Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang
VI. Effect on Specific Microbial Populations
FUMIGANTS ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMS IN SOILS
Trials were conducted in test plots managed by a commercial grower in a ﬁeld
where the predominant pressure was from generalized root pathogens associated
with black root rot, such as Pythium, binucleate Rhizoctonia, and Cylindrocarpon
spp. After 2 years, yields were different from both years due to environmental
conditions. Itoh et al. (2000) showed that Fusarium oxysporum was not detected
in soil 3 weeks after fumigation, but this varies with fumigant, with CP having a
stronger effect than MITC. In another study, Tanaka et al. (2003) showed more
vigorous growth of tomato plants after CP treatments than those treated with
MeBr. The result was attributed to an increase in NH4-N supply at that stage.
VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The phase-out of MeBr has generated a lot of public awareness of fumigants
and the large use of these compounds in agriculture. Since there is no single,
registered fumigant that is as effective as MeBr, other compounds need to be
developed and tested. The actual registration procedure includes evaluations of
the impact of herbicides on the environment by testing for non-target organism
effects on a single species or on microbial communities. The impact on soil
microbial communities is evaluated in view of their role in sustaining the global
cycling of matter and their varied functions in supporting plant growth.
Internationally, there are various protocols that are required before a new
pesticide is granted registration.
Thanks to Ms Pamela Watt for reviewing and assisting in literature searches, and
Drs Scott Yates, Sharon K. Papiernik, and Frank Martin for providing helpful
materials. This review was supported in part by the 206 Manure and Byproduct
Utilization Project of the USDA-ARS. The mention of trademark or propriety
products in this review does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the property
by the USDA and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products
that may also be suitable.
Akhtar, M., and Malik, A. (2000). Roles of organic soil amendments and soil organisms in the
biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 74, 35 –47.
Anderson, J. R. (1978). Pesticide effects on nontarget soil microorganisms. In “Pesticide
Microbiology” (I. R. Hill and S. J. L. Wright, Eds.), pp. 313 –533. Academic Press, London.
A. M. IBEKWE
Anderson, J. P. E. (1993). Side-effects of pesticides on carbon and nitrogen transformations in soils.
“Proceedings of the International Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Pesticide
Microbiology, Sigtuna, Sweden, 17– 21 August 1992”. Department of Microbiology, Swedish
University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 61–67.
Anderson, J. P. E., and Domsch, K. H. (1978). A physiological method for the quantitative
measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 215 –221.
Anonymous (1980). Dutch press campaign to outlaw methyl bromide. Grower 93, 3.
Bacq, Z. M. (1942). Inactivation of vesicants and lacrimators by reaction with SH-compounds.
Therapeutic experiment. Bull. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 7, 500– 527.
Baillie, T. A., and Slatter, J. G. (1991). Glutathione: a vehicle for the transuort of chemically reactive
metabolites in vivo. Acc. Chem. Res. 24, 264–270.
Baker, L. W., Fitzell, D. L., Seiber, J. N., Parker, T. R., Shibamoto, T., Poor, M. W., Longley, K. E.,
Tomlin, R. P., Propper, R., and Duncan, D. W. (1996). Ambient air concentrations of pesticides in
California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 1365–1368.
Bandick, A. K., and Dick, R. P. (1999). Field management effects on soil enzyme activities. Soil Biol.
Biochem. 31, 1471–1479.
Bjørnlund, L., Ekelund, F., Christensen, S., Jacobsen, C. S., Krogh, P. H., and Johnsen, K. (2000).
Interactions between saprotrophic fungi, bacteria and Protozoa on decomposing wheat roots in
soil inﬂuenced by the fungicide fenpropimorph [Corbel(R)]: a ﬁeld study. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32,
Bosma, T., Kruizinga, E., de Bruin, E. J., Poelarends, G. J., and Janssen, D. B. (1999). Utilization of
trihalogenated propanes by agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 through heterologous expression of
the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain m15-3. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65,
Bull, C. T., Shetty, K. G., and Subbarao, K. V. (2002). Interactions between myxobacteria, plant
pathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents. Plant Dis. 86, 889–896.
California’s Department of Pesticide Regulation (2002). Recommended permit conditions for using 1,
3-dichloropropene pesticides (fumigant). http://www.cdpr.ca.gov
California Environmental Protection Agency, (1992). “Evaluation of the Health Risks Associated with
the Metam Spill in the Upper Sacramento River”. Ofﬁce of Environmental Health Hazard
Assessment, Berkeley, CA, September 21, 235 pp.
