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Chapter 47. Jurassic-Cretaceous non-marine ostracods from Israel and palaeoenvironmental implications

Chapter 47. Jurassic-Cretaceous non-marine ostracods from Israel and palaeoenvironmental implications

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660 A. ROSENFELD,

E. GERRY

AM) A. HOMGSTBIN



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Bisulcocypris oertli-



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with non-marine ostracods in the Jurassic-Cretaceous of Israel.



their percentage of species and specimens are illustrated in Text-figs. 2a-5a. All coordinates refer

to the Israeli cartographic grid. The major ostracod components and their preferred biotopes are

shown in Text-figs. 2b-5b. Characteristic species are illustrated in Pls. 1, 2.



ASSEMBLAGES

OF NON-MARINE

OSTRACODS

From the Early Jurassic-Late Cretacous the following four assemblage zones with non-marine

ostracods have been recognized:

Bisulcocypris oertlii (J- 1*) Assemblage Zone

This zone is newly establishedin the present paper and is characterized by the nearly monospecific

occurrence of Bisulcocypris oertfii Gerry, n. sp. (Pl. 1, figs. 1-6). Only in very few cases this species

is accompanied by Durwinufu sp. (Pl. 1, fig. 7). Rare, indeterminable, doubtful, marine ostracod

fragments were found in a few cuttings samples, but may have been caused by cavings. The

ostracod density in the J-1* zone is low. This zone has a restricted occurrence of less than one

meter thickness in different levels of eight boreholes (Text-fig. 2a) within the generally marine

limestones of the Ardon Formation. The age determination of this zone (Early Jurassic) is based



Jurassic-Cretaceous Non-marine Ostracodsfrom Israel 661



Fresh



- Brackish watel



TEXT-mo.2a (left)-Percentages



of non-marine species (black squares) and specimens (striped circles) in samples

of the Bisulcocypris oertlii (El*) Zone (Early Jurassic).

2b (right)-Ostracod

biotope in the Bisulwcypris oertlii (J-1*) Zone. Fresh-brackish water. From

left to right : Bisulcocypris oertlii. Darwinula sp.



on the appearance of the contemporaneousforaminifera Orbitopsellaprimaeva (Henson) in marine

sediments (Derin and Gerry, 1975).

Bisulcocypris oertlii is described as a new species in the following taxonomic note:

Pinto and Sanguinetti, 1958

Genus BISULC~CYPRIS

B I S U L ~ ~ ~ Y POERTLII

R I S Gerry, n. sp.

(PI. 1, figs. 1-6).

Derivation of name.-In honour of Dr. H. J. Oertli, SNEA(P)-Pau, France.

Ho1otype.-Female right valve (G.S.I. Type No. 440); PI. 1, fig. 3.

Paratypes.-One female carapace (PI. 1, figs. 1, 2) and one male carapace (Pl. 1, figs. 5, 6).

Type Locality.-Ramallah-1 well, 4,235 m; coord. 1667/1515.

Type Stratum.-Ardon Formation.

Diagnosis.-Bisculcocypris with smooth to fine reticulate surface. Dorsal and ventral margins

straight to slighty convex. Pronounced sexual dimorphism.



662 A. ROSENFELD,

E. GERRY

AND A. HONIGSTEIN



Measurements (pm).1

800



760

760



h

500

440



400



W



-



Holotype



F



510



Paratype



380



Paratype



F

M



Descr@tion.-Carapace ovate in females and ovate-elongate in males. Dorsal margin straight

to slightly convex, ventral margin convex. Both ends well-rounded. Greatest height centrally. Two

parallel sulci anterodorsally and middorsally. Sulci in juvenile forms less developed (PI. 1, fig. 4).

Posterior swollen, especially in females. Right valve slightly larger than the left. Surface smooth to

finely reticulate. Internal features not observed. Pronounced sexual dimorphism; males lower and

less tumid than females.

Remarks.-Bisulcocypris oertlii n. sp. is very similar to B.? triassica Gerry and Oertli, 1967

(p. 378, P1. 1, figs. 1-6; Anisian of Israel). It differs from the latter in its larger size, the less oblique

sulci and the straighter dorsal margin.

