Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
III. Enhancement Strategy for Multiple-Stress Resistance

III. Enhancement Strategy for Multiple-Stress Resistance

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

276



R.R.DUNCAN AND R. N. CARROW



dicates that different mechanisms or degrees of expression in each mechanism are

functioning.

Specific resistance mechanisms must be associated with adaptive genes. Once

the gene-mechanism relationship is established within a species, this can be used

to identify ecotypes with this resistance mechanism. Gene expression of the mechanism often requires that the abiotidedaphic stresses be present. Also, once a specific stress mechanism is clarified, a search of the scientific literature may reveal

that the associated genes have been identified in other plant species-one of the

objectives of this review article is to assess the current status of gene identification for various abiotic and edaphic stresses. Thus, this component of an overall

strategic framework aids in focusing biotechnology methods and manipulaton on

high-priority genes that are responsible for the specific mechanism@)that causes

a high level of stress resistance.

A third component is to integrate laboratory-generated biotechnology stressenhanced germplasm back into the traditional breeding and genetics programs for

turfgrass improvement. This includes evaluation of germplasm performance under severely stressed and nonstressed field conditions. The following are reasons

for using this approach: (i) Unless the “enhanced germplasm” is placed under the

stress in question, success cannot be determined; (ii) germplasm that has been enhanced for a specific stress mechanism must still perform under multiple stresses;

and (iii) the germplasm can be incorporated into other germplasm by conventional breeding to enhance a broader germplasm pool within a species. Therefore, this

third component integrates biotechnology methods with traditional breeding and

genetic protocols for the purpose of maximizing the efficiency and magnitude of

progress toward greater turfgrass stress performance.



B. ABIOTIC/EDAPHIC

STRESSAND



THE RHIZOSPHERE



The common abiotic and edaphic stresses that affect turfgrass stress response

plasticity and therefore persistence include

Moisture deficiency/excess problems

Extreme soil/air temperatures

Salinities/poor water quality

Acidity/alkalinity

High soil strength/traffic/compaction

Low soil oxygen

Reduced light intensity/shade

Low nutrient availability

Many of these constraints interact to create significantgenotype-environment interactions and directly influence turf quality and performance. Turfgrass stress re-



TURFGRASS MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT



277



sistance can involve several mechanismsthat may be exhibited at the whole plant to

subcellular level. Each mechanism is genetic based. Most turfgrasses are grown in

multiple-stress (drought-high temperature and soil acidity-drought) environments.

The common plant feature that links all these constraints together is the root system.

The first line of defense in adaptation to abiotic and edaphic stresses is the root

system, which provides essential nutrients and water (i.e., drought resistance) for

critical turfgrass functions. Unfortunately, most turf breeding programs do not address root plasticity (functional root volume and viability under cyclic stresses) either directly or indirectly. Root system improvement should be the first step in

a comprehensive abiotic/edaphic stress-resistancebreeding program because

this strategy addresses primary components of stress response that directly in fluence the turf plant capability to acquire essential nutrients and water and to ultimately persist. Many diverse field situations limit turfgrass rooting, but only six

primary soil chemical and physical constraints account for restricted rooting in

turfgrasses in these field stress situations (Table XIII). These primary stresses can

be incorporated into breeding programs as either single- or multiple-stress screening protocols (Carrow and Duncan, 1996; Duncan and Carrow, 1997; Maranville,

1993). Gene technology can be integrated with this traditional breeding strategy

to enhance genetic-based root plasticity; discern multiple stress tolerance mechanisms; locate, sequence,clone, and map stress-responsivegenes; and utilize marker-assisted selection techniques.



1. Genetic Potential for Rooting

Turf species vary in their genetic potential for rooting depth. Table XIV compares several cool- and warm-season grasses for general root depth potential.

Genotypes within a species can also exhibit inherent differences in rooting depth

under nonlimiting soil conditions (Lehman and Engelke, 1991), but rooting depth

potential is only one component of the overall rhizosphere stress adaptation response mechanism because multiple abiotic and edaphic stresses often limit maximum rooting depth.

