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Chapter 45. Palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology of the Tertiary ostracods of northwestern India with palaeooceanographic remarks
620 P. SINGH
proposed a chronostratigraphic classification of the Tertiary sequence of the Kutch Basin. This
was followed by Biswas and Deshpande (1970, 1983), Biswas and Raju (1973), and Singh and Sin&
(1981) who all made useful contributions on the geology and stratigraphy of the Kutch Basin.
The geology and stratigraphy of the Rajasthan Basin have been described by Oldham (1886),
La Touche (1902), Singh (1951,1952, 1953, 1971), Khosla (1967, 1971, 1973), Pareek (1981), Datta
(1983), and Singh (1984).
Bombay Offshore Basin. Guha (1974, 1975, 1978b) studied in detail the Eocene, Oligocene,
and Miocene ostracods of this basin.
Cambay Basin. Bhatia and Mandwal(l960) described the Early Miocene ostracods of this basin.
Guha (1965, 1967a, 1971, 1974, 1978a), Biswas and Guha (1970), and Guha and Rao (1977)
reported a fairly rich assemblage of Ostracoda from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Early
Miocene strata of the Camby Basin.
Saurashtra Basin. Guha (1967b), Khosla (1978), and Khosla and Pant (1978) listed a fairly
rich assemblage of ostracods from the Early Miocene starta.
Kutch Basin. The Palaeogene and Neogene ostracods have been studied by Tewari and Tandon, (1960), Lubimova et al. (1960), Guha (1961, 1968), Tewari and Bhargava (1968), Guha
and Rao (1977), Khosla and Pant (1981), and Pant and Khosla (1982).
Rajasthan Basin. Singh and Misra (1968), and Khosla (1967, 1968, 1972, 1973) described the
Early and Middle Eocene ostracods of this basin.
The distribution of the important and common species of ostracoda in the Bombay Offshore,
Cambay, Saurashtra, Kutch, and Rajasthan basins during Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early
Miocene times has been shown in Text-figs. 1-5. The common distribution of these ostracod species
suggest that transgression resulted in these basins being occupied by the Tethyan Sea in Early
Eocene, Middle Eocene, Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene times.
General Data Review
An attempt has been made to determine a general palaeoecology of the ostracod assemblages
that were thriving in the noithwestern basins of India during the Early Eocene, Middle Eocene,
Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene times. The writer has also taken into account
the associated foraminiferids for achieving the above objective. Because of limited space, it is not
possible to review the many palaeontological studies carried out on Ostracoda over the last twenty
years. It is assumed that readers will be fairly familiar with this work. However, since they will
probably be less familiar with the significance of the Foraminifera, a brief rbum6 of the palaeoecological implications of relevant taxa is given below. Foraminiferids are well known from
work in northwestern India and attention has been focussed mainly on the larger foraminiferids.
From the voluminous literaure it is only possible to abstract some representative conclusions.
Tertiary Ostracods of Northwestern India 621
For example, Hottinger (1960) concluded that alveolinids could apparently live on a shallow sea
bottom with a poor supply of detritus. No alveolinidshave so far been recorded from brackish sediments and all recent species of the family Alveolinidae have been reported from marine waters of
Luterbacher (1970) recorded the foraminiferal genera Alveolina (now known as Fasciolites)
from lagoon deposit, and Operculina,Assilina, and Nummulites from lagoon, muddy beach, lagoonbay deposits, bay skeletal, protected platform limestone, Turritella shales, Pattalophyllia shales
and Nummulites shales (probable water depth 0-30 metres). The genus Discocyclina is distributed
in Nummulites bar deposits, Turritella shales, Pattalophyllia shales and Nummulites globulus shales
deposited at a probable water depth of 5 and 30 metres.
Murray (1973) pointed out that the genus Sorites prefers salinities of more than 37%0,temperature 18"-26" C and inhabits lagoon and near shore environments. The genera Ammonia (15" 30" C, 0-50 m), Archaias, Elphidium (keeled 35-50%0, 15"C, 0-50 m; unkeeled 0-70%0, 1-30" C,
&50 m) and Operculina inhabit an inner shelf environment.
