Mesochara paragranulifera ( S . Wang)

M . ammoena (Madler)

Nodosoclavator qinghalenensis Yang

Lower

Aclistochara datongheensis Wei

A . xiangtangensis wei

A . platyglobata Ha0

A. obovata (Peck)

A . yunnanensis (z. wang

et al.)

Forochara maedleri

Yang



1166



Y.C. HAO



TABLE3-oSTRACOD

Fossil

Formation

Minhe

Formation

K2



AND



C~AROPHYTE

h S E M B L A G E S OF T H E HEKOU

FORMATION

AND MINHEFORMATION

(K1-2).



Ostracoda

Charophyta

Characteristic

Important

Characteristic

Important

Components

Components

Components

Components

Talicypridea reticulata Talicypridea amoena

Latochara curtula

Latochara yuananensis

(Hou)

(Liu)

Z. Wang

Z. Wang

Cyprides (Cypridea)

T. laliovata (Hou)

Cyrogona hubeiensis

Charites tenuis Z. Wang

cavernosa Galeeva

Z. Wang

Cypridea (PseudocyCypridea (Morinina)

Charites guanpingensis Grambastichara compridina) longa Hou

xindianensis Hou

Z. Wang

munis Z. Wang

Eucypris yinghaiensis C. (Pseudocypridina)

Song

gigantea Ye

Eucypris minheensis Song

E. debiloides Ye

Upper

Cypridea (Cypridea)

sunmachiensis Song

Rhinocypris ventriconcava Hao

Zisiphocypris costata

(Galeeva)



Upper

Rhinocypris jurassica

jurassica (Martin)

Cypridea (Cypridea)

deflecta Song

C. (C.) sanmachiensis

Song

C. (Ulwellia) chuankouensis Hao

Candoniella candida

Ha0

Cypridea (Bisulcocypridea) skeeteri (Peck)

Middle

Cypridea (Cypridea)

vitimensis

Mandelstam



Hekou

Formation



K1

Middle

Cyrpidea (Cypridea)

unicostata Galeeva

Cypridea (Ulwellia)

koskulensis

Mandelstam



C. (U.) meneveensis

Anderson

Rhinocypris jurassica

jurassica (Martin)



Middle

Flabellochara jurongica S. Wang

and Zhang

Aclistochara caii

S. Wang

Mesochara stipitata

(S. Wang)



Middle

Aclisto laiae S. Wang

A. huangshuiensis Yang

Mesochara xuanziensis



Lower

Lycopterocypris infantilis

L. flaccida Song



components include Aclistochara umbonata Wei, A. xiangtangensis Wei. A. platyglobata Hao, A.

obovata (Peck), A . yunnanensis (Z. Wang et al.) and Porochara maedleri Yang in the lower assemblage and Mesochara xuanziensis Yang, M.paragranulfera (S. Wang), M . ammoena (Maedler)

and Nodosoclavator qinghaiensis Yang in the upper assemblage (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 2).

Ostracod Assemblage 2, the Lycopterocypris infantilis-L. flaccida assemblage is recognized in

the lower part of the Hekou Formation and is monotonous in taxa (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Ostracod Assemblage 3, the Cypridea (Cypridea) unicostata-Cypridea-Ulwellia? koskulensis

assemblage appearing in the middle part of the Hekou Formation, is dominated by the genus

Cypridea in high diversity and abundance. In addition to the most prevalent species, Cypridea

(Cypridea) unicostata Galeeva and Cypridea (Ulwellia) koskulensis Mandelstam, the other important forms in the assemblage are Cypridea (Cypridea) vitimensis Mandelstam, C. (Ulwellia)



Ostracod Biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins, China 1167



menevensis Anderson and Rhinocypris jurassica jurassica (Martin) (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Ostracod Assemblage 4, the Cypridea (Cypridea sanmachiensis-Rhinocypris ventriconcavaZiziphocypris costata assemblage, is found in the upper part of the Hekou Formation. In this Formation Cypridea still maintains its predominance and the new taxon, Candoniella, which reached its

acme of development in the Cenozoic, makes its first appearance. Besides the characteristic forms

such as Cypridea (Cypridea)sanmachiensis Song, Rhinocypris ventriconcava Hao and Ziziphocypris

costata (Galeeva), there are other important components in the assemblage, such as Cypridea

