Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
IV. Needs for Further Research

IV. Needs for Further Research

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang



It is critical that we meet the need for a systems approach in agricultural

research (Logan, 1990) so that the real issues can be addressed. One input can be

used to minimize the need for another potentially more hazardous input, and,

therefore, it is essential to integrate the components of agricultural systems fully

so that their impact on other inputs is taken into account (Edwards, 1989). When

a farmer spreads fertilizer or irrigates with lagoon effluent, he is not only supplying nutrients to his crop, he is altering the environment for pest populations and

influencing the movement of water across the landscape. The more that scientists

and farmers understand these interactions, the more capable we will be of making wise decisions regarding our stewardship of land and water.


The author is deeply indebted to the late Dr. Howard M. Taylor (1924-1991) for many of the

concepts and thought processes that led to this work. An earlier version entitled, “Nutritional Effects

on Water Use Efficiency and Root Growth” (J. G. Davis-Carter and P. G. Georgen) was presented at

the Rhizosphere Research Symposium in Dr. Taylor’s honor at the American Society of Agronomy

meetings in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on November 2, 1992.


Adams, F. 1966. Calcium deficiency as a causal agent of ammonium phosphate injury to cotton

seedlings. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30, 485-488.

Adatia, M. H., and Besford, R. T. 1986. The effects of silicon on cucumber plants grown in

recirculating nutrient solution. Ann. Bot. (London) 58, 343-351.

Afel’der, L. I. 1988. Decrease in soil erosion processes under fertilization. Sov. Agric. Sci. 6,68-70.

Alberts, E. E., and Spomer, R. G. 1985. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff from watersheds in conservation and conventional tillage. J. Soil Water Conserv. 40, 153-157.

Alt, K., Osborn, C. T., and Calacicco, D. 1989. Soil erosion: What effect on agricultural productivity? Agric. Inf. Bull (U.S.Dep. Agric. No. 556.

Anderson, D. L., and Dean, J. L. 1986. Relationship of rust severity and plant nutrients in sugarcane. Phytoparhology 76, 581-585.

Anderson, D. L., Henderson, L. J., Raid, R. N., and Irey, M. S. 1991. Sugar cane rust severity and

leaf nutrient status. Sugar Cune 3, 5-10.

Andraski, B. J., Mueller, D. H., and Daniel, T. C. 1985. Phosphorus losses in runoff as affected by

tillage. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49, 1523-1527.

Anghinoni, I., and Barber, S. A. 1980. Phosphorus influx and growth characteristics of corn roots as

influenced by phosphorus supply. Agron. J. 72, 685-688.

A d a , H., and Kuwatsuka, S. 1991. Relationships between the degradation rate of the herbicide

pyrazoxyfen and soil properties. J. Pesric. Sci. 16, 71-76.

Arora, D. K., Filonow, A. B., and Lockwood, J. L. 1985. Decreased aggressiveness of Bipolaris

sorokiniana conidia in response to nutrient stress. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 26, 135-142.

Arvieu, J. C., and Cuany, A. 1985. Effects of organic matter on the biological activity and degradation of methyl bromide in soil. Bull. OEPP 15, 87-96.



Bandyopadhyay, R., yddav, J. P. S . , Kataria, H. R., and Grover, R. K. 1982. Fungicidal control of

Rhizocronia solani in soil amended with organic manures. Ann. Appl. Eot. 101, 251-259.

Bennett, A. C., and Adams, F. 1970. Concentration of NH, (aq) required for incipient NH, toxicity

to seedlings. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. Proc. 34, 259-263.

Berard, L. S., Senecal, M., and Vigier, B. 1990. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on stored cabbage.

11. Mineral composition in midrib and head tissues of two cultivars. J. Horfic.Sci. 65,409-416.

Bhat, K. K . S. 1983. Nutrient inflows into apple roots. Plant Soil 71, 371-380.

Bhat. K. K. S., Nye, P. H., and Brereton, A. J. 1979. The possibility of predicting solute uptake and

plant growth response from independently measured soil and plant characteristics. VI. The

growth and uptake of rape in solutions of constant nitrate concentration. Plant Soil 53, 137- 167.

Bhatnagar, V. K., Miller, M. H., and Ketcheson, J. W. 1985. Reaction of fertilizer and liquid manure

phosphorus with soil aggregates and sediment phosphorus enrichment. J. Environ. Qua/. 14,

246-25 I .

Binford, G . D., Blackmer, A. M . , and El-Hout, N. M. 1990. Tissue test for excess nitrogen during

corn production. Agron. J. 82, 124- 129.

Binford, G . D., Blackmer, A. M., and Cerrato, M. E. 1992. Relationship between corn yields and

soil nitrate in late spring. Agron. J . 84, 53-59.

Boggess, W. G., and Heady, E. 0. 1992. A separable programming analysis of alternative income

and soil conservation policies for U.S. agriculture. In “Economic Models of Agricultural Land

Conservation and Environmental Improvement” (E. 0. Heady and G. F. Vocke, eds.), pp. 234250. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames.

Bohnsack, C. W., and Albert, L. S. 1977. Early effects of boron deficiency on indoleacetic acid

oxidase levels of squash root tips. Plant Physiol. 59, 1047-1050.

Braverman, M. P. Locascio, S. J., Dusky, J. A., and Hornsby. A . G. 1990. Mobility and bioactivity

of thiobencarb. Weed Sci. 38, 607-614.

Brevedan, R. E., Egli, D. B., and Leggett, J. E. 1978. Influence of N nutrition on flower and pod

abortion and yield of soybeans. Agron. J. 70, 81-84.