Material and distribution.-About twenty five carapaces and valves from Avdat-1 ,Haqanaim-3,

Kurnub-1, Makhtesh Qatan-2, Ramallah-1, Rekhme-1, Sherif-1, Zavoa-1 (Gerry, 1975).

Stratigraphic range.-Early Jurassic.

Cypridea libanensis (L-2*) Assemblage Zone (Rosenfeld and Raab, 1984)

From the L-2* zone the following non-marine ostracod species are reported : Cypridea Iibanensb

Bischoff, C. heliopolisensis Bischoff, C. aaleyensis Bischoff, C. cf. C. ultima Grekoff, C. tayasiremb

Rosenfeld and Raab, Darwinula sp., Cypris sp., Clinocyprtr sp., Metacypris polita Grekoff and

Timiriasevia cardiformis Rosenfeld and Raab. The major species are illustrated on P1.2. This assemblage is associated with marine forms, belonging to the genera Antepaijenborchella, Metacytheropferon, Veeniacythereis,Fastigatocythere and Cytherura. Ostracods are relatively frequent in the samples of the L-2* zone. Carapaces of Darwinula sp. are sometimes major components of the rock (PI.

2, fig. 8). The L-2* zone is a few metres thick and was recognized in shales, marls and tuffs from

four exposures and boreholes in northern and central Israel (Text-fig. 3a). This zone is related to

the worldwide Wealden facies event and was found in short levels in different formations of the

generally marine Kurnub Group (Text-fig. 1). A Berriasian-Barremian age is attributed to the

L-2* zone according to the worldwide range of the Wealden ostracods, the contemporaneousmarine

Schuleridea bullata (L-2) Assemblage Zone (Rosenfeld and Raab, 1984), and the K-Ar absolute

ages of the Tayasir Volcanics (Lang and Mimran, 1985).

Neocyprideis vandenboldi (UC-5) Assemblage Zone (Rosenfeld and Raab, 1974)

In the UC-5zone the following non-marine species occur: Neocyprideis vandenboldi Gerry and

Rosenfeld, Looneyella sohni Rosenfeld, Xestoleberis? X.derorimensis Rosenfeld, Cypridacea gen.?

sp. (see P1. 1,figs. 8-1 1) and Darwinula sp. This fauna is found together with marine types of the

PLATE1-Figs. 1-6. Bisulcocypris oertlii Gerry, n. sp., J-l* zone, Early Jurassic. 1. Paratype, female carapace,

left side, Ramallah-l,4,235 m. 2. Samecarapace, dorsalview. 3. Holotype,femaleright valve, Ramallah-l,4,235

m. 4. Juvenile carapace, left side, Rekhme-1,1,81!9-1,125 m. 5. Paratype, male carapace, dorsal view. Kurnub-1.

1,175-1,185 m. 6. Same carapace, right side. Fig. 7. Durwinulu sp., carapace, right side, Kurnub-l,1,165-1,175

m, J-l* zone, Early Jurassic. Fig. 8 . Looneyella sohni Rosenfeld, male carapace, left side, N. Yotvata, UG5

zone, Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian. Fig. 9. Neocyprideis vandenboldi Gerry and Rosenfeld, female

carapace, left side, N. Yotvata, UG5 zone, Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian. Fig. 10. Cypridacea gen.? sp.,

carapace, left side, N. Yotvata, UC-5 zone, Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian. Fig. 11. Xestoleberis? X.

derorimensisRosenfeld, male carapace, dorsal view, Damun-7,228-229 m, UG5 zone, Late Cenomanian-Early

Turonian. Fig. 12. Neocyprideis Jexeri Honigstein and Rosenfeld, female carapace, left side, Biqat Qetura,

UC-7 zone, Late Turonian-Early Coniacian. Fig. 13. C u h n i e l h ? C. qeturaensis Honigstein and Rosenfeld,

carapace, right valve, Biqat Qetura, UC-7 zone, Late Turonian-Early Coniacian.