Castro, C. E. (1993). Biodehalogenation: the kinetics and rates of the microbial cleavage of carbon–
halogen bonds. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12, 1609–1618.
Castro, C. E., Wade, R. S., and Belser, N. O. (1983). Biodehalogenation. The metabolism of
chloropicrin by Pseudomonas sp. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 1184– 1187.
Chen, S.-K., Edwards, C. A., and Subler, S. (2001). A microcosm approach for evaluating the effects
of the fungicides benomyl and captan on soil ecological processes and plant growth. Appl. Soil
Ecol. 18, 69–82.
Corbett, J. R., Wrigth, K., and Baillie, A. C. (1984). “The Biochemical Mode of Action of Pesticides”.
Academic Press, San Francisco, CA.
Desreux, V., Fredericq, E., and Fisher, P. (1946). Sulﬁde groups of proteins. Bull. Soc. Chem. Biol. 28,
493–496 (Chem. Abstr. 41, 3494f (1947)).
Dickens, H. E., and Anderson, J. M. (1999). Manipulation of soil microbial community structure
in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 2049–2058.
Domsch, K. H., Jagnow, G., and Anderson, T.-H. (1983). An ecological concept for the assessment of
side-effects of agrochemicals on soil microorganisms. Res. Rev. 86, 65– 105.
Dungan, R. S., Ibekwe, A. M., and Yates, S. R. (2003a). Effect of propargyl bromide and 1,3dichloropropene on microbial communities in an organically amended soil. FEMS Microbiol.
Ecol. 43, 75–87.
Dungan, R. S., Gan, J., and Yates, S. R. (2003b). Accelerated degradation of methyl isothiocyanate in
soil. Water Air Soil Pollut. 142, 299–310.
FUMIGANTS ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMS IN SOILS
Dungan, R. S., and Yates, S. R. (2003c). Degradation of fumigant pesticides: 1,3-dichloropropene,
methyl isothiocyanate, chloropicrin, and methyl bromide. Vadose Zone J. 2, 279 –286.
Duniway, J. M. (2002). Status of chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for pre-plant fumigation of
soil. Phytopathology 92, 1337–1343.
El Fantroussi, S., Verschuere, L., Verstraete, W., and Top, E. M. (1999). Effect of phenylurea
herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene ﬁngerprints
and community-level physiological proﬁles. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 982 –988.
Elliot, L. F., Lynch, J. M., and Papendick, R. T. (1996). The microbial component of soil quality. In “Soil
Biochemistry” (J. M. Bollag and G. Stotzky, Eds.), Vol. 9, pp. 1–21. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Engelen, B., Meinken, K., von Wintzingerode, F., Heuer, H., Malkomes, H.-P., and Bachaus, H.
(1998). Monitoring impact of a pesticide treatment on bacterial soil communities by metabolic
and genetic ﬁngerprinting in addition to conventional testing procedures. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 64, 2814–2821.
Frostegard, A., Tunlid, A., and Baath, E. (1996). Changes in microbial community structure during
long-term incubation in two soils experimentally contaminated with metals. Soil Biol. Biochem.
Gamliel, A., and Stapleton, J. J. (1997). Improvement of soil solarization with volatile compounds
generated from organic amendments. Phytoparasitica 25S, 31–38.
Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Anderson, M. A., Spencer, W. F., and Ernst, F. F. (1994). Effect of soil properties
on degradation and sorption of methyl bromide in soil. Chemosphere 29, 2685–2700.
Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Crowley, D., and Becker, J. O. (1998a). Acceleration of 1,3-dichloropropene
degradation by organic amendments and potential application for emissions reduction. J. Environ.
Qual. 27, 408 –414.
Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Wang, D., and Ernst, F. F. (1998b). Effects of application methods on 1,3dichloropropene volatilization from soil under controlled conditions. J. Environ. Qual. 27,
Gan, J., Papiernik, S. K., Yates, S. R., and Jury, W. A. (1999). Temperature and moisture effects on
fumigant degradation in soil. J. Environ. Qual. 28, 1436– 1441.
Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Ernst, F. F., and Jury, W. A. (2000). Degradation and volatilization of the
fumigant chloropicrin after soil treatment. J. Environ. Qual. 29, 1391–1397.
Garland, J. L. (1996). Patterns of potential C source utilization by rhizosphere communities. Soil Biol.