Brown, L. C . , West, L. T., Beasley, D. B., and Foster, G. R. 1990. Rill erosion one year after

incorporation of crop residue. Trans. ASAE 3, 1531-1540.

Brown, M. P., Longabucco, P., Rafferty, M. R., Robillard, P. D., Walter, M. F., and Haith, D. A.

1989. Effects of animal waste control practices on nonpoint-source phosphorus loading in the

West Branch of the Delaware River watershed. J. Soil Water Conserv. 44, 67-70.

Brown, L. R. 1991. Feeding six billion. In “The Worldwatch Reader on Global Environmental

Issues” (L. R. Brown, ed.), pp. 147-164. Norton, New York.

Bruulsema, T. W., and Christie, B. R. 1987. Nitrogen contribution to suceeding corn from alfalfa

and red clover. Agron. J. 79, 96-100.

Buban, T., Varga, A,. Tromp, J., Knegt, E., and Bruinsma, J. 1978. Effects of ammonium and

nitrate nutrition on the level of zeatin and amino nitrogen in xylem sap of apple rootstocks. 2.

Pjanzenphysiol. 89, 289-295.

Buchanan, G. A,, and McLaughlin, R. D. 1975. Influence of nitrogen on weed competition in

cotton. Weed Sci. 23, 324-328.

Buchanan, G. A,, Hoveland, C. S . , and Harris, M. C. 1975. Response of weeds to soil pH. Weed

Sci. 23, 473-477.

Buccholz, D. D., and Murphy, L. S . 1987. Conservation of nutrients. In “Energy in World Agriculture, 2: Energy in Plant Nutrition and Pest Control” (Z. R . Helsel, ed.), pp. 101-131. Elsevier,


Buchner, W., and Vollmer, F. J. 1984. Whole-year soil covering as a practical measure for soil and

groundwater protection. Mirr. Dtsch. Eodenkd. Ges. 40, 49-54.

Bugg, R. L., Phatak, S. C., and Dutcher, J. D. 1990. Insects associated with cool-seasoncover crops

in southern Georgia: implications for pest control in truck-farm and pecan agroecosystems. Eiol.

Agric. Hortic. 7, 17-45.



Bugg, R. L., Dutcher, J. D., and McNeill, P. J. 1991a. Cool-season cover crops in the pecan orchard

understory: effects on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) and pecan aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae).

B i d . Control 1, 8-15.

Bugg, R. L., Sarrantonio, M., Dutcher. J. D., and Phatak, S. C. 1991b. Understory cover crops in

pecan orchards: possible management systems. Am. J . Alternative Agric. 6, 50-62.


Bugg, R. L., Wackers, F. L., Brunson, K. E., Dutcher, J. D., and Phatak, S. C. 1 9 9 1 ~Cool-season

cover crops relay intercropped with cantaloupe: Influence on a generalist predator. Geocoris

punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). J . Econ. Entomol. 84, 408-416.

Buresh, R. J., Woodhead, T., Shepherd, K. D., Flordelis, E., and Cabangon, R. C. 1989. Nitrate

accumulation and loss in a mungbean/lowland rice cropping system. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J. 53,


,3,5Burkhard, N., and Guth, J. A. 1981. Chemical hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4,6-bis(alkylamino)-I

triazine herbicides and their breakdown in soil under the influence of adsorption. Pesric. Sci. 12,


Bums, R. G., and Martin, J. P. 1986. Biodegradation of organic residues in soil. I n “Microfloral and

Faunal Interactions in Natural and Agroecosystems” (M. J. Mitchell and J. P. Nakas, eds.),

pp. 137-202. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Cassman, K. G. 1986. Soil, crop management and plant factors which influence cotton potassium

nutrition on vermiculitic soils of the San Joaquin Valley. J. Ferr. Issues 3, 38-45.

Chakravarty, P., and Unestam, T. 1987. Differential influence of ectomycorrhizae on plant growth

and disease resistance in Pinus sylvestris seedlings. J . Phyropathol. 120, 104-120.

Champawat, R. S. 1991. Interaction between vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium

oxysporum f.sp. cumini-their effects on cumin. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., Part E 57, 5962.

Chauhan, R. S., and Das, F. C. 1990. Effect of weed control measures on sugarcane yields. fndian

Sugar 4, 231-233.

Cherif, M., and Belanger, R. R. 1992. Use of potassium silicate amendments in recirculating nutrient

solutions to suppress Pyrhium ultimum on long English cucumber. Plant Dis. 76, 1008-101 1.

Cherrier, J. F. 1990. Revegetation of mined areas in New Caledonia. Bois For. Trop. No. 225, 5-23.

Chescheir. G. M . , 111, Westerman, P. W., and Safley, L. M., Jr. 1986. Laboratory methods for

estimating available nitrogen in manures and sludges. Agric. Wasres 18, 175- 195.

Choi, S. S., Kim, Y. J., Jo, H. K., and Hwang, S. J. 1991. Improvement of grass establishment in

sloping areas. Res. Rep. RuralDev. Adm.: Livest. 33, 24-29. Livest. Exp. Stn., Suweon. Korea


Clements, F. E., Weaver, J. E., and Hanson, H. C. 1929. Plant competition: An analysis of

community functions. Carnegie fnst. Washington, Publ. No. 398.

Cogo, N. P., Moldenhauer, W. C., and Foster, G. R. 1983. Effect of crop residue, tillage-induced

roughness, and runoff velocity on size distribution of eroded soil aggregates. Soil Sci.SOC.Am.

J . 47, 1005-1008.