Gammers (1978) considered that the foraminiferal genus Discocyclina lived in deeper water
than Nummulites and generally thrived in moderately deep shelf waters (ca. 15-50 m).
Early Eocene ostracod Assemblage
The Early Eocene strata of the Cambay Basin include Cambay black shales and argillites in
areas south of the Narmada river (Chandra and Chowdhary, 1969; Sudhakar and Basu, 1973;Pandey and Dwarikanath, 1977). The smaller foraminiferids are rare in the Cambay black shales. The
ostracods are represented by Alocopocythere lunejensis, Anticythereis memorans, Ovocythereidea
cambayensis, Paracypris jhingrani, P. lakiensis, and Schizocythere cf. S. levinsoni (Guha, 1974). The
poor faunal contents, pyrite, and plant remains suggest that the Cambay black shales were deposited in a very shallow marine, reducing, environment. According to Sudhakar and Basu (1973),
the Cambay black shales were deposited in lagoons and paludal swamps.
The Early Eocene strata of the Kutch Basin consist of the gypseous shales in the lower part and
calcareous shales and limestone in the upper part (Biswas and Raju, 1973; Raju, 1974; Singh and
Singh, 1981; Biswas and Deshpande, 1983). Singh and Singh (1981) recognised the following biostratigraphic zones in the ascending order: i. Barren zone, ii. Discocyclina Acme-zone, iii. Barren
interzone I ,iv. Nummulites globulus Acme-zone, v. Barren interzone 11, and vi. Nummulites (Assilina
spinosa Acme-zone. The ostracods are fairly well distributed in the Nummulites globulus Acmezone and Nummulites (Assilina) spinosa Acme-zone. The important ostracod genera, indicating
a shallow marine environment, are Aglaiocypris, Bairdoppilata, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Cytheropteron, Occultocythereis, Paracythereidea, Semicytherura, and Xestoleberis (Lubimova et al., 1960;
Guha, 1974; Khosla and Pant, 1981; Pant and Khosla, 1982). The associated larger foraminiferids
are Lockhartia sp., Nummulites burdigalensis de la Harpe, N. globulus Leymerie, N. (Assilina)
daviesi Cizancourt, and N. (A.) spinosa Davies (Singh and Singh, 1981). It may be safely concluded
from the above data that the recorded ostracod assemblageinhabited a lagoonal environment. This
contention is further supported by the presence of gypsum, absence of planktonic foraminiferids,
and rarely distributed stunted calcareous nannoplankton.
The Early Eocene strata of the Rajasthan Basin are represented by the fuller's earth, marlstone,
calcareous shales, and limestones in the lower part and limestones are interbedded with shales in
the upptr part and have yielded a fairly rich assemblage of ostracods and foraminferids (Singh and
622 P. SINGH
Misra, 1968; Singh, 1971; Khosla, 1971, 1972, 1973). The important ostracod genera, suggesting a
shallow marine environment, are Bairdia, Bairdoppilata, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Cytherura,
Hermanites, Neocyprideis, Occultocythereis, Quadracythere, Semicytherura, Trachylebereis. and
Xestoleberis. The ostracod genera, occurring at all depths of marine water, are Buntonia, Cytheropteron, Echinocythereis, Eucythere. Paracypris and Bythocypris which generally occur in a some
what deeper water environment, are also present. The associated foraminiferal genera are Assilina,
Nummulites, and Operculina and mollusc shells also occur. The above fauna indicates a shallow,
warm (temperature more than 10"C), inner shelf environment.
Middle Eocene Ostracod Assemblage
The Middle Eocene strata of the Tarapur Sub-basin, Cambay Basin, and Kutch Basin are
generally represented by limestones and shales containing a fairly rich assemblage of ostracoda
and foraminiferids. The larger foraminiferids are represented by the genera Assilina, Discocyclina,
Fasciolites, Halkyardia, Lockhartia, and Nummulites (Singh, 1951, 1952, 1953; Tewari, 1952; Sen
Gupta, 1959,1964;Raju et al., 1970; Khosla, 1973; Tandon, 1976; Pandey and Dwarikanath, 1977;
Pandey and Guha, 1979; Kumar, 1979; Jauhari and Vimal, 1978) and the planktonic foraminiferal
genera are Indicola, Dentoglobigerina, Globigeropsis, Globigerinoides, Globorotalia (Acarinina), G.