Biochem. 26, 223– 230.
Garland, J. L. (1997). Analysis and interpretation of community-level physiological proﬁles in
microbial ecology. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 24, 289 –300.
Grifﬁths, B. S., Ritz, K., Bardgett, R. D., Cook, R., Christensen, S., Ekelund, F., Sørensen, S. J., Ba˚a˚th,
E., Bloem, J., de Ruiter, P. C., Dolﬁng, J., and Nicolardot, B. (2000). Ecosystem response of
pasture soil communities to fumigation-induced microbial diversity reductions: an examination
of the biodiversity –ecosystem function relationship. OIKOS 90, 279 –294.
Guckert, J. B., Antworth, C. P., Nichols, P. D., and White, D. C. (1985). Phospholipid ester-linked
fatty acid proﬁles as reproducible assays for changes in prokaryotic community structure of
estuarine sediments. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 31, 147–158.
Haack, S. K., Garchow, H., Odelson, D. L., Forney, L. J., and Klug, M. J. (1994). Accuracy,
reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester proﬁles of model bacterial
communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 2483–2493.
Harden, T., Joergensen, R. G., Meyer, B., and Wolters, V. (1993). Soil microbial biomass estimated by
fumigation extraction and substrate-induced respiration in two pesticide-treated soils. Soil Biol.
Biochem. 25, 679– 683.
Hart, M. R., and Brookes, P. C. (1996). Soil microbial biomass and mineralisation of soil organic matter
after 19 years of cumulative ﬁeld applications of pesticides. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28, 1641– 1649.
Head, I. M., Saunders, J. R., and Pickup, R. W. (1998). Microbial evolution, diversity, and ecology: a
decade of ribosomal RNA analysis of uncultivated microorganisms. Microb. Ecol. 35, 1–21.
A. M. IBEKWE
Heipieper, H.-J., Diefenbach, R., and Keweloh, H. (1992). Conversion of cis unsaturated
fatty acids to trans, a possible mechanism for the protection of phenoldegrading Pseudomonas putida P8 from substrate toxicity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58,
Hicks, R. J., Stotzky, G., and van Voris, P. (1990). Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic
chemicals on microorganisms in soil. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 35, 195 –253.
Hungalle, N., Lal, R., and Terkuile, C. H. H. (1986). Amelioration of physical properties by Mucuna
after mechanized land clearing of a tropical rainforest. Soil Sci. 141, 219–224.
Ibekwe, A. M., Papiernick, S. K., Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Yang, C.-H., and Crowley, D. E. (2001a).
Impact of fumigants on soil microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 3245–3257.
Ibekwe, A. M., Papiernik, S. K., Gan, J., Yates, S. R., Crowley, D. E., and Yang, C.-H. (2001b).
Microcosm enrichment of 1,3-dichloropropene-degrading soil microbial communities in a
compost-amended soil. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91, 668–676.
Itoh, K., Takahashi, M., Tanaka, R., Suyama, K., and Yamamoto, H. (2000). Effect of fumigants on
soil microbial population and proliferation of Fusarium oxysporum inoculated into fumigated
soil. J. Pestic. Sci. 25, 147–149.
Itoh, K., Ikushima, T., Fujii, K., Suyama, K., and Yamamoto, H. (2002). Natural ﬂuctuations in carbon
substrate utilizing activity and community-level physiological proﬁles of microorganisms in rice
paddy soils as a basis for assessing the side-effects of pesticides on soil ecosystems. J. Pestic. Sci.
27, 360 –364.
Johnsen, K., Jacobsen, C. S., Torsvik, V., and Sørensen, J. (2001). Pesticide effects on bacterial
diversity in agricultural soils—a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 33, 443– 453.
Jukes, T. H., and Cantor, C. R. (1969). Evolution of protein molecules. In “Mammalian Protein
Metabolism” (H. N. Munro, Ed.), pp. 2113–2132. Academic Press, New York.
Katayama, A., and Fujie, K. (2000). Characterization of soil microbiota with quinone proﬁle. In “Soil
Biochemistry” (J. M. Bollag and G. Stotzky, Eds.), Vol. 10, pp. 303 –347. Marcel Dekker,
Katayama, A., Funasaka, K., and Fujie, K. (2001). Changes in the respiratory quinone proﬁle of a soil
treated with pesticides. Biol. Fertil. Soils 33, 454 –459.