(Cypridea) deJlecta Song, C. (Ulwellia) chuankouensis Hao, Candoniella candida Hao and Rhinocypris jurassica jurassica (Martin) (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Charophytes are only reported from the middle part of the Hekou Formation occurring in

association with ostracod Assemblage 3. This Flabellocharajurongica-Aclistochara caii-Mesochara

stipitata assemblage also includes Aclistochara laiae S. Wang. A. huangshuiensis Yang and Mesochara xuanziensis Yang (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Ostracod Assemblage 5, the Talicypridea reticulata-Cypridea (Cypridea) cavernosa-C. (Pseudocypridina) longa-Eucypris ginghaiensis assemblage, occurs in the Minhe Formation with Talicypridea as the most important component of high diversity and abundance. In association with the

predominant species, Talicypridea reticulata (Hou), Cypridea (Cypridea) cavernosa Galeeva,

Cypridea (Pseudocypridina) longa Hou and Eucypris qinghaiensis Song, other important components in the assemlage are Talicypridea amoena (Liu), T. latiovata (Hou), Cypridea (Morinina)

xindianensis Hou, C. (Pseudocypridina) gigantea Ye, Eucypris minheensis Song and Eucypris

debiloides Ye (Hao et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Charophyte remaines are very rich and are represented by the Latochara curtula-Gyrogona

hubeiensis-Charites quanoingensisassemblage in the Minhe Formation. This assemblage consists of

Latochara curtula Z. Wang, Gyrogona hubeiansis Z. Wang and Charites guanpingensis Z. Wang, as

the mcst ccmmon components and Latochara yunnanensis Z. Wang, Charites cenuis Z. Wang and

Grambastichara communis Z. Wang as important components (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 3).

Ostracod Assemblage 6, the Cypris decaryi-Limnocythere hubeiensis assemblage, is recognized in

the Qijiachuan Formation. It is monotonous in taxa with Cypris decaryi Gautheir as the predominant components and distributed mainly in the upper part of the formation. In the lower part

only Limnocythere has been found in large numbers but preservation is poor.

Charophytes are found coexisting with the ostracod assemblage only in the uppermost part of

the Qijiachuan Formation. The Stohanochara breviovalis-Neochara squalida assemblage is not

abundant and is poorly preserved. Besides those species which give their name to the assemblage,

the other important components include Peckichara serialis Z. Wang, Rhabdochara kisgyonensis

(Rasky) and Sphaerochara parvula (Reid and Groves) (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 4).

Ostracod Assemblage 7, the Limnocythere hubeiensis-L. languida assemblage of the Honggou

Formation, comprises very few taxa with Limnocythere hubeiensis Ye and L. languida Song as

the most abundant components together with subordinante Limnocythere pengzhenensis Ye and

Zlyocypris bradyi Sars (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 4).

Ostracod Assemblage 8, the Zlyocypris ellipsoidea-Eucypris milagouensis-Cyprinotus jucundus

Assemblage, occurring in the Mahalagou Formation is the most abundant assemblage of the Palaeogene formation in the Xining and Minhe Basins. With Zlyocypris as the predominant and most

diversified genus, it also includes Ilyocypris ellipsoidea Song, Eucypris milagouensis Song and

Cyprinotus jucundus Song as characteristic members and Zlyocypris manasensis confrogosa Bodina,

Z. errabundia Mandelstam, Eucupris koktalensis Bodina and Cyprinotus gregarius Bodina as less

important members (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 4).

Charophyte flora of the Mahalagou Formation and its underlying Honggou Formation are

similar in taxa comprising Maedlerisphaera chinensisHuang and Xu,Grovesichara minheensis Yang,