(Morozovella), G. (Turborotalia), G. (Truncorotaloides), Muricoglobigerina and Subbotina (Samanta,
1970; Mohan and Soodan, 1970; Singh, 1971; Jauhari, 1974; Pandey and Guha, 1979). The
important associated ostracod genera which indicate a shallow, marine environment are Bairdia,
Bairdoppilata, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Cytheromorpha, Cytheropteron, Cytherura, Hemicythere,
Hermanites, Kingmaina, Neocyprideis, Occultocythereis, Paijenborchella, Paracythereidea,
Quadracythere, Schizocythere, Trachyleberis, Uroleberis, and Xestoleberis (Tewari and Tandon,
1960; Lubimova et al., 1960; Guha, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1978a; Singh and Misra, 1968; Khosla,
1968, 1972, 1973; Biswas and Guha, 1970; Khosla and Pant, 1981; Pant and Khosla, 1982). In
general this diverse microfaunal assemblage suggests that a warm inner shelf environment having
a water depth of more than five metres and a temperature probably more than 10°C prevailed
during Middle Eocene time in all the basins mentioned above.
Late Eocene Ostracod Assemblage
The Late Eocene strata of the Tarapur Sub-basin and the Cambay Basin are composed of limestones, calcareous shales and shales. The ostracods and foraminiferids are very well represented.
The larger foraminiferal genera include Assilina, Asterocyclina, Discocyclina, Nummulites, and
Pellatispira (Raju et al., 1970; Pandey and Guha, 1979; Kumar, 1979). The important associated
ostracod genera are Bairdia, Bairdoppilata, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Cytherura, Hermanites,
Hemicythere, Paijenborchella, Quadracythere, Schizocythere, Uroleberis, and Xestoleberis (Guha,
1971, 1974, 1978b). These microfaunal assemblages indicate a warm, inner shelf environment
again with a water depth of more than five metres and a temperature more than 10°C.
Early Oligocene Ostracodl Assemblage
Fossiliferous limestones interbedded with shales constitute the Early Oligocene strata of the
Bombay Offshore Basin. In the Cambay Basin they are represented by grey, sandy shales and
argillaceous sandstone (Chandra and Chowdhary, 1969). The Early Oligocene strata of the Kutch
Basin are represented by banded marlites, impure limestones with glauconite pellets and claystones
(Biswas and Deshpande, 1983). Generally the Oligocene strata are found to contain a fairly rich
assemblage of foraminiferids and ostracods.
The important ostracod genera of the Bombay High Sub-basin are Aurila, Bairdia. Bythocypris,
Cytherella, Cytherelloidea,*Echinocythereis, Hemicythere, Loxoconcha. Loxoconchella, Miocypri-
Tertiary Ostracods of Northwestern India 623
deis, Neomonoceratina, Occultocythereis, Paracypris, Propontocypris, Uroleberis, and Xestoleberis (Guha, 1974, 1975). The associated foraminiferal genera are Archaias, Grzybowskia, Heterostegina, Nephrolepidina, Nummulities, Operculina, and Pararotalia (Panddy and Guha, 1979).
The significant ostracod genera of the Tarapur Sub-basin are Bairdia, Bradleya, Clithrocythereidea,
Cytherella, Neocyprideis, Trachyleberis,and Uroleberis (Guha, 1978b). The associated foramhiferal
genera are Cassigerinella, Chiloguembelina, Globigerina, Heterostegina, Lepidocyclina, Nummulites,Pararotalia,and Uvigerina(Pandey and Guha, 1979). In the Cambay Basin important ostracod
genera include Bairdoppilata, Cyprideis, Cytherella, Cytherelloides, Cytheropteron, and Occultocythereis (Guha, 1965, 1967a, 1974). The associated foraminiferal genera are Cassigerinella,Nummulites, Pararotalia,Pseudohastigerina,and Rotalia (Raju et al., 1970; Datta and Bhatia, 1972; Kumar,
1979). The important ostracod genera of the Kutch Basin are Bairdoppilata, Clethrocythereis,
Cytherelloidea. Hornibrookella, Leguminocythereis, Loxoconcha, Miocyprideis, Neomonoceratina,
Neonesidea, Paracypris, Paracythereidea, Pokornyella, Trachyleberis, Uroleberis, and Xestoleberis
(Lubimova et al., 1960; Khosla and Pant, 1981). Associated with them are the foramhiferal genera
Asterigerina, Nummulites, Operculina and Lepidocyclina (Biswas and Deshpande, 1983). The ecological interpretation of this microfaunal data suggests that the ostracod and foraminiferal communities were inhabiting a warm inner shelf environment in all these basins.