Cogo. N. P., Moldenhauer, W. C., and Foster, G. R. 1984. Soil loss reductions from conservation

tillage practices. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J . 48, 368-373.

Cohacek, J. L . , an&Kerby, T. A. 1991. Effects of residual soil nitrogen on yield and petiole nitrate of

cotton. J. Prod. Agric. 4, 193-197.

Constable, G. A,, Rochester, I. J., Betts, J. H., and Herridge, D. F. 1991. Prediction of nitrogen

fertilizer requirement in cotton using petiole and sap nitrate. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 22,

1315- 1324.

Cooper, P., Jones, M., Harris, H., and Matar, A. 1989. “Agroecological Constraints to Crop

Production in West Asia and North Africa, and Their Impact on Fertilizer Use,” Int. Fert. Dev.

Cent. Pap. Ser. P-9.

Csinos, A. S., and Gaines, T. P. 1986. Peanut pod rot complex: A geocapsphere nutrient imbalance. Plant Dis. 70, 525-529.



Daniels, R. B. 1987. USDA soil depletion study of the Southern Iowa River Basin, USA. In “Land

Transformation in Agriculture” (M. G . Wolman, ed.), pp. 429-451. Wiley, Chichester, England.

Davis, J. G . , and Parker, M. B. 1993. Zinc toxicity symtom development and partitioning of biomass

and zinc in peanut plants. J . Plant Nutr. 16, 2353-2369.

Davis, J. G., Hossner, L. R., and Persaud, N. 1993. Elemental toxicity effects on germination and

growth of pearl millet seedlings. J . Plant Nutr. 16, 1957-1968.

Davis-Carter, 1. G. 1989. Influence of spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties on

the rooting patterns of pearl millet and sorghum. Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College


Davis-Carter, J. G., and Burgoa, B. 1993. Atrazine runoff and leaching losses from soil in tilted beds

as influenced by three rates of lagoon effluent. J. Envimn. Sci. Health. Pan B B28, 1-18.

Deizman, M. M.,Mostaghimi, S., Dillaha, T. A., and Heatwole, C. D. 1989. Tillage effects on

phosphorus losses from sludge-amended soils. J . Soil Water Conserv. 44, 247-25 1.

Diaz-Fierros, F., Carmen Villar, M., Gil, F., Carballas, M., Carmen Leiros. M., Carballas, T., and

Cabaneiro, A. 1988. Effect of cattle slurry fractions on nitrogen mineralization in soil. J . Agric.

Sci. 110, 491-497.

Dillaha, T. A , , Mostaghimi, S., and Heatwole, C. D. 1988. Tillage effects on nutrient loadings of

waterways. Proc. 1988 South. Conserv. Tillage Conf., fipelo, Miss. (K. H . Remy, ed.), Spec.

Bull. No. 88-1, pp. 83-85. Miss. Agric. For. Exp. Stn., State College.

Ditsch, D. C . , and Alley, M. M. 1991. Nonleguminous cover crop management for residual N

recovery and subsequent crop yields. J . Fert. Issues 8, 6-13.

Doran, J. W., Wilhelm, W. W., and Power, J. F. 1984. Crop residue removal and soil productivity

with no-till corn, sorghum, and soybean. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J . 48, 640-645.

Dormaar, I. F., Lindwall, C. W., and Kozub, G. C. 1986. Restoring productivity to an artificially

eroded Dark Brown Chernozemic soil under dryland conditions. Can. J . Soil Sci. 66,273-285.

Dormaar, J. F.,Lindwall, C. W., and Kozub, G. C. 1988. Effectiveness of manure and commercial

fertilizer in restoring productivity of an artifically eroded Dark Brown Chernozemic soil under

dryland conditions. Can. J . Soil Sci. 68, 669-679.

Dowding, E. A,, Hawley, K. N., and Peterson, C. L. 1984. “Characterization of Runoff as Related

to Tillage Management,” Pap. No. 84-2543. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, Minnesota.

Doyle, R. C., Kaufman, D. D., and Burt, G. W. 1978. Effect of dairy manure and sewage sludge on

I4C-pesticide degradation in soil. J . Agric. Food Chem. 26, 987-989.

Eavis, B. W., and Taylor, H. M. 1979. Transpiration of soybeans as related to leaf area, root length,

and soil water content. Agron. J . 71, 441-445.

Eckert, D. J. 1991. Relationship between late spring nitrate-N or ammonium-N concentrations and

corn yield in Ohio. Proc. 1991 Res. Symp., Fluid Fert. Found. pp. 76-82.

Edmisten, K. L., Wood, C. W., Reeves, D. W., and Tracy, P. W. 1992. Determination of cotton

nitrogen status with a hand-held chlorophyll meter in Alabama and Missouri. Proc. Belfwide

Cotton Conf. 3, 1101-1102.

Edwards, C. A. 1989. The importance of integration in sustainable agricultural systems. Agric.

Ecosyst. Environ. 21, 25-35.

El-Swaify, S. A., Lo, A.. Joy, R., Shinshiro, L., and Yost. R. 1988. Achieving conservationeffectiveness in the tropics using legume intercrops. Soil Technol. 1, 1-13.

Espeby, L. 1989. Germination of weed seeds and competition in stands of weeds and barley:

Influences of mineral nutrients. Crop. Prod. Sci. 6.

Evanylo, G . K., and Zehnder, G. W. 1989. Common ragweed interference in snap beans at various

soil potassium levels. Appl. Agric. Res. 4, 101-105.

Fernandez, R. N., Schulze, D. G., Coffin, D. L., and Van Scoyoc. G . E. 1988. Color, organic

matter, and pesticide adsorption relationships in a soil landscape. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 52,




Flach, K. W. 1990. Low-input agriculture and soil conservation. J. Soil Water Conserv. 4 5 , 4 2 4 4 .