1168 Y. C. HAO



TABLEGOSTRACOD AND CHAROPHYTE ASSEMBLAGES OF THE LOWERTERTIARY

QIJIACHUAN

FORMATION,

HONGGOU

FORMATION

AND MAHALOGOU

FORMATION

(Ef-E3).

~~~



Fossil

Formation

Mahalagou

Formation

E3



Honggou

Formation

E3-’



Ostracoda

Characteristic

Import ant

Components

Components

Mahalagou Formation

Ilyocypris ellipsoidea

Ilyocypris manasensis

Song

confrogosa Bodina

Eucypris milagouensis Cyprinotusgregarius

Song

Bodina

Cyprinotusjucundus

Eucypris koktalensis

Bodina

song

Ilyocypris errabundis

Mandelstam

Honggou Formation

Limnocythere hubeien- Ilyocypris bradyi Sars

sis Ye

L. languida Song



Charophyta

Characteristic

Import ant

Components

Components

Mahalagou Formation

Maedlerisphaera chinGyrogona qianjiangica

ensis Huang and Xu

Z. Wang

Sphaerochara minheensis Yang

Grovesichara minheen- Pseudolatochara

sis Yang

aechma Lu

Charites minutissium

(Madler)

Honggou Formation

Gyrogona qianjiangica

2.Wang

Sphaerochara minheensis Yang



Moedlerisphaera chiensis Huang and Xu

Grovesichara minheensis Yang

Pseudolatocharaaechma Lu

Charites minutissium

(Madler)



Qijiachuan

Formation

Ef-E:



Qijiachuan Formation

Cypris decaryi Gautheir



Qijiachuan Formation



Limnocythere hubeiensis Ye



Stephanochara breviovalis Lin and Huang



Z. Wang



Neochara squalida

Z. Wang and Lin



Rhabdochara kisgyonensis (Rasky)

Sphaerochara parvula

(Reid and Groves)



Peckichara serialis



Gyrogona gianjiangica Z. Wang, Sphaerochara minheensis Yang, Pseudolotochara aechma Lu and

Charites minutissium (Maedler), but the most prevalent species are Maedlerisphaera chinensis and

Grovesicharaminheensis in the Mahalagou Formation and Gyrogonagianjiangica and Sphaerochara

minheensis in the Honggou Formation (Ha0 et al., 1983) (Table 4).

STRATIGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF



THEFOSSIL

ASSEMBLAGES



Ostracod Assemblage 1 exhibits the aspect of a mixed group of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous taxa with some forms ranging from Jurassic to Cretaceous. Among its dominant genera,

Damonella is one of the important forms of the Purbeckian Ostracoda prevailing in horizons below

the Cinder Beds in England (Anderson, 1973) and frequently encountered in equivalent horizons

in Yunnan, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Anhui and many other localities in China (Ha0 et al., 1982, 1983;



Ostracod Biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins. China 1169



Shi and He, 1963; Ye et al., 1977). Jingguella was first reported from the Late Jurassic to Early

Cretaceous Jingxing Formation in western Yunnan (Ha0 et al., 1982; Ye et al., 1977) and in recent

years has been found in the Lower Cretaceous of different localities in Sichuan. Jingguella ovata,

which occurs in the Datonghe Formation, is widespread in all these localities. Pinnocypridea, which

was first described from the ostracod fauna from the Lower Cretaceous Hanyangpu Formation in northern Sichuan (Shi and He, 1963), is widely distributed in the Lower Cretaceous, of

Central Yunnan and Western Sichuan (Ye et al., 1977). Djungarica, which was first found in the

Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group (Ha0 and Guan, 1984) in the Junggar Basin of northern Xinjiang, has wide distribution in northwestern and southwestern China, ranging from Middle Jurassic

to Early Cretaceous. Minheella, which was considered to be a form endemic to the Minhe Basin,

has also been recently found in some other regions in China (Ha0 et al., 1983). For instance, Minheella minheensis and M . liqulata have been found in the Jingxing Formation of Yunnan. M . plicata

and M . aurita have come from the Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic of Sichuan and Xinjiang

respectively.

Charophytes occurring in the lower part of the Datonghe Formation represent a Late Jurassic

flora, among which Aclistochara bransoni and A . obovata are important members of the charophyte

flora of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the United States (Peck, 1957) and are also

found in Late Jurassic strata in the western part of Mongolia (Kyansep-Romashkina, 1975).

In accordance with the micropalaeontological evidence above, it is reasonable to consider the

Datonghe Formation as a transitional series from Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous.

Ostracod Assemblages 2,3 and 4, recognized respectively in the lower, middle and upper parts of

the Hekou Formation, show the typical aspect of Early Cretaceous faunas. Cypridea, which enjoyed

its heyday of development in the Early Cretaceous, dominates Assemblages 3 and 4; some of the

prevailing species, such as Cypridea (Cypridea) unicostata, C . (C.) vitimensis and C . (Ulwellia)

