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Chapter 7. The Bairdia dynasty review-activities-aspects

Chapter 7. The Bairdia dynasty review-activities-aspects

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76 H. MALZ

standing for a single genus, but for a whole dynasty: The Buirdiidue or (if you like) the Bairdiacea

(which really do not have anything in common with any plants, as may be suggested by the misleading ending.)

THEREINSOF BUirdiU (Text-fig.


Nowadays, one hundred years later, the dynasty can be confirmed, for it is evidenced by many

representatives from almost everywhere and from almost any geological time unit. In restricting the


OF THE O l N L S l l






8 A I R D I A


2-Everzoic breeding of the dynasty by the reins

of Bairdia.

dynasty’s distribution by the word “almost”, I want to point out that there are still some gaps

remaining to be filled by future research, but these aspects will be elucidated later on. Anyhow,

you can see that the Godess Isis passes life to the Buirdiu pharaoh for ever: “Hallowed be thy



CLANSMEN (Text-fig. 3)

In order to underpin and to improve the wide geographical and geological distribution of the

dynasty, some of the prefixed and otherwise named Bairdias are briefly demonstrated by their

outline. I willingly agree that, in the picture, the number of rather arbitrarily composed clansmen

does not by far approach the number of the above mentioned Rameses’ children. However, this

selection stands as a pars pro toto, for one page is not sufficient to catch all the related clansmen.

The Bairdia Dynasty 77





. .L+/:;

.... .


. ....,;



. . ..... .. . .,.. ..

.;: , , _.:..:': S:"






:.:. :-.:.!:.'.::.,

TEXT-FIG.3-Assorted representatives of the dynasty.


OF Bairdia (Text-fig.


Although the dynasty achieved worldwide recognition, Bairdia itself remains nebulous.-Just as

nebulous as Nesidea. Nesidea (Costa, 1846) that emerged as a competing Recent sprout beside Bairdia, is replaced now by the well-known Neonesidea (Maddocks, 1969). But, although Neonesidea

plays trumps, Bairdia has still got the joker, for the glory of god Amun (or is it Aton?) is spreading

its beams everywhere. Others beside and besides Bairdia are blinded. Thus, it may happen that a

Recent ostracod belongs to Neonesidea, but by the help of Amun the Palaeozoic Bairdiu is favoured

for the determination. And therefore, by the help of nomenclature and taxonomy, living fossils are

created. They keep everything running, and without systematics the whole system would become




(Text-fig. 5; lower part)

A hard match, or nearly a fight, came up between Triebelina and Glyptobairdia in the late forties. Their rivalry started in 1946 and it still goes on. Interim results of this match (Text-fig. 6) are

given here. Since the result comes out to fifty to fifty, bets can be arranged for the next round.

78 H. MALZ


5 - Quaternary events.

The Bairdia Dynasty 79

TriebelinalGlyptobairdia MATCH(Text-fig. 5 ; upper part)

The match is over-shadowed by two more events. While the two are still competing, there are

two related cartouches that claim for predominant reputation. Both these cartouches very much

resemble Indian totem poles ornamented by birds’ feathers, perhaps alluding to their Texan origin.

The one is Bairdoppilata which, by its toothed hinge, tries to catch Glyptobairdia. The other is

Paranesidea. Since its cartouche was found rather recently, it will not do any harm to Triebelina.

Results of Match






v.d. BOLD. 1946

(TRIEBEL, 1948)

(KEY. 1954)

(v. MORKHOVEN; i958j



o :3

1 :3

(POKORNP, 1958)

1 :4

(OSNOVY. 1960)


(KOLLMANN, 1960)


(TREATISE, 1961)

2 : 6 (v. MORKHOVEN, 1963)

(MADDOCKS, 1969)


3 :7

(BOLZ, 1971)

(KEIJ, 1973)


(KEIJ, 1974)


(v.d. BOLD, 1974)



(PURI, 1974)


(HARTMANN and PURI, 1974)

7 :9



(KEIJ, 1976)

8 :9

(McKENZIE and KEIJ, 1977)



will be continued by prolongation (ISOP) in Japan 1985

10 : 9

(MALZ and LORD, 1985)



Since the early sixties of our century a rush on bairdiid cartouches can be noticed, mainly on

Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic ones. To demonstrate their relationship with the dynasty, most of

them were prefixed by a characteristic feature (see also Text-fig. 3). This legion was then divided

into 8 separate clans*, perhaps in order to find out different phylogenetic lineages, but the relationship was so close that separatist clanogene effats shrunk by half.