Foehse, D., and Jungk, A. 1983. Influence of phosphate and nitrate supply on root hair formation of

rape, spinach and tomato plants. Planr Soil 74, 359-368.

Follett, R. F., and Walker, D. J. 1989. Ground water quality concerns about nitrogen. In “Nitrogen

Management and Ground Water Protection” (R. F. Follett, ed.), pp. 1-22. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Fox, R. H., Roth, G. W., Iversen, K. V., and Piekielek, W. P. 1989. Soil and tissue nitrate tests

compared for predicting soil nitrogen availability to corn. Agron. J . 81, 971-974.

Frye, W. W., Smith, W. G., and Williams, R. J. 1985. Economics of winter cover crops as a source

of nitrogen for no-till corn. J. Soil Water Conserv. 40, 246-249.

Gakale, L. P., and Clegg, M. D. 1987. Nitrogen from soybean for dryland sorghum. Agron. J. 79,


Geiger, S. C., Manu, A , , and Bationo, A. 1992. Changes in a sandy Sahelian soil following crop

residue and fertilizer additions. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J. 56, 172-177.

Gerstl, Z. 1984. Adsorption, decomposition and movement of oxamyl in soil. Pesric. Sci. 15, 9-17.

Geyer, B., and Marschner, H. 1990. Charakterisierung des Stickstoff Versorgungs-grades bei Mais

mit Hilfe des Nitrat-Schnelltests. Z . Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenkd. 153, 341-348.

Gilley, I. E., Finkner, S. C., and Varvel, G. E. 1987. Slope length and surface residue influences on

runoff and erosion. Trans. ASAE 30, 148-152.

Gliessman, S. R. 1987. Species interactions and community ecology in low external-input agriculture. Am. J. Alternative Agric. 2, 160-165.

Goldbach, E., Goldbach, H., Wagner, H., and Michael, G. 1975. Influence of N-deficiency on the

abscisic acid content of sunflower plants. Physiol. Plant 34, 138-140.

Graham, R. D. 1975. Male sterility in wheat plants deficient in copper. Nature (London) 254, 514515.

Graham, R. D. 1983. Effects of nutrient stress on suseptibility of plants to disease with particular

reference to the trace elements. Adv. Bor. Res. 10, 221-276.

Guo, L., Bicki, T. J., Felsot, A. S., and Hinesly, T. D. 1991. Phytotoxicity of atrazine and alachlor

in soil amended with sludge, manure and activated carbon. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B B26,

5 13-527.

Gustafson, R. A. 1991. Cattle and forages can play a vital role in substainable agriculture. FoodRev.

14(4), 2-5.

Haeder, H. E., and Beringer, H. 1981. Influence of potassium nutrition and water stress on the

abscisic acid content in grains and flag leaves during grain development. J. Sci. Food Agric. 32,


Hamada, A. A , , Babiker, E. A,, and Khalifa, F. M. 1988. Effect of weeds, nitrogen and phosphorus

fertilizers on pod yield and growth of groundnuts at Rahad (Sudan). Oleogineux 43, 379-382.

Hamaker, J. W. 1972. Decomposition: quantitative aspects. In “Organic Chemicals in the Soil

Environment” (C. A. 1. Goring and J. W. Hamaker, eds.), pp. 253-340. Dekker, New York.

Hance, R. J. 1973. The effect of nutrients on the decomposition of the herbicides atrazine and linuron

incubated with soil. Pestic. Sci. 4, 817-822.

Hansson, B. 1984. Chemical sludge as soil conditioner and fertilizer. In “Chemical Water and

Wastewater Treatment” (A. Grohman, ed.), pp. 214-221. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Hatzios, K. K., and Penner, D. 1988. Metribuzin. In “Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, and

Mode of Action” (P. C. Keamey and D. D. Kaufman, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 191-243. Dekker, New

York, NY.

Hong, S. D., Fox, R. H., and Piekielek, W. P. 1990. Field evaluation of several chemical indexes of

soil nitrogen availability. Plant Soil 123, 83-88.

Hou, K. W., Chen, Y. P., Chen, Y., Zhang, F. H., and Liu, F. S. 1991. Cajanus cajan intercropped

with host trees of lacca insects restoring land from shifting cultivation. In “Agroforesty Systems

in China” (Z. H. Zhu, ed.), pp. 195-196. Chin. Acad. For., Beijing.



Hoveland. C. S . , Buchanan, G. A., and Harris, M. C. 1976. Response of weeds to soil phosphorus

and potassium. Weed Sci. 24, 194-201.

Hsieh. W., and Cheng, I. F. 1988. The effect of different pasture management on the growth of

Pangola grass. 11. The effect of fertilizer application, spraying with 2.4-D and mowing on the

establishment of Pangola grass. J. Taiwan Livest. Res. 2(2), 55-61,

Hubbs, C. W., and Lavy, T. L. 1990. Dissipation of nortlurazon and other persistent herbicides in

soil. Weed Sci. 38, 81-88.

Hurle, K. 1978. Einfluss des Strohverbrennens auf Aktivitat, Sorption und Abbau von Herbiziden in

Boden. Meded. Far. Landbouwwet. Rijksuniv. Gent 43, 1097- 1107.

Hurle, K., and Walker, A. 1980. Persistence and its prediction. I n “Interaction Between Herbicides

and the Soil“ (R. J. Hance, ed.), pp. 83-122. Academic Press, New York.