While root morphology is governed by genetics (Aeschbacher et al., 1994), developmental plasticity in response to environmental stimuli (light, nutrients, temperature, aeration, water, physical barriers, microorganisms, gravity, competition

from adjacent roots, and chemical barriers) (Schiefelbein and Benfey, 1991) will

ultimately determine the final configuration of the root system (Fitter and Stickland, 1992;Lynch, 1995; Schiefelbein et al., 1997).Developmental alterations occur in the form of changes in the direction of growth after perception of an external signal, transduction of the signal, alteration in gene regulation and protein activity, and modification of cell division-expansion-differentiation (Aeschbacher

et al., 1994). Turf species differ in their capacity for enhanced root growth and

rapid root water uptake at deeper soil layers, maintenance of root viability at the



R. R.DUNCAN AND R. N. CARROW



278



Table XIII

Six Primary Soil Physical and Chemical Constraintsof Rooting, Associated Field Situations in

Which the StressesAre Expressed, and Relative Importance of Stress on 'hrfgrasses

Relative importance of stress

Root stress



Associated field problems



Fine-textured soil

Compaction

Layers with few macropores

Sodic soil

Soil drought

Low soil 0,

Fine-textured soils

Compaction

High water table

Poor surface drainage

Layer impeding percolation

Sodic soil

Acid soil root toxicities (T)/ Acid soil complex (T, D)

deficiencies (D)

AllMnlH toxicities

Nutrient deficiencies (Ca, Mg, K)

Usually low organic matter

Usually high soil strength

Moderately acid soil (D)

Acid sulfate soil (T.D)

Acid mine spoils (T,D)

Sodic soil (T, D)

Salt root toxicities/

Na, CI, B, OH toxicities

deficiencies

K, Mg, Ca deficiencies

High soil strength

Low soil 0,

Saline soil (T, D)

Saline-sodic soil (T, D)

Soil drying

Desiccation

Direct high-temperature root injury

High soil temperature

Indirect high-temperatureb stress

limits root development,

maintenance, viability



High soil strength



Warm season



Cool season



xxxxx



XXxxx"



xx



xxxx



xxxx



xxxx



xxxx



xxxx



xxx



XxXxX



X



xxxxx



"High organic matter alleviates the Al toxicity factor.

"Indirect high-temperature stress is the major factor limiting cool-season grass adaptation into

warmer temperature climatic zones because it determines carbohydrate status for maintaining root viability. It becomes a site-specific problem when site conditions inhibit canopy cooling. High root temperatures enhance indirect high-temperature stress just as high aerial temperatures will do so.

"The more Xs, the greater the importance.



TURFGRASS MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT



2 79



lsble XIV

Genetic Potential for Rooting Depth among lbrfgrasses"

Q p e of grass

Root depth



Shallow



Cool season

Creeping bentgrass

Kentucky bluegrass

Perennial ryegrass

Tall fescue



Warm season

Buffalo grass

Meyer zoysia,

Common centipede

Argentine Bahia grass

Seashore paspalurn (Adalayd)

Emerald zoysia

Tifway Bermuda

Common St. Augustine

Texturf 10 Bermuda



"Reproduced with permission from C m o w (1989).



surface drying layer, and rapid root regeneration after rewatering under drought

conditions (Huang et af., 1997). Roots vary morphologically and physiologically

in response to variable soil nutrient distributions (Robinson, 1996) and to mechanical impedants such as high soil bulk densities or compacted layers (Bengough and Young, 1993; Carrow and Petrovic, 1992; Materechera et af., 1992;

Wiecko et al., 1993). Heritability estimates are quite variable, depending on growing conditions during evaluation and species differences (Browning er af., 1994;

Lehman and Engelke, 1991).