Jurassic-Cretaceous Non-marine Ostracods from Israel 665



genera Bairdia, Paracypris, Metacytheropteron, Amphicytherura, Cythereis, Veeniacythereis, Limb u r g h and Planileberis. Ostracods are abundant in samples of the UC-5 zone; N. vandenboldi

is the dominant form in this zone and sometimes builds whole rocks in southern Israel (Gerry and

Rosenfeld, 1973, P1. 1, fig. 9). Species of Xestoleberis are reported from marine environments, but

seem to tolerate lower salinities and thus may occur in brackish waters. Limburgina? L. gerryi

Rosenfeld is the only marine type found together with abundant non-marine ostracods and is

therefore considered as a transitional coastal marine species (Text-fig. 4b). The UC-5 zone is widespread in Israel and found in marls and limestones from eight exposures and boreholes (Text-fig.

4a). This zone can reach thicknesses of several tens of metres and was observed in different formations of the generally marine Judea Group (Text-fig. l). The Late Cenomanian ammonite Neolobites vibrayeanus (d’orbigny) is abundant in strata corresponding to this zone (Bartov et al., 1972).

A Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian age for the sediments of the UC-5 zone is suggested by its stragraphical setting below and above the Early Turonian marine Cythereis rawashensis kenaanensis

(UC-6)Assemblage Zone (Rosenfeld and Raab, 1974).



Oertliella dextrcspinatu (UC-7) Assemblage Zone (Honigstein and Rosenfeld, 1985)

The following non-marine ostracod species occur in the UC-7 zone : Neocyprideis jlexeri

Honigstein and Rosenfeld, Candoniella? C. qeturaensis Honigstein and Rosenfeld (see P1. 1, figs.

12,13) and Xestoleberis? X . derorimensis Rosenfeld. These are associated with an abundant marine

fauna of the genera Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Bairdia, Bairdoppilata, Paracypris, Ovocytheridea,

Neocythere, Metacytheropteron, Cythereis, Spinoleberis, Cristaeleberis, Limburgina, Dumontina,

Oertliella and Nucleolina. Non-marine ostracods are frequent in some samples of the UC-7 zone,

always accompanied by abundant marine species. Limburgina galvensis (Breman) in the UC-7 zone

is also found only in samples containing Xestoleberis and Neocyprideis (see Text-fig. 5b). Non-marine

ostracods occur in a few metres of thick marls and limestones from two exposures in the middle

and upper parts of the Zihor Formation, which is restricted to southern Israel (Text-fig. 5a).

The age of the UC-7 zone is Late Turonian-Early Coniacian, according to the ammonites

Coilopoceras zihoricum Parnes and Bairoisiceras sp. (Lewy, 1975).



PALAEOENVIRONMENT

AND CONCLUSIONS

During the Mesozoic, the sedimentation realm in Israel took place in mostly shallow marine

regions. The sedimentary facies was determined by sea level fluctuations, as well as by tectonic

activity. Facies changes were rapid and extreme. Sediments, deposited in fresh-brackish water or

hypersaline conditions in the Jurassic-Cretaceous are limited both vertically and laterally. Nonmarine ostracods occur in four major episodes (Late Jurassic, Berriasian-Barremian, Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian and Late Turonian-Early Coniacian). They are associated with marine

fauna, which allow dating of the zones by ammonites, foraminifersand ostracods. The mixed ostracod assemblages indicate estuarine, lagoonal and coastal milieus. The non-marine zones are important for local stratigraphy, correlations and palaeoecology.

RATE

2-Typical non-marine ostracod species from the L-2* zone (Berriasian-Barremian).

Fig. 1. Cyprideu tuyasirensis Rosenfeld and Raab, female carapace, left side, Wadi Malih. Fig. 2. Cypridea

libanensis Bischoff, carapace, left side, Ramim. Fig. 3. Cypridea heliopolisensis Bischoff, carapace, left side,

Ramim. Fig. 4. Timiriusevia curdiformis Rosenfeld and Raab, female carapace, dorsal view, Wadi Malih. Fig. 5.

Cypridea aaleyensis Bischoff, carapace, right side, Ramim. Fig. 6. Cyprideu cf. C. ultima Grekoff,carapace,

right side, Helez-3,1,508 m. Fig. 7. Darwinula sp., carapace, right side, Wadi Malih. Fig. 8. Rocksample with

numqous specimens of Durwinulu sp., Sarid-I, 1,613 m (photograph: courtesy of Dr. H. J. Oertli, Pau).