Early Miocene Ostracod Assemblage
The Early Miocene strata of the Bombay Offshore Basin, Cambay Basin, Saurashtra Basin, and
Kutch Basin are generally represented by limestones and calcareous shales containing ostracods and
foraminiferids in abundance. In addition to these microfossils, they are also rich in lamellibranchs,
gastropods, and echinoid shells.
The important ostracod genera of the Bombay High Sub-basin are Aurila, Bradleya, Clethrocythereis, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Echinocythereis, Hemicythere, Loxoconcha, Neomonoceratina,
Paijenborchella, Triebelina,and Uroleberis(Guha, 1974,1975). The associated foraminiferal genera
are Ammonia, Archaias, Elphidium, Miogypsinoides, Nephrolepidina, Nummulites, Operculina,
Sorites, and Turborotalia (Pandey and Guha, 1979). In the Cambay Basin significant ostracod genera are Actinocythereis, Aurila, Bairdia, Bradleya, Cytherelloidea, Cytheromorpha, Hermanites,
Krithe, Leguminocythereis, Loxoconcha, Miocyprideis, Neomonoceratina, and Paracypris (Bhatia
and Mandwal, 1960; Guha, 1978a). Associated with them are the foramhiferal genera Ammonia,
Austrotrillina, Cassigerinella,Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina), and Miogypsina (Datta and Bhatia,
1972, 1977). A more or less similar ostracod assemblage has been recorded from the Tarapur Subbasin, Saurashtra Basin, and Kutch Basin (Tewari and Tandon, 1960; Lubimova et al., 1960; Guha
l961,1967b, 1978; Khosla, 1978; Khosla and Pant, 1978). The important ostracod genera of these
basins are Aglaiocypris, Actinocythereis, Aurila, Bairdoppilata, Buntonia, Caudites, Clethrocythereis,
Cyprideis, Cytherella, Cytherelloidea, Cytheretta, Cytheropteron, Cytherura. Echinocythereis, Hemicythere, Hemicyprideis, Hermanites, Leguminocythereis, Leptocythere, Loxoconcha, Macrocypris,
Miocyprideis, Neomonoceratina, Neonesidea, Occultocythereis, Paijenborchella (Eupaijenborchella), Paracypris, Paracytheridea, Pokornyella, Propontocypris, Quadracythere, Trachyleberis, Triebelina, and Xestoleberis. The associated foramhiferal genera are Ammonia, Archaias, Austrotrillina,
Borelis, Elphidium, Miogypsina, Operculina, Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina), Sorites, and Taberina
Chatterji, 1961; Mohan and Singh, 1975; Jauhari, 1981). From this one may conclude that again
a warm, inner shelf environment prevailed in all these basins during Early Miocene time.
Singh (1952), Raju et al. (1970), Datta and Bhatia (1972), Sudhakar and Basu (1973), Pandey and
Dwarikanath (1977), Mathur and Chowdhary (1977), Kumar (1979), Rao and Talukdar (1980) and
Mohan et al. (1982) carried out palaeooceanographic studies on the Tertiary strata of the Bombay
Offshore, Cambay and Rajasthan basins.
The major orogenic movements were initiated in the Himalayan region just after the collison of
the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate probably in Late Cretaceous time (Singh, 1980a). The
transgressions or regressions of the Tethyan Sea during Early Eocene, Middle Eocene, Late Eocene,
Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene times in the northwestern India may be attributed to the
repeated tectonic disturbances in the Himalayan region in the Tertiary period (Singh, 1980b)
Tethys transgressed the northwestern part of the Rajasthan and Kutch basins from Pakistan
and the Cambay Basin through the gulf of Cambay during Early Eocene time. At this time, the
Bombay High and Saurashtra regions were positive areas (Text-fig. 1). The Rajasthan Basin was
deeper towards Pakistan and gradually shallowed towards the Indian side. The deep marine foraminiferal facies has been recorded in the subsurface Early Eocene strata lying between Ghotaru
and Bandah regions (Singh, 1984). The Birmania-Barmer-Nagar
Parker High (Das Gupta and
Chandra, 1978) prevented the transgression of Tethys into the interior parts of the Rajasthan
region during Early Eocene time.