Kaufman, D. D. (1977). Soil–fungicide interactions. In “Antifungal Compounds” (M. R. Siegel and
H. D. Sisler, Eds.), Vol. 2, pp. 1– 49. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Kreutzer, W. A. (1963). Selective toxicity of chemicals to soil microorganisms. Annu. Rev.
Phytopathol. 1, 101– 126.
Ladd, J. N. (1978). Origin and range of enzymes in soils. In “Soil Enzymes” (R. G. Burns, Ed.),
pp. 51– 96. Academic Press, London.
Ladd, J. N., Brisbane, P. G., Butler, J. H. A., and Amato, M. (1976). Studies on soil fumigation. III.
Effects of enzymes, bacterial numbers and extractable ninhydrin reactive compounds. Soil Biol.
Biochem. 8, 255 –260.
Lam, W.-W., Kim, J.-H., Sparks, S. E., Quistad, G. B., and Casida, J. E. (1993). Metabolism in rats and
mice of the soil fumigants metham, methyl isothiocyanate, and dazomet. J. Agric. Food Chem.
Lebbink, G., Proper, B., and Nipshagen, A. (1989). Accelerated degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene.
Acta Hortic. 255, 361–371.
Lin, Q., and Brookes, P. C. (1999). Comparison of substrate induced respiration, selective
inhibition and biovolume measurements of microbial biomass and its community structure in
unamended, ryegrass-amended, fumigated and pesticide-treated soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31,
Macalady, J. L., Fuller, M. E., and Scow, K. M. (1998). Effects of metam sodium fumigation on soil
microbial activity and community structure. J. Environ. Qual. 27, 54 –63.
Malkomes, H. P. (1995). Ecotoxicology of soil fumigation. Effects of methyl bromide on microbial
activities in soil under ﬁeld conditions. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 102, 606 –617.
FUMIGANTS ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMS IN SOILS
Martin, F. N. (1997). Microbial rhizosphere colonizers of strawberry and their effect on plant growth.
In “Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide
Alternatives and Emissions Reductions”, pp. 32–37.
Martin, F. N. (1998). The inﬂuence of root pathogens and speciﬁc rhizosphere microﬂora on root and
shoot growth of strawberry. Phytopathology 88(suppl.), S58.
Martin, F. N. (1999). Pathogenicity and virulence of Pythum spp. and binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates
from California strawberry production ﬁelds. Phytopathology 89(suppl.), S49.
Martin, F. N. (2003). Development of alternative strategies for management of soilborne pathogens
currently controlled with methyl bromide. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 41, 325– 350.
Mazzola, M., Granatstein, D. M., Elfving, D. C., Mullinix, K., and Gu, Y.-H. (2002). Cultural
management of microbial community structure to enhance growth of apple in replant soils.
Phytopathology 92, 1363–1366.
Mennicke, W. H., Gorler, K., and Krumbiegel, G. (1983). Metabolism of some naturally occurring
isothiocyanates in the rat. Xenobiotica 13, 203 –207.
Miller, L. G., Connell, T. L., Guidetti, J. R., and Oremland, R. S. (1997). Bacterial oxidation of methyl
bromide in fumigated agricultural soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 4346–4354.
Morgan, J. A., and Winstanley, C. (1997). Microbial biomarkers. In “Modern Soil Microbiology”
(J. D. Van Elsas, J. T. Trevors, and E. M. Wellington, Eds.), pp. 331–352. Marcel Dekker,
Muyzer, G., De Waal, E. C., and Uitterlinden, A. G. (1993). Proﬁling of complex microbial
populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reactionampliﬁed genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 695–700.
O’Hallorans, J. M., Mun˜oz, M. A., and Colberg, O. (1993). Effect of chicken manure on chemical
properties of a Mollisol and tomato production. J. Agric. Univ. P.R. 77, 181–191.
Oremland, P. S., Miller, L. G., Culbertson, C. W., Connell, T. L., and Jahnke, L. (1994). Degradation
of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils. Appl. Environ.
Microbiol. 10, 3640–3646.
Ou, L. T., Chung, J. E., Thomas, T. A., Obreza, T. A., and Dickson, D. W. (1995). Degradation of 1,3dichloropropene (1,3-D) in soils with different histories of ﬁeld applications of 1,3-D. J. Nematol.
