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B. Measuring the Nutrient Buffer Power and Its Importance in Affecting Nutrient Concentrations on Root Surfaces

B. Measuring the Nutrient Buffer Power and Its Importance in Affecting Nutrient Concentrations on Root Surfaces

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THE AGRONOMY AND ECONOMY OF CARDAMOM



279



production calls for an understanding not only of the basic concepts but of

their intelligent application as well. In a dynamic state of plant growth, the

concentration of any nutrient on the root surface is nearly impossible to

measure since both the nutrient in the plant tissue and the root absorbing

power, which directly aVects it, change quickly due to root metabolic processes.

The inability of even mechanical mathematical models to accurately predict

nutrient influx rates has been highlighted (Lu and Miller, 1994). Hence,

if an eVective soil testing procedure is to be devised for a nutrient, which is

an alternative to defining the plant root’s chemical environment, one must

resolve the problem of quantifying the nutrient concentration on the root

surface indirectly, even if it is impossible to resolve it directly, for the reasons

mentioned previously.

Using Ficks first law,

 

dC

F ẳ D

;

dx



2ị



where F ẳ the flux, dC/dx ¼ concentration gradient across a particular

section, and D ¼ the diVusion coeYcient, Nye (1972) has suggested that

the formula can be applied to both ions and molecules. The negative sign for

D implies net movement from high to low concentration. Although for

molecules in simple systems like dilute solutions D may be nearly constant

over a range concentrations, for ions in complex systems like soils and clays

D will usually depend on the concentration of the ion and on that of other

ions as well (Nye, 1979). Nye (1979) has further suggested that although

Fick’s first law may be derived from thermodynamic principles in ideal

systems, in a complex medium, such as the soil, the above‐mentioned quotation may be regarded as giving an operational definition of the diVusion

coeYcient. Thus, Nye (1979) defines the diVusion coeYcient as



D ẳ D1 yf1





dC1

ỵ DE ;

dC



3ị



where D1 ẳ diVusion coeYcient of the solute in free solution, y ¼ the fraction

of the soil volume occupied by solution and gives the cross section for

diVusion, f1 ¼ an impedance factor, C1 ¼ concentration of solute in the

soil solution, DE ¼ an excess term which is zero when the ions or molecules

on the solid have no surface mobility, but represents their extra contribution

to the diVusion coeYcient when they are mobile. DE can generally be

neglected since only in rare instances will it play any role in diVusion of

plant nutrient ions in soil (Mengel, 1985). From the point of view of nutrient

availability, dC1/dC, which represents the concentration gradient, assumes

crucial importance, as we shall see later.

The term dC1/dC, where C1 ¼ concentration of the nutrient ion in the soil

solution and C ¼ concentration of the same ion species in the entire soil



280



K. P. PRABHAKARAN NAIR



mass, assumes considerable significance in lending a practical meaning

to nutrient availability. If we ascribe the term ‘‘capacity’’ or ‘‘quantity’’ to

C and ‘‘intensity’’ to C1, we have in this term an integral relationship

between two parameters that may crucially aVect nutrient availability.

Since the concentration gradient of the depletion profile of the nutrient in

the zone of nutrient uptake depends on the concentration of the ion species

in the entire soil mass (represented by ‘‘capacity’’ or ‘‘quantity’’) in relation

to the rate at which this is lowered on the plant root surface by uptake

(represented by ‘‘intensity’’), it could be argued that a quantitative relationship between the two should represent the rate at which nutrient depletion

and/or replenishment in the rooting zone should occur (Nair, 1984a). This

relationship has been functionally quantified by Nair and Mengel (1984)

for P in eight widely diVering central European soils (Table II) and the

term dC1/dC has been referred to as the ‘‘nutrient buVer power.’’ Nair and

Mengel (1984) used electroultra filtration to quantify C1 while using an

incubation and extraction technique to quantify C. For P, C was found to

closely approximate isotopically exchangeable P (Keerthisinghe and Mengel,

1979), but in the experiments conducted by Nair and Mengel (1984), it was

estimated by extraction of incubated soil with an extractant which was a

mixture consisting of 0.1 M Ca lactate ỵ 0.1 M Ca acetate ỵ 0.3 M acetic

acid at pH 4.1. The extractant exchanges adsorbed phosphate and dissolves

Ca phosphates except apatites; the method known as the ‘‘CAL‐method,’’

developed by Schuller (1969), is now widely used in central Europe. In the

case of Kỵ and NH4 –N, C denotes the concentration of exchangeable, and

to some extent nonexchangeable, fractions (Mengel, 1985). Since low concentrations in the range of 2.0 mM may be attained on the root surface for

both P and K (Claassen and Barber, 1976; Claassen et al., 1981; Hendriks

et al., 1981), Nair and Mengel (1984) had to use electroultrafiltration (EUF)

to quantify C1. Thus, the nutrient depletion around the roots which is caused

by the diVusive flux of the nutrients toward the root surface is related to both

the quantity and the intensity parameters, and a quantifiable relationship

between both represents the buVer power specific to the nutrient and the soil.