Jayasinghe, C. K. 1991. The role of leguminous cover crops in soil improvement with special

reference to the nitrogen economy of tropical rubber soils. Bull. Rubber Res. Inst. Sri Lanka 28,


Jemison, J. M., Jr., and Fox, R . H. 1988. A quick-test procedure for soil and plant tissue nitrates

using test strips and a hand-held reflectometer. Commun. Soil Sci. Planr Anal. 19, 1569- 1582.

Jensen, M. E.. and Sletten, W. H. 1965. Evapotranspiration and soil moisture-fertilizer interrelations with irrigated winter wheat in the southem High Plains. OSDAITAES Conserv. Res. Rep.

No. 4 .

Johnsen, F. H. 1990. Economic analysis of measures to counteract phosphorus runoff from nonpoint

agricultural sources. Nor. Landbruksforsk., Suppl. No. 7 .

Johnston, A . E. 1990. Low input agriculture-is it sustainable? Fert. Soc. S . Afr. J . 1, 10-19.

Juo, A. S. R . , and Kang, B. T. 1989. Nutrient effects of modification of shifting cultivation in West

Africa. “Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems.” (I. Proctor, ed.), Br.

Erol. Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 9, 289-300.

Karlen, D. L., Sadler, E. J., and Camp, C. R. 1987. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and

potassium accumulation rates by corn on Norfolk loamy sand. Agron. J. 79, 649-656.

Kataria, H. R., and Grover, R. K. 1987. Influence of soil factors, fertilizers and manures on

pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani on Vigna species. Planr Soil 103, 57-66.

Kataria, H. R., Shyam, S., and Sunder, S. 1988. A comparison of in v i m and in vivo effects of clay

minerals, humic acid and micronutrients on the activity of fungic.des against Rhizoctonia solani.

Plant Soil 111, 95- 104.

Keeney, D. R.. and Bremner, J. M. 1966. Comparison and evaluation of laboratory methods of

obtaining an index of soil nitrogen availability. Agron. J. 58, 498-503.

Khan, S . , and Khan, N. N. 1986. The mobility of some organophosphorus pesticides in soils as

affected by some soil parameters. Soil Sci. 142, 214-222.

Khan, S. U. 1991. Bound (nonextractable) pesticide degradation products in soils. ACS Symp. Ser.

No. 459, 108-121.

Kim, S. C., and Moody, K. 1989. Growth dynamics of rice and several weed species under density

and fertilizer stress. Proc. Asian-Pac. Weed Sci. Soc. Conf. 12th 1, 47-56.

King, L. D., Bums, J. C., and Westerman, P. W. 1990. Long-term swine lagoon effluent applications

on “coastal” bermudagrass: 11. Effect on nutrient accumulation in soil. J. Environ. Qua/. 19,


Kiraly, Z. 1985. Working group 7. Nutrient supply and plant health. Ways of controlling plant

diseases and pests. In “Fight against Hunger through Improved Plant Nutrition.” World Fert.

Congr. Proc., 9th 3, 141-176.

Klaij, M. C., and Hoogmoed, W. B. 1989. Crop response to tillage practices in a Sahelian soil. I n

“Soil, Crop, and Water Management Systems for Rainfed Agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian

Zone” (T. Gaillard and V. Sadhana, eds.), pp. 265-275. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India.

Knowles, T. C., Doerge, T. A,. and Ottman, M. J. 1991. Improved nitrogen management in irrigated




durum wheat using stem nitrate analysis: 11. Interpretation of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations.

Agron. J. 83, 353-356.

Lal, R. 1984. Management of soil physical properties for soil and water conservation and seedbed

preparation in West Africa. In “An Overview of Upland Rice Research,” pp. 383-394. IRRI,

Los Banos, Philippines.

Lal, R. 1987. Response of maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) to removal of surface

soil from an Alfisol in Nigeria. Int. J. Trop. Agric. 5 , 77-92.

Lal, R., Miller, F. P., and Logan, T. J. 1988. Are intensive agricultural practices environmentally

and ethically sound? J. Agric. Erhics 1, 193-210.

Langdale, G. W., Leonard, R. A , , and Thomas, A. W. 1985. Conservation practice effects on

phosphorus losses from Southern Piedmont watersheds. J. Soil Warer Conserv. 40, 157160.

Lee, H . K.. and Moody, K. 1989. Nitrogen fertilizer level on competition between upland rice and

Eclipta prostrara (L.). Proc. Asian-Par. Weed Sci. Soc. Conf., 12th I, 187-193.

Lee, 1. K . , Seo, S., Lim, Y. W., and Park, K. J. 1990. Effect of nitrogen and lime application at

sowing on soil properties, weed development, dry matter yield and nutritive value in alfalfa

meadow. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 32, 635-641.

Lo, K. F. A. 1989. Erosion-productivity interrelationships for tropical soils. In “Soils and Fertilizers

in Taiwan,” pp. 19-30. SOC.Soil Fert. Sci. Repub. China, Taiwan.

Logan, T. J. 1990. Sustainable agriculture and water quality. I n “Sustainable Agricultural Systems’’

(C. A. Edwards, ed.), pp. 582-613. Soil Water Conserv. SOC.,Ankeny, Iowa.

Lopes, P. R. C., Cogo, N. P., and Cassol, E. A. 1987. Influence of crop residue mulch on runoff

velocity and size distribution of eroded soil sediments. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Solo 11, 193-197.

Lutrick, M. C . , Peacock, A. A,, and Cornell, J. A. 1986. Nitrate monitoring for cotton lint

production on a typic Paleudult. Agron. J . 78, 104-1046.