Ou, L. T., Joy, P. T., Thomas, J. E., and Hornsby, A. G. (1997). Stimulation of microbial degradation
of methyl bromide in soil during oxidation of an ammonia fertilizer by nitriﬁers. Environ. Sci.
Technol. 31, 717–722.
Parr, J. F. (1974). Effects of pesticides on microorganisms in soil and water. In “Pesticides in Soil and
Water” (W. D. Guenzi, Ed.), pp. 315–340. SSSA, Madison, WI.
Peacock, A. D., Mullen, M. D., Ringelberg, D. B., Tyler, D. D., Hedrick, D. B., Gale, P. M., and
White, D. C. (2001). Soil microbial community response to dairy manure or ammonium nitrate
applications. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1011–1019.
Pennanen, T., Frostegard, A., Fritze, H., and Baath, E. (1996). Phospholipid fatty acid composition
and heavy metal tolerance of soil microbial communities along two heavy metal-polluted
gradients in coniferous forests. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 62, 420 –428.
Perucci, P. (1990). Effect of addition of municipal solid waste compost on microbial biomass and
enzyme activities. Biol. Fertil. Soils 10, 221–226.
Poelarends, G. J., Wilens, M., Larkin, M. J., van Elsas, J. D., and Janssen, D. B. (1998).
Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene by Pseudomonas cichorii 170. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Porter, I. J., Brett, R. W., and Wiseman, B. M. (1999). Alternatives to methyl bromide: chemical
fumigants or integrated pest management systems? Aust. Plant Pathol. 28, 65– 71.
Prather, M. J., McElroy, M. R., and Wofsy, S. C. (1984). Reduction in ozone at high concentrations of
stratospheric halogens. Nature 31, 227– 231.
Price, N. R. (1985). The mode of action of fumigants. J. Stored Prod. Res. 21, 157 –164.
A. M. IBEKWE
Rasche, M. E., Hyman, M. R., and Arp, D. J. (1990). Biodegradation of halogenated hydrocarbon
fumigants by nitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2568– 2571.
Riffaldi, R., Filippelli, M., Levi-Minzi, R., and Saviozzi, A. (2000). The inﬂuence of metam-sodium
on soil respiration. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B—Pestic. Food Contam. Agric. Wastes 35,
Rovira, A. D. (1976). Studies of soil fumigants. 1. Effects on ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in soil
and on the growth, nutrition and yield of wheat. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8, 241–247.
Shannon, C. E., and Weaver, W. (1963). “The Mathematical Theory of Communication”. University
of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Shetty, K. G., Subbarao, K. V., and Bull, C. T. (2000). Effects of Mycobacteria on plant pathogenic
fungi and biocontrol agents (Abstr.). Phytopathology 90(suppl.), S72.
Shorter, J. H., Kolb, C. E., Crill, P. M., Kerwin, R. A., Talbot, R. W., Hines, M. E., and Harris, R. C.
(1995). Rapid degradation of atmospheric methyl bromide in soils. Nature (Lond.) 377, 717 –719.
Sigler, W. V., and Turco, R. F. (2002). The impact of chlorothalonil application on soil bacterial and
fungal populations as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl. Soil Ecol. 21,
Simon-Sylvestre, G., and Fournier, J.-C. (1979). Effects of pesticides on the soil microﬂora. Adv.
Agron. 31, 1–92.
Sinha A. P., Singh K., and Mukhopadhyay A. N. (Eds) (1988). “Soil Fungicides”, Vol. 1. CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.
Smalla, K., Wachtendorf, U., Heuer, H., Liu, W., and Forney, L. (1998). Analysis of BIOLOG GN
substrate utilization patterns by microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64,
Smelt, J. H., Crum, S. J. H., and Teunissen, W. (1989). Accelerated transformations of the fumigant
methyl isothiocyanate in soil after repeated application of metam-sodium. Environ. Sci. Health
24, 437 –455.
Smith, S. N., and Pugh, C. J. F. (1979). Evaluation of dehydrogenase as a suitable indicator of soil
microﬂora activity. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 1, 279–281.
Smith, M. D., Hartnett, D. C., and Rice, C. W. (2000). Effects of long-term fungicide applications on
microbial properties in tallgrass prairie soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32, 935–946.
Sparks, S. E., Quistad, G. B., and Casida, J. E. (1997). Chloropicrin: reactions with biological thiols
and metabolism in mice. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10, 1001–1007.