koskulensis are index forms in the Early Cretaceous ostracod fauna of eastern Mongolia, the

west Siberian lowland and the Far East Vitim platform of the Soviet Union respectively (Hao, 1982;

Galeeva, 1955; Lubimova, 1956). They are also widespread in the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern and northwestern China (Ha0 et al., 1974). Some less common species, such as Cypridea

(Ulwellia) menevensis, C . (U.) ultima and C. (Cypridea) montoriana are reported from the Lower

Cretaceous in the south of the United States, the northwest of Congo, Stanleyville (Grekoff, 1957)

and Spain (Brenne, 1976) respectively. Cypridea (Bisulcocypridea) skeeteri is frequently encountered in the Bear River Formation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States (Peck, 1951)

and some late Early Cretaceous strata in Zhejiang and Anhui of eastern China. Lycopterocypris

infantilis was first reported from the Lower Cretaceous Junbaiyin formation of Mongolia

(Lubimova, 1956) and is commonly encountered in the lower Lower Cretaceous of northeastern

and northwestern China (Ha0 et al., 1974, 1982). Ziziphocypris costata it widely distributed in

the upper Lower Cretaceous of northern and northeastern China (Ha0 et al., 1974).

Among the charophytes found in association with Ostracod Assemblage 3, Aclistochara laiae

and Mesochara stipitata are important components of charophyte flora in the Lower Cretaceous

of West Siberia, while the less common form, Mesochara symmetrica was first known from the

Aptian of south Dakota in the United States (Peck, 1957). Most other important forms have been

found from the Lower Cretaceous of many other regions in China.

The Hekou Formation is shown by its ostracod and charophyte content to be part of the Lower

Cretaceous.

Talicypridea, which dominates Ostracod Assemblage 5, ranged from late early Cretaceous to

Early Palaeocene and reached its acme of development in the Late Cretaceous. An assemblage of

this genus along with Cypridea (Pseudocypridina), Cypridea cavernosa and some precursors of



1170 Y.C. HAO



Cenozoic cypridids, is characteristic of almost all non-marine Late Cretaceous strata known in

China and Mongolia. Therefore, Ostracod Assemblage 5 servts as the basis for assigning the Minhe

Formation to the Upper Cretaceous.

The charophyte asemblage in the Minhe Formation represents a mixed flora comprising mainly

Cretaceous taxa and some forerunners of Cenozoic forms. A similar assemblage is widespread in

the Upper Cretaceous of Hubei, Hunan, Kuangdong, Anhui and Jiangsu in China (Huang, 1973;

Wang, 1978a, 1981; Zhang et al., 1978).

Ostracod Assemblage 6 in the Qijiachuan Formation consists of a few Cenozoic forms with no

relics of the Late Cretaceous taxa. Its main components, Cypris decaryi and Limnocythere hubeiensis, are widespread in Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene strata of south China, such as the Xingouju and the Fangjiahe Formations in the Yangtze and Han River Basin, the Dainan Formation

in Jiangsu and the Sanshui and the Buxin Formations in Kuangdong etc. (Guan, 1979; Hou et al.,

1978, 1982).

The most important elements among the charophyte asemblage in the Qijiachuan Formation,

such as Stephanochara breviovalis, Peckichara serialis and Rhabdochara kisgyonensis, have a distinct

surface ornamentation of spiral cells, which is a special feature of the Late Palaeocene and the Early

Eocene Charophyta. This assemblage is very similar to those found in Late Palaeocene and Early

Eocene non-marine formations at different localities in south China (Huang, 1973; Wang, 1978a,b;

Zhang et al., 1978).

The age of the Qijiachuan Formation is ascertained to be Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene

based on its ostracod and charophyte fossil contents.

In Ostracod Assemblage 8 from the Mahalagou Formation, the genus Ilyocypris is predominant

over all other components; the subspecies Zlyocypris manasensis confrogosa together with Ilyocypris

errabundis, Cyprinotus gregarius and Eucypris koktalensis are frequently encountered in the Oligocene deposits of northern Xinjiang and the coastal region of Bohai Bay (IPED, 1978) in China as

well as in some inland basins of the Central Asian part of the Soviet Union.

Charophytes in association with this ostracod assemblage are similar to those of the underlying

Honggou Formation, among which Maedlerisphaera chinensis, prevailing in the Mahalagou Formation is an important member of the Oligocene flora in Jiangsu, Hubei, Hunan and the coastal

region of Bohai Bay as well as in France (Castel, 1967). Gyrogona ginjiangensis, more abundant in