The Middle Eocene witnessed a major orogenic movement in the Himalayan region as a result of
that the Tethyan Sea transgressed across the northwestern part of Kutch and deep into the Cambay region forming an epicontinental sea. The Bombay High and Saurashtra regions were the
positive areas at this time (Text-fig. 2). Due to the presence of the Tharad High (Das Gupta and
Chandra, 1978), there was no sea connection between the Rajasthan Basin and the Cambay Basin
through the Kutch region (Text-fig. 2).
The Late Eocene saw the withdrawal of the sea from the Rajasthan and Kutch basins probably
due to some major orogenic movement that took place in the Himalayan region. The Bombay High
and Saurashtra regions were positive areas at this time. In the Cambay Basin, Tethys showed a
slight regression from the northern parts of the Tharad and Chorar Hills (Text-fig. 3). The ostracod
and foraminifera1 assemblages suggest that the sea was not deep in the Cambay and Tarapur regions.
Another readjustment in the distribution of Tethys took place during Early Oligocene time,
again probably caused by orogenic movements in the Himalayan region. The sea advanced into the
Kutch region and occupied only the peripheral part of the Kutch mainland. At the same time, it
withdrew from the Tharad region to the Mehsana area in the Cambay Basin because of some of
orogenic movement that affected the northern part of the Cambay Basin. The coastal part of
Bombay High island got submerged; the Saurashtra region remained as a positive area. Only a
warm shallow marine depositional environment prevailed (Text-fig. 4).
The Himalayan region saw more major tectonic activity during Early Miocene time resulting in
a major transgression of Tethys into the Kutch and Saurashtra regions (Text-fig. 5). However, the
sea withdrew from the Mehsana area to the north of the Kalol region in the Cambay Basin. Bombay
High island was completely submerged.
In summary the data show that all the basins mentioned above were in existence during Eocene,
Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene times and that all received their sediments from the same
~ D - m l t % N A T l O N A L W W D A R Y NOT FOR
C O L I T I C A L USE
I - p - OLOLOOICAL
SECTIONS ( K I W I L A ,121
1-Showing the distribution of important species of ostracods in the northwestern basins of India and
palaeoshore line during Early Eocene time.
2-Showing the distribution of important species of ostracods in the northwestern basins of India and
palaeoshore line during Middle Eocene time.
ONCC UNPUBLISHEO MTA 1
5-Showing the distribution of important species of ostracods in the northwestern basins of India and
palaeoshore line during Early Miocene time.
FOR POLITICAL U O I
0 o*+-coIyo* O C C U U I I I C C S
BOMBAY OFFSHORE BASIN
Tam-no. 4-Showing the distribution of important species of Ostracoda in the northwestern basins of India and
palaeoshore line during Early Oligocene time.
-0 -IITLRYATIOYAL BOUYOARY NOT
FOR POLITICAL USE
3-Showing the distribution of important species of ostracods in the northwestern basins of India and
palaeoshore line during Late Eocene time.
630 P. SINGH
BHUJENSIS (Tewari and Tandon, 1960)
Trachyleberis? bhujensis TEWARI
and TANDON,1960, p. 155, Text-figs. 6, 3a-b.
Acanthocythereis bhujensis (Tewari and Tandon). PANTAND KHOSLA,1982,p. 512.
SPINELLOSA (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
Cythereis spinellosa Lubimova and Guha, in LUBIMOVA,
G u m AND MOHAN,1960, p. 31-32, P1.
11, fig. 10.
Trachyleberis spinellosa (Lubimova and Guha). GUHAet al., 1965,p. 13, P1.111, fig. 15: GUHA,1974,
Actinocythereis spinellosa (Lubimova and Guha). KHOSLAAND PANT 1981, p. 161-162, PI. 1, fig. 7.