Magdoff, F. R. 1991. Field nitrogen dynamics: Implications for assessing N availability. Commun.

Soil Sci. Planr Anal. 22, 1507-1517.

Maizlish, N. A., Fritton, D. D., and Kendall, W. A. 1980. Root morphology and early development

of maize at varying levels of nitrogen. Agron. J. 7 2 , 25-3 1 .

Malik, M. A. 1991. No-till dryland winter wheat (Triricum aestivum L.) as influenced by fertilizer

placement methods and downy brome (Brornus tecrorum) infestation. Diss. Absrr. Int. B 51,

41 14B.

Maqueda, C., Perez-Rodriguez, J. L., Martin, F., and Hermosin, M. C. 1982. A study of the

interaction between chlordimeform and humic acid from a typic chromoxerert soil. Soil Sci.

136, 75-8 I .

Marschner, H. 1986. “Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants.” Academic Press, San Diego.

Marschner, H., and Richter, C. 1974. Calcium-transport in Wurzeln von Mais- und Bohnenkeimpflanzen. Plant Soil 40, 193-210.

Marten, G . G., and Vityakon, P. 1986. Soil management in traditional agriculture. In “Traditional

Agriculture in Southeast Asia: A Human Ecology Perspective” ( G . G. Marten, ed.), pp. 199225. Westview Press, London.

Massee, T.W. 1990. Simulated erosion and fertilizer effects on winter wheat cropping intermountain

dryland area. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 54, 1720-1725.

Massee, T. W., and Waggoner, H . 0. 1985. Productivity losses from soil erosion on dry cropland in

the intermountain area. J. Soil Water Conserv. 33, 447-450.

Mbagwu, J. S. C. 1992. Improving the productivity of a degraded Ultisol in Nigeria using organic

and inorganic amendments. Part 1. Chemical properties and maize yield. Bioresour. Technol.

42, 149-154.

Mbagwu, J. S . C., Lal, R., and Scott, T. W. 1984. Effects of desurfacing of alfisols and ultisols in

southern Nigeria: 1. Crop performance. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J. 48, 828-833.



McDowell, L. L., and McGregor, K. C. 1984. Plant nutrient losses in runoff from conservation

tillage corn. Soil Tillage Res. 4, 79-91.

McDowell. L. L., Willis, C . H., and Murphree, C. E. 1984.Plant nutrient yields in runoff from a

Mississippi Delta watershed. Trans. ASAE 27, 1059- 1073.

McFarlane, D., Delroy, N., and van Vreeswyk, S . 1991.Water erosion of potato land in Westem

Australia: I. Factors affecting soil loss and the effect of soil loss on productivity. Ausr. J . Soil

Water Conserv. 4,33-40.

McLeod, R. V., and Hegg. R. 0. 1984. Pasture runoff water quality from application of inorganic

and organic nitrogen sources. J. Environ. Qual. 13, 122-126.

McNeal, F. H., Berg, M. A., Brown, P. L., and McGuire, C. F. 1971. Productivity and quality

response of five spring wheat genotypes. Triticurn aestivum L., to nitrogen fertilizer. Agron. J.

63, 908-910.

Mielke, L. N., and Schepers, J. S. 1986.Plant response to topsoil thickness on aneroded loess soil. J.

Soil Water Conserv. 41, 59-63.

Miley, W. N., Maples, R. L., and Keisling, T. C. 1990.Use of soil nitrate tests for cotton nitrogen

recommendations-An extension viewpoint. In “Nitrogen Nutrition in Cotton: Practical Issues”

(W. N. Miley and D. M. Oosterhuis, eds.), pp. 65-76. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.

Mokhtaruddin, A. M., Jamal, T., Sulaiman, W. H. W., and Anuar, A. R. 1984.Yield reduction due

to loss in soil fertility through erosion. In “Soil Science as a Tool for Rural Development” (S.

Panichapong, ed.), Proc. ASEAN Soil Conf., 5th I, E6.1LE6.7.Dep. Land Dev., Bangkok.

Mostaghimi, S., Dillaha, T. A., and Shanholtz, V. 0. 1988.Influence of tillage systems and residue

levels on runoff, sediment, and phosphorus losses. Trans. ASAE 31, 128-132.

Mostaghimi, S . . Younos, T. M., and Tim, U. S . 1992. Effects of sludge and chemical fertilizer

application on runoff water quality. Water Res. Bull. 28, 545-552.

Mueller, D. H., Andraski, B. J., Daniel, T. C., and Lowery, B. 1983.Effect of conservation tillage

on runoff water quality: total, dissolved and algal-available phosphorus losses. Pap. No.

83-2535,Am. SOC.Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, Minnesota.

Mueller, D. H., Wendt, R. C . , and Daniel, T. C. 1984.Phosphorus losses as affected by tillage and

manure application. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J. 48, 901-905.

Muller-Wegener, U., Ehrig, C., Ahlsdorf, B., Litz, N., Katona, B., and Milde, G. 1989. The

translocation of pesticides in soils. Mitt.Dtsch. Eodenkd. Ges. 59, 433-437.

Munns, D. N. 1968.Nodulation of Medicago sativa in solution culture. 111. Effects of nitrate on root

hairs and infection. Plant Soil 29, 33-47.

Nordmeyer, H. 1991. Spatial variability of soil characteristics and its influence on the transport of

pesticides in soil. Mitt. Dtsch. Eodenkd. Ges. 66, 373-376.

O’Connor, M. B., Smart, C. E., and Ledgard, S. F. 1990. Long term effects of withholding

phosphate application on North Island hill country: Te Kuiti. Proc. N . Z . G r a d . Assoc. 51, 2124.