the Honggou Formation, is the main component of the Middle to Late Eocene charophyte flora

which is widespread in southern and southwestern China and also in the coastal region of Bohai

Bay in northern China.

On the basis of the above micropalaeontological evidence and the discovery of Early Miocene

mammalian remains in the overlying Xiejia Formation (Li, 1980), the Mahalagou Formation

belongs to the Oligocene. In the underlying Honggou Formation, Ostracod Assemblage 7 lacks

stratigraphically significant taxa, and its age is provisionally regarded as Middle to Late Eocene

on the basis of its charophyte flora and its stratigraphical position.



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KYANSEP-ROMASHKINA, N. P.



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The Cretaceous Ostracod Faunas from

the Fuxin Basin, Liaoning Province

YOU-GUILI", DE-YING

Su" AND LI-JUNZHANG~)

Chinese Academy of'Geological Sciences, Beijing, and2)Shenyang Institute of Geology and

Mineral Resources, Shenyang, China



The Fuxin Basin, 120 km long and 8-10 km wide, is located in the western part of Liaoning

Province. It extends from Jinzhou in the south to Xinqiu in the north, and from Mount Yiwulu in

the east to Mount Sungling in the west. It occurs as a narrow, elongated, intermontane basin with

rolling hills stretching in a NE-SW direction. The most important lineament in this district is represented by the Daba-Jinzhou fault, approximetely parallel to the strike of the basin. This fault

penetrates the basin along its eastern margin, and the strike of the strata shows a trend of 30"- 45"

east of north with a dip angle of 10"-30". The structures do not seem to be very complicated.

In this basin, the Cretaceous continental deposits are well developed and are represented by a

sequence of volcanic-sedimentary formations with a total thickness of more than 5000 metres,

resting upon the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation or unconformably on Sinian strata and

containing abundant faunas and floras and rich coal resources. The sequence can be subdivided in

ascending order into the Yixian Formation, the Jiufotang Formation, the Fuxin Formation and

the Sunjiawan Formation. A brief account of each of them is given as follows:

The Yixian Formation is the lowest stratum of the Cretaceous in this district, and consists

mainly of purplish-red and brownish-grey andesite, basalt andesitic breccia, intercalated with beds

of greyish-white tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone and shale with a total thickness of about 2500

metres. The tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone and shale yield abundant bivalves such as Sphaerium

jeholense, Nakamuranaia chigshanensis; the conchostracan Eosestheria jingangshanensis; the insect

Ephemeropsis trisetalis; the fish Lycoptera muraii; the reptile Yabeinosaurus tenuis and abundant

and well preserved ostracods. The ostracods collected from this basin and neighbouring districts

(Sanguanmiao and Liujiawopu) mainly consist of Cypridea venustata, C. ganzhaoensis, C. veridica

arquata, C. sulcata, C. aff. delicatula, C. (C.) deflecta, Lycopterocypris infantilis and Darwinula

contracta, etc.

The Jiufotang Formation is characterised by lacustrine deposits. Its lower part consists of purplish-red andesitic conglomerate passing upwards into interbedded sandstone and mudstone. The

upper part is composed of greyish-green and greyish-yellow mudstone, oil shale and sandstone containing Charophyta : Mesochara stipitata; plant : Elatocladus manchurica; pollen and spores:

Cicatricosisporites-Aequitriradites; bivalve : Nakamuranaia chingshanensis; conchostracan : Eosestheria middennaia chingshanensis; and Ephemeropsis trisetalis fossils as well as abundant and well

preserved ostracods. The most common species of ostracods found in this formation are Cypridea

vitimensis, C. prognata, C . ( Yumenia) casta, C. unicostata, C. rostella, Cheilocypridea trapezoidea.

C. (Ulwellia) subelongata, Limnocypridea abscondida, L. grammi, L . jianchangensis, Rhinocypris

pluscula, R. echinata, Clinocypris obliquetruncata, Lycopterocypris circulata and Ziziphocypris

costata etc. This formation, conformably overlying the Yixian Formation, is about 1000 meters in

thickness.

1173



1174



Rivers



p-1



F- Fl



Dislocation



Occurrence



Angular

unconformi ty



H E

Railroads



Village Road



TEXT-FIG.

1-Geological sketch map of the Fuxin Basin of Liaoning Province.



Intrusive rock of

Lower Cretaceous



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Chapter 81. Cretaceous and Palaeogene ostracod biostratigraphy in Xining and Minhe Basins of China

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