2. Biotechnology

Many of the edaphic and abiotic stress-responsive genes involve the root system. QTLs linked to root morphological characters (Champoux et af., 1995) and

root penetration ability into compacted soils (Ray et af., 1996) have been identified, with potential application in turfgrass transformation studies (Table XV). Increased root density and depth provide an avoidance mechanism in response to

abiotic stress, particularly drought (O'Toole and De Datta, 1986).Compacted soil

layers can impede depth of rooting and negatively enhance the overall stress response in turf. Root penetration ability varies both interspecifically (Assaeed ef al.,

1990; Materechera et af., 1992) and intraspecifically (Kasperbauer and Busscher,

199I ; Masle, 1992) in plants. Screening systems are available to effectively measure root penetration variability among genotypes (Huang et al., 1997; Yu ef aZ.,

1995) and select in the field for root plasticity under stress (Duncan and Carrow,

1997; Erb, 1993; Montpetit and Coulman, 1991).Transgenes governing root gen-



280



R. R. DUNCAN AND R. N. CARROW

Table XV

QTLs L i e d to Root System Enhancement in Stressed Environments

Root trait



Reference



Root thickness, rootshoot ratio, root dry weight per

tiller, deep root dry weight per tiller, maximum root

length

Root penetration ability into compacted soil layers

Other root-inducing genes (plasmid root-inducing)

rol (root loci: A, B, C, D)

am (auxin synthetic: 1,2)



Champoux ef al. (1995)



Ray et al. ( 1996)

Chriqui er al. (1996)



eration and growth have been expressed in plants (Chriqui et al., 1996). Several

RFLP probes are available to screen for root elongation growth and drought tolerance (Price and Tomos, 1994).Alteration of leaf cytosolic pyruvate kinase can affect source-sink relationships as well as root biomass (Knowles et al., 1998).



C. ROLEOF TURFGRASS

MANAGEMENT

While various abiotic and edaphic stresses and their related mechanisms are

genetically controlled, long-term management strategies and variable climatic/

growth conditions will govern turfgrass quality, performance, and persistence.

Most management practices are conducted to alleviate or prevent specific stresses or constraints. Because of the three-way interactions between turf species and

cultivar, specific multiple stresses, and the environment, management strategies

must be adjusted to site-specific situations. Managing the turfgrass root system for

maximum development (depth, volume, and plasticity) and viability/functionality is the key to maintaining high-quality turf in stress environments.



1. Root Management

Root systems in perennial turfgrasses are dynamic or ever-changing (Fig. 3).

Seasonal weather patterns govern growth cycles and affect root topology (branching capacity), root distribution (total biomass, which includes root length and

depth of penetration into the soil), and functionality of roots (root dieback). Most

turf roots survive from 6 months to 2 years, depending on species, management

conditions, and environmental constraints (Carrow, 1989). Duration of exposure

and severity of a stress or multiple stresses have profound influences on turfgrass

persistence mainly because carbohydrates produced in green shoot tissues by pho-



TURFGRASS MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT



-



28 1



....._....Wpm%8#Oll



Figure 3 Seasonal root growth rates of turfgrasses.



tosynthesis are usually utilized first for shoot growth and maintenance and secondarily for root growth and maintenance. Severe environmental stress will create

unbalanced carbohydrate demands in turf plants that can enhance root mortality or

decrease root functionality and ultimately diminish turf quality.

Proper root management to minimize stress is essential to turf quality longevity (Carrow, 1989, 1995a):



1. Select species and cultivars within species with the best root plasticity capability.

2. Promote maximum net carbohydrate production by

a. Optimizing leaf area, which ensures maximum photosynthesis, by increasing mowing height, decreasing wear damage, and controlling biotic

constraints.

b. Optimizing leaf chlorophyll content by avoiding (i) Fe, Mn, Mg, S, and

M deficiencies, (ii) low soil oxygen or waterlogged conditions, and

(iii) prolonged water-deficit conditions.

c. Promoting good light capture conditions by (i) pruning trees and removing excess grass clippings and (ii) selecting appropriate cultivars.

3. Avoid depletion of carbohydrate reserves in the crown region by minimizing excessive and frequent N applications (especially fast-release N sources),

overwatering, and close mowing. Modify high soil temperatures that contribute to

the depletion of carbohydrates with imgation, drainage, cultivation, or by increasing mowing height.