666 A. ROSENFELD,

E. GERRY

AND A. HONIGSTEIN



F r e s h - B r a c k i s h WOtCf



Shallow



marine



water



TEXT-FIG.

3a (lef)-Percentages



of non-marine species (black squares) and specimens (striped circles) in samples

of the Cypridea libanensis (L2*)Zone (Berriasian-Barremian).

3b (right)-Various

ostracod biotopes in the Cypridea libanensis (L2*)Zone. Fresh-brackish water.

From left to right:

(Upper row) Cypridea heliopolisensis. Cypridea cf. C. ultima. Cypridea libanensis, Cypridea aaleyensis,

Cypridea tayasirensis.



(Lower row) Darwinula sp., Clinocypris sp., Cypris sp., Metacypris polita. Timiriasevia cardiformis.

Shallow marine water. From left to right:

Cytherura qiriatshemonaensis, Antepaijenborchella menarica, Metacytheropteron parnesi,

Veeniacythereis ghabounensis ghabounensis, Fmtigatocythere nafaliensis.



A poor, but exclusively non-marine ostracod fauna is found in several stratigraphical levels in

the Early Jurassic J-1* zone. These non-marine intercalations imply nearshore fresh-brackish water

supply (Text-fig. 2b), probably due to local uplifts. The mixed marine and non-marine ostracod

assemblages in the Early Cretaceous L-2* zone can be explained by the freshwater inland lakes,

rivers and deltas, closely connected to the sea, affecting each other (Text-fig. 3b). The combination

of fresh water and seawater in lagoonal and estuary milieus with a favourable high nutrient supply,

would have encouraged the generation of a maximum number of forms. This non-marine episode

may be related to sea level changesthrough regressions and volcanic activity, which is rather common

in the Early Cretaceous of Israel. The combined occurrence of abundant non-marine and relatively

rare marine ostracods in the Cenomanian-Turonian UC-5 zone point to coastal marine environ-



Jurassic-Cretaceous Non-marine Ostracods from Israel 661



Fresh



Shollow



TEXT-FIG.

4a (lefr)-Percentages



morina



- B r o c k i s h voter



woter



of non-marine species (black squares) and specimens(striped circles) in samples



of the Neocyprideis vandenboldi (UC-5) Zone (Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian).

Zone.

4b (right)--Various ostracod biotopes in the Neocyprideis v d n b o l d i (UC-5)

Fresh - brackish water. From left to right:

Neocyprideis vandenboldi, Darwinula sp., Cypridacea gen? sp.

Brackish water - transitional marine. From top to bottom:

Neocyprideis vandenboldi, Xestoleberis? X. derorimensis, Looneyella sohni.

Limburgina? L. gerryi.

Hypersaline :Neocyprideis vandenboldi.

Shallow marine water. From left to right:

(Upper row) Bairdia sp., Planileberis ziregensis, Cythereis namousensis, Paracypris mdaouerensis.

(Lower row) Amphicytherura sexta, Metacytheropteron berbericum. Veeniacythereisjezzineensis.



ments with continental freshwater influence (Text-fig. 4b). This brackish water environment indicates dqvelopment of lagoons and embayments, resulting from tectonic movements (Freund,

1962). Hypersaline conditions probably prevailed in this environment, as suggested by the presence

of gypsum, alternating with marly beds, containing abundant Neocyprideis vandenboldi. In the

Turonian-Coniacian UC-7 zone the marine palaeoenvironment is dominant. Brackish water ostracods are found only in parts of the section. Here, the biotopes are similar to that of the UC-5 zone,

but with less continental water influence (Text-fig. 5b). Neocyprideis and nearby gypsum are also

observed, pointing sometimes even to hypersaline conditions.



668 A. ROSENFELD,

E. GERRY

AND A. HOMOSTEIN

-



0



0

W



Jwwalem

Arhqelon



I



\

\



I



\



\



I



_I



Shallow



marine



water



TwT-mo. 5a-Percentages of non-marine species (black squares) and specimens (striped circles) in samples of

the Oertliella dextrospimta (UC-7) Zone (Late Turonian-Early Coniacian).

%-varoius

ostracod biotopes in the Oertliella dextrospinata (UG7) Zone.

Fresh-brackish water. From left to right : Candoniella? C. qeturaensis, Neocyprideis jlexeri.