Staub, R. E., Sparks, S. E., Quistad, G. B., and Casida, J. E. (1995). S-methylation as a bioactivation
mechanism for mono- and dithiocarbamate pesticides as aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors.
Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8, 1063–1069.
Suyama, K., Okamoto, Y., Itoh, K., Itamochi, M., Kagawa, Y., Fujii, K., Kumagai, S., Koga, N.,
Kajihara, S., Ikushima, T., Miyamoto, H., Aoki, M., Kojima, A., and Yamamoto, H. (2001).
Natural ﬂuctuation of microbial biomass and population in rice paddy soils as a basis for
assessing the side-effect of pesticides on soil ecosystem. J. Pestic. Sci. 26, 127– 135.
Tanaka, S., Kobayashi, T., Iwasaki, K., Yamane, S., Maeda, K., and Sakurai, K. (2003). Properties and
metabolic diversity of microbial communities in soils treated with steam sterilization compared
with methyl bromide and chloropicrin fumigations. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 49, 603–610.
Taylor, G. E. Jr., Schaller, K. B., Geddes, J. D., Gustin, M. S., Lorson, G. B., and Miller, G. C. (1996).
Microbial ecology, toxicology and chemical fate of methyl isothiocyanate in riparian soils from
the upper Sacramento river. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13, 1694–1701.
Tomlin C., (Ed.) (1994). “The Pesticide Manual”, 10th edn. British Crop Protection Council,
Farnham, Surrey, UK.
Toyota, K., Ritz, K., Kuninaga, S., and Kimura, M. (1999). Impact of fumigation with metam-sodium
upon soil microbial community structure in two Japanese soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 45, 207– 223.
Tu, C. M. (1992). Effects of herbicides and fumigants on microbial activities in soil. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 54, 12–17.
FUMIGANTS ON NON-TARGET ORGANISMS IN SOILS
Tunlid, A., and White, D. C. (1992). Biochemical analysis of biomass, community structure,
nutritional status and metabolic activity of the microbial community in soil. “Soil Biochemistry”
(J. M. Bollag and G. Stotzky, Eds.), Vol. 7, pp. 229 –262. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Turco, R. F., Kennedy, A. C., and Jawson, M. D. (1994). Microbial indicators of soil quality.
In “Deﬁning Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment”. SSSAJ Special Publ. 35 (J. W. Doran,
D. C. Coleman, D. F. Bezdicek, and B. A. Steward, Eds.), pp. 73–90. Madison, WI.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (1995). Protection of stratospheric ozone. Fed.
Regist. 58, 15014– 15049.
Vallaeys, T., Topp, E., Muyzer, G., Macheret, V., Laguerre, G., Rigaud, A., and Soulas, G. (1997).
Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the detection of 16S rDNA sequence
variation in rhizobia and methanotrophs. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 24, 279– 285.
Van Dijk, H. (1974). Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropenes in the soil. Agric. Ecosyst. 1, 193 –204.
van Hylackama, J. E. T., and Janssen, D. B. (1992). Bacterial degradation of 3-chloroacrylic acid and
the characterization of cis- and trans-speciﬁc dehalogenases. Biodegradation 2, 139–150.
Verhagen, C., Smit, E., Janssen, D. B., and van Elsas, J. D. (1995). Bacterial dichloropropene
degradation in soil: screening of soils and involvement of plasmids carrying the dhlA gene.
Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 1547–1557.
Wardle, D. A., and Parkinson, D. (1990). Inﬂuence of the herbicide glyphosate on soil microbial
community structure. Plant Soil 122, 29–37.
Ware, G. W. (1994). “The Pesticide Book”. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.
White, D. C., and Findlay, R. H. (1988). Biochemical markers for measurement of predation effects on
the biomass, community structure, nutritional status, and metabolic activity of microbial bioﬁlms.
Hydrobiologia 159, 119–132.
Wilhelm, S., and Paulus, A. O. (1980). How soil fumigation beneﬁts the California strawberry
industry. Plant Dis. 64, 264–270.
Wilhelm, S. N., Shepler, K., Lawrence, L. J., and Lee, H. (1996). Environmental fate of chloropicrin.
Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 652, 79–91.
Xiao, C. L., and Duniway, J. M. (1998). Bacterial population response to soil fumigation and their
effects on strawberry growth. Phytopathology 88(suppl.), S100.
Yates, S. R., Gan, J., and Papiernik, S. K. (2003). Environmental fate of methyl bromide as a soil
fumigant. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 177, 45 –122.