2 82



R. R. DUNCAN AND R. N. CARROW



4. Correct soil physical problems as follows: Correct high soil strength (i.e.,

high bulk density and heavy clay soils) and low soil oxygen with cultivation (aeration) and additions of peat or gypsum; excessively dry soils with irrigation and

additions of organic matter to increase water-holding capacity; low soil oxygen

with cultivation and surface/subsurface drainage; soil layering with cultivation;

and cold soils in the spring with cultivation and proper drainage.

5. Correct poor soil chemical conditions as follows: Correct acid/high Al soils

with lime; very alkaline soils with S, H,SO,, or acidic N carriers; infertile soils

with fertilizers or microbial amendments; and salt-affected soils with cultivation,

gypsum, or sulfur amendments, drainage, and use of alternative water sources.

Avoid toxins by limiting excessive use of herbicides or other chemicals, limiting

heavy metal-containing soil amendments, and judicious application of macro- and

micronutrients.

6. Correct soil biotic problems as follows: Correct root-feeding insects, diseases, and nematodes with preventive, cultural, or chemical control treatments;

thatch by mechanical removal, cultivation, and promotion of microbial degradation.



Iv. SUMMARY

Perennial grasses will always be subjected to fluctuating multiple stresses. Traditional breeding programs can address specific environmental constraints and, as

mechanisms governing stress response become better understood, these programs

can focus on specific components of these mechanisms. Gene technology provides

an enhancement strategy for these traditional breeding approaches. An increasing

number of genes are being identified, sequenced, and cloned. Transformation and

regeneration technology is available for implementation into turfgrass stressresistance programs. With the release of new “biotech” turf cultivars in the twenty-first century, management strategies will have to be adjusted to maximize performance and persistence.

Enhanced abiotidedaphic stress tolerance in turf will provide

1. Improvements in performance under environmental extremes

2. Functional root systems that perform equally well in stressed and nonstressed environments

3. Improved water use efficiency

4. Improved nutrient uptake/utilization efficiency

5. Better adapted cultivars for niche environments

6. More high-quality and environmentally compatible turfgrasses under abiotic/edaphic stressed conditions



TURFGRASS MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT



283



REFERENCES

Adamowicz, W. 0..

and Sherman, L. A. (1996). Cloning and sequencing of a psbA gene (Accession

No. U39610) from the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 (PGR 96-004). Plant Physi01. 110, 1047.

Aeschbacher. R. A., Schiefelbein, J. W., and Benfey, P. N. (1994). The genetic and molecular basis of

root development. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 4525-45.

Agnew, M. L., and Carrow, R. N. (1985a). Soil compaction and moisture stress preconditioning in Kentucky bluegrass. I. Soil aeration, water use, and root responses. Agron. J. 77,872-878.

Agnew, M. L., and Carrow,R. N. (1985b).Soil compaction and moisture stress preconditioning in Kentucky bluegrass. 11. Stomata1resistance, leaf water potential, and canopy temperature. Agron. J.

77,878-884.

Alexander, D. B., and Zuberer, D. A. (1988). Effects of organic substrates and chloramphenicol or

nalidixic acid on acetylene reduction associated with roots of intact maize and sorghum plants.

Plant Soil 112,61-67.

Alfacea, F. P., Estan, M. T., Caro, M., and Balarin, M. C. (1993). Response of tomato cultivars to salinity. Plant Soil 150,203-2 11.

Allard, R. W. (1988).Genetic changes associated with the evolution of adaptedness in cultivated plants

and their progenies. J. Hered. 79,225-238.

Allard, R. W., Garcia, P.,Saenz de Miera, L. E., and Perez de la Vega, M. (1993). Evolution of multilocus structure in Avena hirtula and Avenu barbata. Genetics 135,1125-1 139.

Aloni, R., and Griffith, M. (1991). Functional xylem anatomy in root-shoot junctions of six cereal

species. Planta 184, 123-129.

Altman, A,, and Levin, N. (1993). Interactions of polyamines and nitrogen nutrition in plants. Phvsi01. Plant. 89,653-658.