Brackish water-transitional marine. From top to bottom:

Neocyprideisflexeri, Xestoleberis? X. derorimensis, Limburgina galvensis.

Hypersaline : Neocyprideisflexeri.

Shallow marine water. From left to right:

(Upper row) Cythereis menuhaensis, Oertliella dextrospinata, Paracypris sp., Bairdia 6.

B. cenomanica,

Bairdoppilata cuvillieri omnipraesens. Cytherella sp.

(Lower row) Metacytheropteron cf. M. pagana. Cristaeleberis prism, Spitwleberis yotvataensis macra,

Nucleolim zihorica. Dumontina? D. almussatensis, Cytherelloidea glabra.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express their thanks to Dr. Y.Mimran for critical reading of the manuscript, Mr.

M. Dvorachek and Mr. Y.Levy, all from the Geological Survey of Israel, for the SEM photographs.



Jurassic-CretaceousNon-marine Ostracodrfrom Zsrael 669



REFERENCES

wmv, Y., EYAL, Y., GARFUNKEL, z. and STEINITZ, G. 1972. Late Cretaceous and Tertiary stratigraphy and paleogeography of southern Israel. Isr. J. Earth-Sci., 21, 69-97.

DERIN, B. and GERRY, E. 1975. Jurassic biostratigraphyand environmentsof deposition in Israel. Rev. Espan.Micropal.

Ser., 7,175-198.

PREUND,R. 1962. Problems in the stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian in Zsrael. Unpublished Ph, D. thesis,

Hebrew University of Jerusalem [In Hebrew].

GERRY, E. 1975. Range of the ostracode Bisulcocypris? triassica Gerry and Oertli, 1%7, ZZPE Rep., 4 (75), 1-2.

-and

OERTLI, H.J. 1967. Bisulcocypris?triassica n. sp. (Crust., Ostrac.) from Israel. Bull. Centre Rech. Pau-SNPA,

1,375-381.



-and ROSENFELD,A. 1973. Amphicytherura distincta and Neocyprideis vandenboldi (Ostrawda), new speciesfrom

the Cenomanian-Turonian of Israel. Rev. &pan. Micropal.. 5 , 99-105.



HONIGSTEIN, A. 1984. Senodan ostracodes from Israel. Zsr. Geol. 2hrv.. Bull., 78, 1-48.

and ROSENFUD, A. 1985. Late Turonian Early Coniacian ostracodes from the Zihor



-



Formation, southern

Israel. Rev. Espafi. Micropal. 17 (3), 447-466.

U N G , B. and MIMRAN, Y. 1985. An Early Cretaceous volcanic sequence in central Israel and its significance to the

absolute date of the base of the Cretaceous. J. Geol.. 93, 179-184.

UWY,

z. 1975. The geologicalhistory of southern Israel and Sinai during the Coniacian. Isr. J. Earth-Sci.. 24,19-43.

MAYNC, w. 1966. Microbiostratigraphy of the Jurassic of Israel. Zsr. Geol. Surv.. Bull., 40, 1-45.

PINTO, I.D. and SANGUINETTI, Y.T. 1958. Bisulcocypris. a new Mesozoic genus and preliminary note about its relation with Metacypris and allied forms. Bol. Soe. Bras. Geol., 7 , 75-90.

ROSENFELD,A. and RAAB, M. 1974. Cenomanian-Turonian ostracodesfrom the Judea Group in Israel. Isr. Geol. Swv.,

Bull..,62,164.

- 1984. Lower Cretaceous ostracodes from Israel and Sinai. Isr. J. Earth-Sci., 33, 85-134.

SOHN, 1.0.1968. Paleogeographicalimplications of nonmarine Lower CretaceousCyprideina in Israel and Metucytheropteron parnesi n. sp. (Ostrawda, Crust.). Zbid. 16, 120-131.

DISCUSSION

Paik: What type of rocks did you examine in your study? How about population density?

Rosenfeld: Soft rocks, such as shales, tuffs, marls and marly limestones were examined. Population density in the Early Jurassic zone is very low, but in the Cretaceous zones non-marine ostracods are common to frequent. The population density is very high in sediments of hypersaline

milieu where ostracods sometimes build whole rocks.



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