TUMEFACIENS (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
Trachyleberis tumefacentis Lubimova and Guha in LUBIMOVA,
GUHAAND MOHAN,1960,p. 36-37,PI.
111, fig. 4.
Actinocythereis tumefacentis (Lubimova and Guha). GUHA,1961, p. 4, figs. 7, 11, 16.
Actinocythereis tumefaciens (Lubimova and Guha). KHOSIA,1978, p. 266, P1. 4, fig. 1.
FOSSULARIS (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
Trachyleberisfossularis Lubimeva and Guha, in Lubimova, Guha and Mohan, 1960,p. 40-41, P1.
111, fig. 7.
Echinocythereisfossularis (Lubimova and Guha). G u m , 1961.p. 4,figs. 5,9;G u m et al., 1965,p. 13,
P1. 111, fig. 12.
Quadracytherefossularis (Lubimova and Guha). GUHA,1968b,p. 215-216, P1. 11, fig. 20.
Alocopocythere fossularis (Lubimova and Guha). KHOSLA,
1978,p. 226-227, PI. 4, fig. 2.
LUNEJENSIS (Guha, 1967)
Leguminocythereis lunejensis Guha, 1967,p. 21, P1. I, figs. 3, 6, 8.
Alocopocythere Iunejensis (Guha). KHOSLA
AND PANT, 1981, p. 175.
MEMORANS (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
Trachyleberis memoruns Lubimova and Guha, in LUBIMOVA,
G u m AND MOHAN,1960,p. 38-39, P1.
111, fig. 5 .
Anticythereis memorans (Lubimova and Guha). KHOSLA,1972,p. 487,PI. 2,fig. 5, P1. 4, fig. 4.
MEMORANS MUDHENSIS Khosla, 1972
Anticythereis memorans mudhensis KHOSLA,
1972, p. 487,P1. 2, figs. 5, 6,P1. 4,fig. 5, P1. 5, fig. 4.
PULCHRA” (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
Cythereispulcheris Lubimova and Guha, in LUBIMOVA,
GUHAAND MOHAN,1960, p. 35-36, PI. 11,
figs. 3a, b.
“Archicythereis” pulchra (Lubimova and Guha). KHOSLA,
1978, p. 267,P1. 4,fig. 6,P1. 6,fig. 13.
BERAGUAENSIS Singh and Tewari, 1966
Bairdia beraguaensis Singh and Tewari, in TEWARI
AND SINGH,1966,p. 119-170, P1. 1, figs. 4a-d.
GLIBERTI (Keij, 1957)
Bairdoppilata gliberti KEW,1957, p. 53-54, P1. 1, figs. 18-21.
Bairdia gliberti (Keji), KHOSLA,
1972,p. 483, PI. 1, fig. 9.
KIRTHARENSIS (Tewari and Tandon, 1960)
Bairdia? kirtharensis TEWARI
and TANWN,1960, p. 148-150, Text-fig. 1, figs. 4a, b.
Bairdoppilata kirtharensis (Tewari and Tandon). PANTAND KHOSLA,1982, p. 512.
PODDARI Lbbimova and Mohan, 1960
Bairdoppilata poddari Lubimova and Mohan, in LUBIMOVA,
Gum AND MOHAN,1960,p. 21-22,P1. II,
figs. la, b; G u m , 1967, p. 17-18, P1. 1, fig. 1.
Bairdiapoddari (Lubimova and Mohan). KHOSIA,1972,p. 484,P1. I, fig. 12;Guha, 1974,p. 160.
RAJNATHI Tewari and Tandon, 1960
Bairdoppilata rajnathi TEWARI
AND TANDON,1960, p. 150, Text-fig. 1, figs. 5a, b.
ARCANLJS (Lubimova and Guha, 1960)
CythereisarcanusLubimova and Guha, in LUBIMOVA,
GUHAAND MOW, 1960,p. 33, Pl.II1, figs. la, b.
Quadracythere arcanus (Lubimova and Guha). G u m , 1968,p. 91, PI. I, fig. 24.
Bradleya arcanus (Lubimgva and Guha). G u m , 1974, p. 158.