Amin, U. S., Lash, T. D., and Wilkinson, B. J. (1995). Proline betaine is a highly effective osmoprotectant for Staphylococcus aureus. Arch. Microbiol. 163, 138-142.

Amzallag, G. N., and Lerner, H. R. (1995). Physiological adaptation of plants to environmental stresses.

In “Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology”(M. Pessarakli.Ed.), pp. 557-576. Dekker, New York.

Andersen, S. E., Bastola, D. R., and Minocha, S. C. (1998). Metabolism of polyamines in transgenic

cells of carrot expressing a mouse omithine decarboxylase cDNA. Plant Physiol. 116,299-307.

Anderson, J. A,, Best, L. A,, and Caber, R. F. (1991). Structural and functional conservation between

the high affinity transporters of Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 99,

39-46.

Anderson, J. A., Huprikar, S. S., Kochian, L. V., Lucas, W. J., and Caber, R. F. (1992). Functional expression of a probable Arabidopsis thaliuna potassium channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Proc. Nutl. Acad. Sci. USA 89,3736-3740.

Anderson, M. D., Prasad, T. K., Martin, B. A., and Stewart,C. R. (1994). Differential gene expression

in chilling-acclimated maize seedlings and evidence for the involvement of abscisic acid in chilling tolerance. Plant Physiol. 105,33 1-339.

Antikainen, M., and Griffith, M. (1997). Antifreeze protein accumulation in freezing tolerant cereals.

Physiol. Plant. 99,423-432.

Antikainen, M., Griffith, M., Zhang, J.. Hon, W.-C., Yang, D. S. C., and Pihakasi-Maunsbach, K.

(1996). lmmunolocalization of antifreeze proteins in winter rye leaves, crowns, and roots by

tissue printing. Plant Physiol. 110,845-857.

Aoki, H., Kumada, H. 0.. Masumura. T., Tanaka. K., and Ida, S. (1996). Cloning and nucleotide

sequence of a cDNA encoding rice embryo ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (Accession No.

D87547) (PGR 96-1 15). Plant Physiol. 112,1399.

Arechavaleta. M., Bacon, C. W.. Hoveland, C. S., and Radcliffe, D. E. (1989). Effect of tall fescue endophyte on plant response to environmental stress. Agron. J. 81,83-91.



2 84



R. R. DUNCAN AND R. N. CARROW



Assaeed, A. M.. McGowan, M., Hebblethwaite. P. D., and Brereton, J. C. (1990). Effect of soil compaction on growth, yield, and light interception of selected crops. Ann. Appl. Biol. 117,653-666.

Atkins, C. E., Green, R. L.,Sifers, S. I., and Beard, J. B. (1991). Evapotranspiration rates and growth

characteristics of ten St. Augustinegrass genotypes. Hort. Sci. 26, 1488-1491.

Avramova, Z.. Tikhonov, A., Chen, M.,and Bennetzen, J. L. (1998). Matrix attachment regions and

structural colinearity in the genomes of two grass species. Nucleic Acids Res. 26,761 -767.

Back, E.. Burkhart, W., Moyer, M., Privalle, L., and Rothstein, S. (1988). Isolation of cDNA clones

coding for spinach nitrite reductase: Complete sequence and nitrate induction. Mol. Gene Genet.

212,20-26.

Bacon, C. W. (1993). Abiotic stress tolerance (moisture, nutrients) and photosynthesis in endophyteinfected tall fescue. Agric. Ecosystems Environ. 44, 123-141.

Bacon, C. W., Richardson, M. D.. and White, J. F., Jr. (1997). Modification and uses of endophyteenhanced turfgrasses: A role for molecular technology. Crop Sci. 37, 1415- 1425.

Baertlein, D. A., Lindow, S. E., Panopoulos, N. J.. Lee, S. P., Mindrinos, M. N., and Chen, T. H. H.

(1992). Expression of a bacterial ice nucleation gene in plants. Plant Physiol. 100, 1730-1736.