(Text-fig. 6)

Researches on the dynasty continue and as has been stated before, many gaps remain to be

* Clans (= subfamilies) in alphabetical order; Alanellinae. Bairdiinae, Bairdoppilatinae, Bythocypridinae,Carinobairdiinae, Nodobairdiinae, Pussellinae, and Triebelininae.

80 H. MALZ




&Aspects for future research on speculative members of the Bairdia dynasty.

filled. Since we know two types of Recent winged Bairdias, we can conclude that the dynasty is on

its best way to conquer a new biotope, the air (or even space). One of these winged .forms which

bears the Havanardia cartouche represents a more old-fashioned trial meant for gliding. The submarine coral platforms where it occurs can be suggested as ideal landing plains for strategical purposes. As we do not know anything about palaeo-strategy, this perhaps will be a future field of

research. Pterobairdia which is the other winged cartouche represents the form of a modern

streamline jet. The circumstances in which it was found in deeper water off Sumatra were explained

(McKenzie and Keij, 1976) by post-mortem water transport, but why not consider it as a normal

crash-down ?

These aspects of new biotopes for Bairdias lead me to three more speculative cartouches: (1)

Ophthulmobairdiu (for only blind specimens are known up to now), (2) Znversobairdia (taking into

account that reversal of overlap might be caused by the Corriolis effect), and (3) Fluviobairdiu

(which has certainly been misidentified as a freshwater Candona). Last, but not least, there is a

chance for Sinobairdia which is waiting for identification from the endemic Bohai deposits.

Some Problems Associated with

the Genus uroleberis




University of Hull, England and

ONGC, Dehra Dun,India


The present interpretation of the genus Uroleberis is assessed and its stratigraphical distribution examined. S.E.M. stereographic paired photographs are given of some well known species

including type specimens of seven species.


During work on the Indian Tertiary faunas the authors became interested in the genus Uroleberis from the point of view of its stratigraphic potential as an age marker. The genus is widespread

in the Palaeocene and Eocene faunas of the Indian sub-continent and the Middle East and is recorded as far afield as the Caribbean and Australia in rocks ranging in age from the late Cretaceous

to Recent. Essentially a benthic shallow-water form, at least thirty species have been referred to

the genus and a considerable number have also been recorded in the literature under open nomenclature. It quickly became apparent that what was conceived as a study of stratigraphical potential

was overshadowed by the taxonomic problems involved. A thoroughgoing study and revision

of this group of species is needed and the following contribution must be looked on merely as an

interim report. Below we attempt to outline the problems and figure some of the well established

species with SEM photographs. We are particularly indebted to Dr. 0. Ducasse (France), Mr.

R. Hodgkinson (Palaeontology) and Dr. G. Vauxhall and Miss Sheila Halsey (Zoology) of the

B.M.N.H., London who kindly made available material from their collections.


The xestoleberid genus Uroleberis was established by Triebel in 1958 based on the Eocene

Eocytheropteron parnensis Apostolescu, 1955 from the Lutetian of Parnes (Oise) in the Paris Basin

as the type species. Triebel’s principal figured material, also from the Lutetian of the Paris Basin,

came from Liancourt-St-Pierre about 10 kilometres E.N.E. of Parnes, and from Grignon some

38 kilometres to the E.S.E. The particular characteristics of the genus are the development of a

marked accommodation groove in the left valve and a small posterior caudal process coupled with

a rather characteristic shape. As noted above, at least thirty species have been assigned to this

genus as well as many left under open nomenclature. These range from Upper Cretaceous to Re81

82 J. w.NEALE


cent in age. The distribution of these, as known in the mid-seventies, has been ably covered by

McKenzie (1977). This group of species shows a considerable range of variation from the type and

covers forms such as the smooth Cretaceous species with rather poorly developed caudal process

on the one hand to the strongly pitted Eocene and Recent forms of very characteristic shape such

as U.stagnosa on the other. From this it appeared that some sub-division of the group might be


At the same time, as knowledge of the Xestoleberididae has grown, a number of other genera

and subgenera such as Koilocythere Deltel, 1963, Ornatoleberis Keij, 1975, Pannonleberis Krstic,

1974, Pontoleberis Krstic and Stancheva, 1967 and Semixestoleberis Hartmann, 1962 have been

proposed over the last thirty years. None of these, except Ornatoleberis, is relevant to the present

study. However, in 1980, Malz split the group and established Foveoloberis with Brady’s Xestoleberisfoveolata (Pl. 1, fig. 1; PI. 2, fig. 4) as the type species (lectotype selected and figured by Puri

and Hulings, 1976). This was to accommodate the latter and other species with a similar accommodation groove and shape to Uroleberis but characterised by a crenulate median hinge element.

