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VI. Effect on Specific Microbial Populations

VI. Effect on Specific Microbial Populations

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Trials were conducted in test plots managed by a commercial grower in a field

where the predominant pressure was from generalized root pathogens associated

with black root rot, such as Pythium, binucleate Rhizoctonia, and Cylindrocarpon

spp. After 2 years, yields were different from both years due to environmental

conditions. Itoh et al. (2000) showed that Fusarium oxysporum was not detected

in soil 3 weeks after fumigation, but this varies with fumigant, with CP having a

stronger effect than MITC. In another study, Tanaka et al. (2003) showed more

vigorous growth of tomato plants after CP treatments than those treated with

MeBr. The result was attributed to an increase in NH4-N supply at that stage.



VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The phase-out of MeBr has generated a lot of public awareness of fumigants

and the large use of these compounds in agriculture. Since there is no single,

registered fumigant that is as effective as MeBr, other compounds need to be

developed and tested. The actual registration procedure includes evaluations of

the impact of herbicides on the environment by testing for non-target organism

effects on a single species or on microbial communities. The impact on soil

microbial communities is evaluated in view of their role in sustaining the global

cycling of matter and their varied functions in supporting plant growth.

Internationally, there are various protocols that are required before a new

pesticide is granted registration.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thanks to Ms Pamela Watt for reviewing and assisting in literature searches, and

Drs Scott Yates, Sharon K. Papiernik, and Frank Martin for providing helpful

materials. This review was supported in part by the 206 Manure and Byproduct

Utilization Project of the USDA-ARS. The mention of trademark or propriety

products in this review does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the property

by the USDA and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products

that may also be suitable.



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SORGHUM IMPROVEMENT—

INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND

NEW TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE

IMPROVED GENOTYPES

W. L. Rooney

Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A&M University, College Station,

Texas 77843-2474, USA

I.

II.

III.

IV.



V.



VI.



VII.

VIII.



Introduction

Variation in Sorghum ssp.

Sorghum Improvement—from Landraces to Cultivars

Mechanisms of Controlled Pollination

A. Hand Emasculation

B. Genetic Male Sterility

C. Hot-Water Emasculation

D. Control of Anther Dehiscence

E. Cytoplasmic – Genetic Male Sterility

Improvement Methodology

A. Population Improvement

B. Cultivar and Inbred Line Development

C. Hybrid Development

D. Use of Exotic Germplasm—Sorghum Conversion

Trait-Based Breeding Efforts

A. Yield and Adaptation

B. Biotic Stress

C. Abiotic Stress

D. Grain Quality

E. Forage Sorghum

F. Sweet Sorghum for Syrup

G. Broomcorn

Biotechnology in Sorghum Improvement

Conclusion

References



Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a major cereal grain crop

grown throughout the semi arid regions of the world. Depending on the

region of production, the type of sorghum and the purpose for its

production varies widely. Whether they are breeding varieties or

hybrids, the primary focus of sorghum breeders throughout the world

are yield, adaptation and quality. In addition to breeding for these

factors, reducing losses due to stress is equally important. Most breeding

37

Advances in Agronomy, Volume 83

Copyright q 2004 by Elsevier Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

DOI 10.1016/S0065-2113(04)83002-5



38



W. L. ROONEY

programs consistently select for tolerance to abiotic stresses (such as

drought and low temperatures) and biotic stresses (such as sorghum

midge, grain mold, anthracnose, and charcoal rot). Finally, the

integration of molecular genetic technology is enhancing sorghum

improvement by providing a genetic basis for many important traits and

through marker-assisted selection. Sorghum improvement in the future

will require effective utilization of all the available tools in order to

develop sorghum genotypes suitable for the needs of their producers and

end-users.

q 2004 Elsevier Inc.



I. INTRODUCTION

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important cereal

grain crops in the world. In 2001, sorghum was produced on approximately 50

million hectares with an average yield of 1280 kg ha21 worldwide (FAO, 2001).

Average yields for sorghum production are generally low because the crop is

widely grown in environments where abiotic and biotic stresses are common and

limit production. While the worldwide average sorghum yield is low, average

yields vary widely among countries (FAO, 2001) and the maximum recorded

grain sorghum yield was 21.5 t ha21 (Wittwer, 1980). Most sorghum production

is located in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, but production occurs in

some temperate regions where rainfall is limiting.

Depending on the location, sorghum is grown for many different purposes.

The grain is used for food, feed, and industrial purposes. The vegetation is

important in many production systems where it is used as forage. The location of

production often defines the ultimate end use and the specific types of sorghum

that will be grown. For example, in many regions of Africa, sorghum is a vital

food grain and the stalk and leaves are valued for building and forage. In these

production systems, small farmers demand pure-line cultivars that are tall with

specific food quality parameters and stable production under stress. In developed

countries, sorghum is grown as a feed grain with high input and management. The

production system is mechanized and demands sorghum hybrids with high yield

potential, relatively short, lodging resistant, and responsive to favorable

environmental conditions.

Because of diversity within the species and the influence of selection, many

different types of sorghum have been developed for specific uses and purposes

throughout the world. Modern sorghum improvement programs have been faced

with the challenge of using these genetic resources in combination with modern

technologies to produce productive and useful sorghum genotypes for future use.

The specific goals of each program are dependent on the purpose and location of



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