Bali, A., Blanco, G.,Hill, S., and Kennedy, C. (1992). Excretion of ammonium by a nitL mutant of nitrogen fixing Azotobacter vinelandii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 1711-171 8.

Baligar, V.C., and Duncan, R. R. (1990). “Crops as Enhancers of Nutrient Use.” Academic Press, San

Diego.

Banuelos, M. A., Klein, R. D.. Alexander, S. J., and Rodriguez-Navarro, A. (1995). A potassium transporter of the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis homologous to the Kup system of Escherichia

coli has a high concentrative capacity. EMBO J. 14,3021-3027.

Bar, D., Jacob, H., and Schulz, H. (1995). Effect of different intensities of shading on the development

of some turfgrass species. Razon TurfGazon 26,84-94.

Barker, R. E., and Warnke, S. E. (1998). Comparative mapping and identifying candidate genes for

turfgrasses. In “Turfgrass Genetic Analysis Workshop” (R. R. Duncan, Ed.), 2-3 March, 1998.

University of GeorgialUSDA-ARS, Griffin, GA.

Barrios, E. P., Sundstrom, F. J., Babcock, D., and Leger, L. (1986). Quality and yield responses of four

warm-season lawn grasses to shade conditions. Agron. J. 78,270-273.

BassiriRad, H., and Caldwell, M. M. (1992). Temporal changes in root growth and I5N uptake and water relations of two tussock grass species recovering from water stress. Physiol. Planr. 86,525-53 1.

Basu, A., Basu, U., and Taylor, G. J. (1994). Induction of microsomal membrane proteins in roots of

an aluminum-resistant cultivar of Triticum aestivum L. under conditions of aluminum stress. Plant

Physiol. 104, 1007-1013.

Basu, A., McDonald-Stephens, J. L.. Archambault, D. J., Good, A. G., Briggs, K.G., Aung-T, and Taylor, G. J. (1997). Genetic and physiological analysis of doubled-haploid, aluminum resistant lines

of wheat provides evidence for the involvement of a 23 kD. root exudate polypeptide in mediating resistance. Plant Soil 1%, 283-288.

Basu, S., Gangopadhyay, G.. Mukheqee, B. B., and Gupta, S. (1997). Plant regeneration of salt adapted callus of indica rice (var. Basmati 370) in saline conditions. Plant Cell ‘llssue Organ Culture

50,153-159.

Beard, J. B. (1965). Factors in the adaptation of turfgrasses to shade. Agron. J. 57,457-459.

Beard, J. B. (1985). An assessment of water use by turfgrasses. In “Turfgrass Water Conservation”

(V.A. Gibeault and S. T. Cockerham. Ed.). Div. Agric. Natl. Res. Publ. no. 21405. Univ. of California Press, Riverside.

Beard, J. B. (1989). Turfgrass water stress: Drought resistance components, physiological mechanisms,

and species-genotype diversity. In “Proceedings of the 6th International Turf Research Conference, 31 July-5 Aug. 1989” (H.Takatoh, Ed.), pp. 23-28. Japan Soc.Turf. Sci.. Tokyo.

Beard, J. B., Green, R. L., and Sifers, S. I. (1992). Evapotranspiration and leaf extension rates of 24

well-watered, turf-type Cynodon genotypes. Hort. Sci. 27,986-988.



TURFGRASS MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT



285



Belanger, F. C., Laramore, C. L., and Day, P. R. (1997). Turfgrass biotechnology. In “1996 Rutgers

Turfgrass Proceedings, Vol. 28” (A. B. Gould, Ed.), pp. 1-3. Department of Pathology,Cook College, P. 0. Box 231, New Brunswick. NJ 08903.

Belesky, D. P., and Fedders, J. M. (1995). Tall fescue development in response to Acremonium

coenophialum and soil acidity. Crop. Sci. 35,529-533.

Bengough, A. G.,and Young, I. M. (1993). Root elongation of seedling peas through layered soil of

different penetration resistances. Plant Soil 149, 129-1 39.