Oerke, E. C., and Schonbeck. F. 1990. Effect of nitrogen and powdery mildew on the yield

formation of two winter barley cultivars. J . Phytopathol. 130, 89-104.

Ognjanovic, R. 1990. The influence of application methods and fertilizer rates on structure and

dynamics of weed communities in maize crops. Rad. Poljopr. Fak. Univ. Sarajevu 38(42),2761.

Onken, A. B., Wendt, C. W., Lascano, R. J., Sow, A., and Kouyate, Z.1991.Effects of soil fertility,

crop genotypes, and available soil water on water-use efficiency of sorghum. In “TropSoils

Technical Report, 1988- 1989,”pp. 318-320. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh.

Osuna-Canizalez, F. J., de Datta, S. K., and Bonman, J. M. 1991. Nitrogen form and silicon

nutrition effects on resistance to blast disease of rice. Plant Soil 135, 223-23 I.

Oyer, L. I . , and Touchton, J. T. 1990.Utilizing legume cropping systems to reduce nitrogen fertilizer

requirements for conservation-tilled corn. Agron. J . 82, 1123-1 127.



Pandey, J., and Thakur, K. N. 1988. Effect of herbicides and nitrogen on nutrient removal by weeds

in transplanted rice. fndian J. Agron. 33, 359-363.

Pavlychenko. T. K., and Harrington, J. B. 1934. Competitive efficiency of weeds and cereal crops.

Can. J. Res. 10, 77-94.

Pavlychenko, T. K., and Harrington, J. B. 1935. Root development of weeds in competition under

dry farming. Sci. Agric. 16, 151-160.

Payne, W. A., Onken, A. B., Wendt, C. W., and Lascano, R. J. 1991. Effects of soil phosphorus

and water supply on growth analysis and transpirational water-use efficiency of pearl millet. In “TropSoils Technical Report, 1988- 1989,” pp. 320-322. North Carolina State Univ.,


Phatak, S. C. 1992. An integrated sustainable vegetable production system. HortScience 27, 738741.

Piekielek, W. P., and Fox, R. H . 1992. Use of a chlorophyll meter to predict sidedress nitrogen

requirements for maize. Agron. J. 84, 59-65.

Pieri, C., and Oliver, R. 1988. Assessment of K losses in tropical cropping system of Francophone

Africa and Madagascar. In “Nutrient Balances and the Need for Potassium,” Proc. IPI Congr.,

13th pp. 73-92. Int. Potash Insr.. Berne-Worblaufen.

Ping, C. L., and Kaija, K. J. 1989. Characteristics and fertility status of soils and minesoils in

selected areas of Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska. Bull.-Alaska Agric. For. Exp. Stn. No.


Power, J. F., Grunes, D. L., and Reichmann, G. A. 1961. The influence of phosphorus fertilization

and moisture on growth and nutrient absorption by spring wheat: I. Plant growth, N uptake, and

moisture use. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 25, 207-210.

Prasad, K., Prem, S.. Prakash, V., and Singh, P. 1991. Response of irrigated wheat to planting

methods, seed and fertilizer levels. Indian J. Agron. 36(1), 44-48.

Prato, T., Shi, H.Q., Rhew, R., and Brusven, M. 1989. Soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution

control in an Idaho watershed. J. Soil Water Conserv. 44, 323-328.

Radics, L. 1990. Studies on the long-term effect of fertilizer on the weed flora with various levels of

NPK in the soil. Z. Pjanzenkr. Pflanzenschufz 12, 101-105.

Radin, J. W. 1984. Stomatal responses to water stress and to abscisic acid in phosphorus-deficient

cotton plants. Plant Physiol. 76, 392-394.

Radin, J. W., and Ackerson, R. C. 1981. Water relations of cotton plants under nitrogen deficiency.

111. Stomatal conductance. Planr Physiol. 67, 115-1 19.

Radin, J. W., and Eidenbock, M. P. 1984. Hydraulic conductance as a factor limiting leaf expansion

of phosphorus-deficient cotton plants. Plant Physiol. 75, 372-377.

Raese, J. T. 1990. Apple and pear yield influenced by weeds and nitrogen. Good Fruit Grower

41(12), 4-5.

Rahman, A., Thompson, A., and Nicholson, K. S. 1990. Ragwort control with herbicides and

fertilizers: first year’s results. Proc. N . Z. Grassl. Assoc. 51, 65-68.

Raju, R. A , , and Reddy, M. N. 1989. Control of jungle rice in the Godavari delta. Indian Farming

39(2), 30-3 I .

Reddy, K. R., Khaleel, R., Overcash, M. R., and Westerman, P. W. 1979. A nonpoint source model

for land areas receiving animal waste: I. Mineralization of organic nitrogen. Trans. ASAE 22,


Ritchey, K. D., Silva, J. E., and Costa, U. F. 1982. Calcium deficiency in clayey B horizona of

savanna Oxisols. Soil Sci. 133, 378-382.

Ritchie, J. T., and Burnett. E. 1971. Dryland evaporative flux in a subhumid climate. 11. Plant

influences. Agron. J. 63, 56-62.

Ritter, W. F. 1988. Reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution from agriculture: a review. J.

Environ. Sci. Health, Part A A23, 645-667.



RBmheld, V., and Ma~chner,H. 1981. Rhythmic iron stress reactions in sunflower at suboptimal

iron supply. Physiol. Planr. 53, 347-353.

Romera-Taboada, E.. Guillen-Alfaro, J. A., Sanchez-Rasero, F.. and Dios-Cancela, G. 1989. Adsorption of ethirimol by clay minerals, peat and soils. I n “Methodological Aspects of the Study

of Pesticide Behaviour in Soil,” pp. 179-184. Inst. Natl. Rech. Agron., Versailles.