Yuen, G. Y., Schroth, M. N., Hancock, J. G., and Weinhold, A. R. (1988). Differential effects of
various preplant soil treatments on the root microﬂora, root growth and yield of strawberry.
Phytopathology 78, 1545.
Yung, Y. L., Pinto, P., Watson, R. T., and Sander, P. S. (1980). Atmospheric bromine and ozone
perturbations in the lower stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 339 –353.
Zelles, L. (1999). Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides in the characterization
of microbial communities in soil: a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 29, 111–129.
Zelles, L., Bai, Q. Y., Beck, T., and Beese, F. (1992). Signature fatty acids in phospholipids and
lipopolysaccharides as indicators of microbial biomass and community structure in agricultural
soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 24, 317–323.
Zelles, L., Palojarvi, A., Kandeler, E., von Lutzow, M., Winter, K., and Bai, Q. Y. (1997). Changes in
soil microbial properties and phospholipid fatty acid fractions after chloroform fumigation.
Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 1325–1336.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND
NEW TECHNOLOGY TO PRODUCE
W. L. Rooney
Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A&M University, College Station,
Texas 77843-2474, USA
Variation in Sorghum ssp.
Sorghum Improvement—from Landraces to Cultivars
Mechanisms of Controlled Pollination
A. Hand Emasculation
B. Genetic Male Sterility
C. Hot-Water Emasculation
D. Control of Anther Dehiscence
E. Cytoplasmic – Genetic Male Sterility
A. Population Improvement
B. Cultivar and Inbred Line Development
C. Hybrid Development
D. Use of Exotic Germplasm—Sorghum Conversion
Trait-Based Breeding Efforts
A. Yield and Adaptation
B. Biotic Stress
C. Abiotic Stress
D. Grain Quality
E. Forage Sorghum
F. Sweet Sorghum for Syrup
Biotechnology in Sorghum Improvement
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a major cereal grain crop
grown throughout the semi arid regions of the world. Depending on the
region of production, the type of sorghum and the purpose for its
production varies widely. Whether they are breeding varieties or
hybrids, the primary focus of sorghum breeders throughout the world
are yield, adaptation and quality. In addition to breeding for these
factors, reducing losses due to stress is equally important. Most breeding
Advances in Agronomy, Volume 83
Copyright q 2004 by Elsevier Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
W. L. ROONEY
programs consistently select for tolerance to abiotic stresses (such as
drought and low temperatures) and biotic stresses (such as sorghum
midge, grain mold, anthracnose, and charcoal rot). Finally, the
integration of molecular genetic technology is enhancing sorghum
improvement by providing a genetic basis for many important traits and
through marker-assisted selection. Sorghum improvement in the future
will require effective utilization of all the available tools in order to
develop sorghum genotypes suitable for the needs of their producers and
q 2004 Elsevier Inc.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important cereal
grain crops in the world. In 2001, sorghum was produced on approximately 50
million hectares with an average yield of 1280 kg ha21 worldwide (FAO, 2001).
Average yields for sorghum production are generally low because the crop is
widely grown in environments where abiotic and biotic stresses are common and
limit production. While the worldwide average sorghum yield is low, average
yields vary widely among countries (FAO, 2001) and the maximum recorded
grain sorghum yield was 21.5 t ha21 (Wittwer, 1980). Most sorghum production
is located in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, but production occurs in
some temperate regions where rainfall is limiting.
Depending on the location, sorghum is grown for many different purposes.
The grain is used for food, feed, and industrial purposes. The vegetation is
important in many production systems where it is used as forage. The location of
production often deﬁnes the ultimate end use and the speciﬁc types of sorghum
that will be grown. For example, in many regions of Africa, sorghum is a vital
food grain and the stalk and leaves are valued for building and forage. In these
production systems, small farmers demand pure-line cultivars that are tall with
speciﬁc food quality parameters and stable production under stress. In developed
countries, sorghum is grown as a feed grain with high input and management. The
production system is mechanized and demands sorghum hybrids with high yield
potential, relatively short, lodging resistant, and responsive to favorable
Because of diversity within the species and the inﬂuence of selection, many
different types of sorghum have been developed for speciﬁc uses and purposes
throughout the world. Modern sorghum improvement programs have been faced
with the challenge of using these genetic resources in combination with modern
technologies to produce productive and useful sorghum genotypes for future use.
The speciﬁc goals of each program are dependent on the purpose and location of