Bennetzen, J. L. (1996). The use of comparative genome mapping in the identification, cloning, and

manipulation of important plant genes. In “The Impact of Plant Molecular Genetics” (B. W.S .

Sobral, Ed.), pp. 71-85. Birkhauser, Boston.

Bennetzen, J. L., and Freeling, M. (1993). Grasses as a single genetic system: Genome composition,

collinearity. and compatibility. Trends Gener. 9,259-261.

Bennetzen, J. L., and Freeling, M. (1997). The unified grass genome: Synergy in synteny. Genome Res.

7,301-306.

Bienfait, H.F. (1988). Mechanisms in Fe-efficiency reactions of higher plants. J. Plant Nutr: 11,605629.

Bjorkman, 0. (1968). Carboxydismutase activity in shade-adapted and sun-adapted species of higher

plants. Physiol. Plant. 21, 1-10.

Blakeley, S. D., and Dennis, D. T. (1993). Molecular approaches to the manipulation of carbon allocation in plants. Can. J. Bor. 71,765-778.

Blakeley, S . D., Plaxton, W. C., and Dennis, D. T. (1991). Relationship between the subunits of leucoplast pyruvate kinase from Ricinus communis and a comparison with the enzyme from other

sources. Plant Physiol. %, 1283-1288.

Blakeley, S. D., Crews, L., Todd, J., and Dennis, D. T. (1992). Expression of the genes for a-and psubunits of pyrophosphate-dependentphosphofructokinase in germinating and developing seeds

of Ricinus communis. Planr Physiol. 96, 1283-1288.

Blanco, G.,Drummond, M. D., Kennedy, C., and Woodley, P. (1993). Sequence and molecular analysis of the nifl. gene of Atorobacrer vinelandii. Mol. Micmbiol. 9,869-879.

Boardman, N. K. (1977). Comparative photosynthesis of sun and shade plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28,355-377.

Botha, F. C., and Dennis, D. T. (1986). Isozymes of phosphoglyceromutase from the developing

endosperm of Ricinus communis: Isolation and kinetic properties. Arch. Biochem. Eiophys. 245,

96-103.

Bowman, D. C., and Macaulay, L. (1991). Comparative evapotranspiration rates of tall fescue cultivars. Hort. Sci. 26,122-123.

Bowsher, C. G.,and Knight, J. S . (1996). The isolation of a pea mot ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) cDNA (Accession No. X99419) (PGR 96-073). Plant Physiol. 112,861.

Boylan, M. T., and Quail, P. H.(1989). Oat phytochrome is biologically active in transgenic tomatoes.

Plant Cell 1,765-773.

Bradshaw, A. D. (1965). Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Adv. Gener. 13,

115-153.

Brady. D. J., Wenzel, C. L., Fillery, 1. R. P., and Gregory, P.J. (1995). Root growth and nitrate uptake

by wheat (Triticum aesrivum L.) following wetting of a dry surface soil. J. Exp. Bor. 286,557-564.

Bray, E. A. (1993). Molecular responses to water deficit. Plant Physiol. 103, 1035-1040.

Brilman, L. A. (1997). Techniques in turfgrass building. Seed World 135(8), 20-22.

Brinkman, H.. Cereff, R., Salomon, M., and Soll, J. (1989). Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs

encoding the cytosolic precursors of subunits Gap A and Gap B of chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase From pea and spinach. Planr Mol. Biol. 13,81-94.

Brisson, L. F., Zelitch, I., and Havir, E. A. (1998). Manipulation of catalase levels produces altered photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants. Planr Physiol. 116,259-269.



286



R. R. DUNCAN AND R.N. CARROW



Browning, S. J., Riordan, T. P., Johnson, R. K., and Johnson-Cicalese, J. (1994). Heritability estimates

of turf-type characteristics in buffalograss. Hort. Sci. 29,204-205.

Bun-ya, M., Nishimura, M., Harashima, S.. and Oshima, Y. (1991). The PH084 gene of Saccharomyces

cerevisiae encodes an inorganic phosphate transporter. Mol. Cell B i d . 11,3229-3238.