The two species figured by Malz (1980) also differ from the type species of Uroleberis in their strong

pitting (foveolation). However, this latter feature need not necessarily be linked to a crenulate median hinge element. Originally in U.angurium (PI. 2, fig. 8) and U.stagnosa (Pl. 1, figs. 12, 16;

PI. 2, fig. 3) Al-Furaih (1980) the median hinge element was described as smooth. This separated

them from the co-eval U.vulsa Al-Furaih (1980) (PI. 2, figs. 2, 5, 9) with its crenulate median element. The separation seemed artificial even though U . vulsa has a pustulose rather than a pitted


More recently Al-Furaih (1984) has returned to this group and has described them all as having

a crenulate median bar, has transferred them to Foveoleberis and has added two more species from

the Maastrichtian of Saudi Arabia, namely F.. ovata and F. trapezium. F. ovata has a crenulate bar

according to Al-Furaih (op. cit.) and fits well into the group with U. angurium, U.stagnosa and

U.vulsa. F. trapezium is smooth, the nature of the hinge is unknown and it fits better with the

U.parnensis group. The opposite situation is seen in the case of some smooth forms such as Uroleberis batei Neale, 1975 from the Santonian of W. Australia which was described as having a locellate hinge bar. On the other hand U.batei lacks a caudal process although this situation is also

apparent in a number of European species usually placed in Uroleberis. This leads us to conclude

that while the nature of the median element may be used to split the group of species hitherto

assigned to Uroleberis, it is often difficult to determine, is not linked to ornamentation (foveolation) and may apparently separate what appear to be closely similar species and place them in

PLATE1-Stereoscopic paired photographs.

Fig. 1. Foveoleberis foveolata (Brady, 1880). Lectotype, BMNH 80.38.141. Right Valve, external view, Challenger Station 38.141 D8 off Booby Island. x65.

Figs. 2,6. U. striatopunctata Ducasse, 1967. Univ. Bordeaux CO 2574. Carapace, Middle Eocene, Forage de

Bassens, 83-91 m, France. 2. from right; 6. dorsal view. x 68.

Figs. 3,7. U.globosa Ducasse, 1967. Univ. Bordeaux CO 2572. Carapace, Middle Eocene, Blaye, France.

3. from right; 7. dorsal view. x68.

Figs. 4,s. U.subtrapezida Ducasse, 1967. Univ. Bordeaux CO 2570. Right Valve, Middle Upper Eocene, Villeneuve de Blaye: Bois de Barbe, France. 4. external lateral view; 8. dorsal view. ~ 6 3 .

Fig. 5 . U.procera (Deltel 1962). Univ. Bordeaux CO 2571. Right Valve external view, Stampian, Middle Oligocene, Tercis: Lesperon, France. x 50.

Figs. 9,13. U.kymus Ahmad MS. Holotype, BMNH OS 8189. Femalecarapace, FRCM 2033, Upper Eocene,

Lindi Creek East Shore, Tanzania. 9. from right; 13. dorsal view. ~ 6 9 .

Figs. 10,14. U.armeniacurn Neale and Singh, 1985. Middle Eocene, Assam. 10. Holotype, IPE/HO2/03/912.

Male carapace from right; 14. Female carapace, IPE/B02/03/914, dorsal view. X 83.

Figs. 11,15. U. runikotiana (Latham, 1938). Holotype, BMNH In. 37122. Carapace, Palaeocene, Pakistan.

11. from right; 15. dorsal view. ~ 5 2 .

Figs. 12,16. U.stagnosa Al-Furaih, 1980. Holotype, BMNH 10.5379, Female right valve, Lower Palaeocene,

El-Alat W-1,2044-2049 feet below surface, Saudi Arabia. 12. external lateral view; 16. dorsal view. X 58.

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