A growing root will at first encounter a relatively high concentration of P

which is in the range of the concentration of the bulk soil solution (Nair and

Mengel, 1984). As uptake continues, depletion will occur at the root surface.

This depletion profile gets flatter with enhanced nutrient uptake (Claassen

et al., 1981; Hendriks et al., 1981; Lewis and Quirk, 1967). But it is the

capacity of the soil to replenish this depletion, which ensures a supply of

nutrient ions to the plant root without greatly depressing its average concentration on the root surface. It is the nutrient’s buVer power that decides

these depletion and/or replenishment rates. A soil with a high P buVer power

implies that the P absorbed from the soil solution is rapidly replenished. In

such a case, P concentration at the root surface decreases only slowly and



THE AGRONOMY AND ECONOMY OF CARDAMOM



281



this means P concentration at the root surface remains relatively high. In soils

with a low P buVer power, the reverse is true, and P concentration at the root

surface is rapidly diminished and remains relatively low. This has been proved

experimentally for P (Nair, 1992; Nair and Mengel, 1984; Table XXIII). This

phenomenon holds true for Zn2ỵ (Nair, 1984a,b), K, and NH4ỵN as well

Mengel (1985).



C. QUANTIFYING THE BUFFER POWER OF SOILS AND TESTING ITS

EFFECT ON POTASSIUM AVAILABILITY

The dynamics of K availability follows the same pattern as that of P,

especially in the range of low concentrations. Beckett (1971) has used the

activity ratio for Kỵ and Ca2ỵ to determine K availability. Since interlayer K

would play an important role in K availability, it would be more logical to

consider K buVer power in determining K availability. Routinely it is the

ammonium acetate extractant that is widely used to characterize K availability.

The reason that this may not be suitable to characterize exchangeable K is that

in the routine extraction, only the top layer is extracted, while interlayer K from

which deep‐rooted plants can feed is ignored (Nair et al., 1997). There is

extensive evidence to substantiate this Nair (1985). The importance of interlayer K in the nutrition of deep rooted and perennial crops, such as cardamom,

the world’s most valuable spice crop next to black pepper, is highlighted in this

section.



D. THE IMPORTANCE OF K BUFFER POWER DETERMINATION

PREDICTING K AVAILABILITY TO PERENNIAL CROPS



IN



As in the case of P, the K buVer power assumes great importance in

predicting K availability, especially with regard to deep‐rooted and perennial

crops. K availability has been studied with reference to the exchangeable

K. However, with perennial and deep‐rooted crops, nonexchangeable and

interlayer K play a crucial role in K availability. Three soil parameters

that control the rate of K supply to plant roots which have been used for

predicting K absorption by plants are K intensity in the soil solution,

the K buVer power, and the eVective diVusion coeYcient (Beckett, 1971;

Claassen et al., 1986; Mengel and Kirby, 1980). K buVer power can be directly

obtained from the K quantity–intensity relationship. The eVective diVusion coeYcient depends on, among other factors, the buVer power (Nye,

1972). Plants feed not only from exchangeable Kỵ, but also from nonexchangeable Kỵ, which mainly consists of Kỵ trapped in the interlayers



282



I. Fertilizer schedule in cardamoma

Time of application

Region



Soil application



Soil þ Foliar application



Soil



Karnataka



NPK 75:75

(150 kg haÀ1)



May–June

August–September



September November January



Kerala



NPK 75:75

(150 kg haÀ1)



May–June

August–September



September November January



Tamil Nadu



NPK 40:80:40

(kg haÀ1)



NPK 37.5:37.5:75 (kg haÀ1)

Urea (2.5%)

Single super phosphate (0.75%)

Muriate of potash (1.0%)

NPK 37.5:37.5:75 (kg haÀ1)

Urea (2.5%)

Single super phosphate (0.75%)

Muriate of potash (1.0%)

NPK 20:40:20 (kg haÀ1)

Urea (3%)

Single super phosphate (1.0%)

Muriate of potash (2%)



September

November



June, August, November–December



Foliar



K. P. PRABHAKARAN NAIR



Table XXIII

Fertilizer Schedule in Cardamom and Comparison of P BuVer Power of Central European Soils



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B. Measuring the Nutrient Buffer Power and Its Importance in Affecting Nutrient Concentrations on Root Surfaces

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