Bums, W. C., Maitra, N., and Cushman, J. C. (1997). Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a group I LEAprotein (Accession No. U66317) from soybean (PGR 97-016). Plant Physiol. 113,663.

Busey, P., and Davis, E. H. (1991). Turfgrass in the shade environment. Proc. Flu. Stare Hort. Soc. 104,

353-358.

Campbell, T. A,, and Jackson, P. R. (1994). Effects of aluminum stress on alfalfa root proteins. J. Planr

Nut,: 17,461-471.

Cao, Y., Ward, J. M.. Kelly, W. B., Ichida, A. M., Gaber, R. F., Anderson, J. A,, Uozumi, N., Schroeder, J. I., and Crawford, N. M. (1995). Multiple genes, tissue specificity, and expression-dependent modulation contribute to the functional diversity of potassium channels in Arabidopsis

thaliana. Plant Physiol. 109, 1093-1 106.

Carlisle. S. M., Blakeley, S. D., Hemmingsen, S. M., Trevanion, S. J., Hiyoshi, T., Kruger, N. J., and

Dennis, D. T. (1990). Pyrophosphate dependent phosphofructokinase. Conservation of protein sequence between the a- and P-subunits and with the ATP dependent phosphofructokinase. J. Biol.

Chem. 265,18366-18371.

Carninci, P., Nishiyama, Y.,Westover. A., Itol, M., Nagaoka, S., Sasaki, N., Okazaki, Y.,Muramatsu,

M., and Hayashizaki, Y. (1998). Thermostabilization and thermoactivation of thermolabile enzymes by trehalose and its application for the synthesis of a full length cDNA. Proc. Narl. Acud.

Sci. USA 95,520-524.

Carroll, A. D., Fox, G. G., Laurie. S., Phillips, R., Ratcliffe, R. G., and Stewart, G. R. (1994). Ammonium assimilation and the role of a-aminobutyric acid in pH homeostasis in carrot cell suspensions. Plant Physiol. 106,513-520.

Carrow, R. N. (1989, July). Managing turf for maximum root growth. Golf Course Management, 1826.

Carrow, R. N. (1995a). Managing turf for maximum root growth. Landscape Management34(1 I), 2829.

Carrow, R. N. (1995b). Drought resistance aspects of turfgrasses in the Southeast: Evapotranspiration

and crop coefficients. Crop. Sci. 35, 1685-1690.

Carrow, R. N. (1996a). Drought avoidance characteristics of diverse tall fescue cultivars. Crop Sci. 36,

371-371.

Carrow, R. N. (1996b). Drought resistance aspects of turfgrasses in the Southeast: Root-shoot responses. Crop Sci. 36,687-694.

Carrow, R. N. (1996, June). Summer decline of bentgrass greens. Golf Course Management, 5 1-56.

Carrow, R. N., and Duncan, R. R. (1996). Breeding priorities and approaches for edaphic and climatic constraints on turfgrasses. In “Proceedings of the 34th Grass Breeders Work Planning Conference” (R. R. Duncan, Ed), 16-17 Sept. 1996, pp. 64-76. Univ. of Georgia, Griffin.

Carrow, R. N., and Duncan, R. R. (1998). “Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites: Assessment and Management.” Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI.

Carrow, R. N., and Petrovic, A. (1992). Effects of traffic on turfgrass. In “Turfgrass” (D. V. Waddington, R. N. Carrow, and R. C. Shearman, Eds.), Monograph No. 32, pp. 285-330. ASA, CSSA,

and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Cassing, A., Boehme, H., and Schrautemeier, B. (1995). Nucleotide sequence, promoter structure and

expression of the pet F1 gene (Accession No. U33848) encoding the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin I from

the nitrogen-fixing nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonemu boryanum PCC 73 1 10. (PGR

95-1 12). Plant Physiol. 109, 1499.

Cattivelli, L.. and Bartels, D. (1992). Biochemistry and molecular biology of cold-inducible enzymes



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

III. Enhancement Strategy for Multiple-Stress Resistance

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×