Sanchez-Camazano, M., and Sanchez-Martin, M. J. 1988. Influence of soil characteristics on the

adsorption of pirimicarb. Environ. Toxical. Chem. 7, 559-564.

Sant’Anna, R. 1985. Problem soils of Africa south of the Sahara: pedologicai characteristics and subregional distribution. Proc. Fert. Eg. RPS. Techno/. Tran,$er Work~hopAfr: Sourh Sahara

pp. 68-77. Int. Fert. Dev. Cent., Muscle Shoals, Alabama.

Scaife, A,, and Stevens, K. L. 1983. Monitoring sap nitrate in vegetable crops: Comparison of test

strips with electrode methods, and effects of time of day and leaf position. Commi~n.Soit Sci.

Plant Anal. 14, 761-77 I .

Schaefer, N. L. 1986. Evaluation of a hand held reflectometer for rapid quantitative determination of

nitrate. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 17, 937-951.

Scott, H. D.,and Oliver, L. R. 1976. Field competition between tall morning glory and soybean. 11.

Development and distribution of root systems. Weed Sci. 24, 454-460.

Shafiq, M., Zafar, M. I., Ikram, M. Z., and Ranjha, A. Y. 1988. The influence of simulated soil

erosion and restorative fertilization on maize and wheat production. fuk. J. Sri. Ind. Res. 31,


Shainberg, 1.. Sumner, M. E., Miller. W. P., Farina, M. P. W., Pavan, M. A., and Fey, M. V. 1989.

Use of gypsum on soils: A review. Adv. Soil Sci. 9, I - 1 I I .

Sharma, A. K.,Renu, S., Singh. U. S., and Singh. R. 1988. Effect of vesicular-arbuscular

mycorrhiza on uptake of phosphorus and zinc in rice (Oryzu sativa L.). Curr. Sci. 57,901-902.

Sharpley, A. N., Smith, S. J., Stewart, B. A , , and Mathers, A . C. 1984. Forms of phosphorus in soil

receiving cattle feedlot waste. J . Envimn. Quul. 13, 21 1-215.

Sharpley, A. N., Smith, S. J., and Nancy, J. W. 1986. The environmental impact of agricultural

nitrogen and phosphorus use. Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Nut/. Meet., 192nd, Anaheim, Ca/$, 24.

Sharpley, A. N., Carter, B. J., Wagner, B. J.. Smith, S. J., Cole, E. L., and Sample, G . A. 1990.

Impact of long-term swine and poultry manure application on soil and water resources in Eastern

Oklahoma. Tech. Bull.-Okla. Agrir. Exp. Stn. No. 169.

Sharpley. A. N., Smith, S. J., Williams, J. R., Jones, 0.R., and Coleman, G . A. 1991. Water

quality impacts associated with sorghum culture in the Southern Plains. J. Envimn. Qual. 20,


Shea, P. J. 1986. Chlorsulfuron dissociation and adsorption on selected absorbents and soils. Weed

Sci. 34, 474-478.

Shea. P. J. 1989. Role of humified organic matter in herbicide adsorption. Weed ~ e c h n o 3,

~ . 190197.

Siebert, S. F., and Scott, T. W. 1990. Influence of topsoil removal and fertilizer application on peanut

yields from an Indonesian Ultisol. Agrie. Ecosy’st. Environ. 32, 213-221.

Singh, R., Gerritse, R. G., and Aylmore, L. A. G. 1990. Adsorption-desorption behaviour of

selected pesticides in some Western Australian soils. Ausc. J. Soil RCF.28, 227-243.

Singh, V. S., Verma, S. S . . and Kairon, M. S. 1988. Effect of weed control and nitrogen on weed

growth and yield of cotton. lndian J . Agron. 33, 376-379.

Skoien, S . 1988. Soil erosion and runoff losses of phosphonrs, effect of tillage and plant cover. Nor.


2, 207-2 18.

Smika, D. E., Haas, H. J., and Power, J. F. 1965. Effects of moisture and nitrogen fertilizer on

growth and water use by native grass. Agron. J. 57, 483-486.

Smith, S. J., Schepers, J. S., and Porter, L. K. 1990. Assessing and managing agricultural nitrogen

losses to the environment. Adv. Soil Sci. 14, 1-43.



Smith, S. J., Sharpley, A. N., Naney, J. W., Berg, W. A., and Jones, 0. R. 1991. Water quality

impacts associated with wheat culture in the Southern Plains. J. Environ. Qual. 20, 244-249.

Sojka, R. E., Karlen, D. L., and Busscher, W. J. 1991. A conservation tillage research update from

the Coastal Plain Soil and Water Conservation Research Center of South Carolina: a review of

previous research. Soil Tillage Res. 21, 361-376.

Stanford, G., and Smith, S. J. 1972. Nitrogen mineralization potentials of soils. Soil Sci. SOC.Am.

Proc. 36,465-472.

Stearman, G . K., Lewis, R. J., Tortorelli, L. J., and bier, D. D. 1989. Herbicide reactivity of soil

organic matter fractions in no-tilled and tilled cotton. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 53, 1690-1694.

Steer, B. T., Hocking, P. I., Kortt, A. A., and Roxburgh, C. M. 1984. Nitrogen nutrition of

sunflower (Helianfhusannus L.) yield components, the timing of their establishment and seed

characteristics in response to nitrogen supply. Field Crops Res. 9, 219-236.

Tanaka, D. L. 1989. Spring wheat plant parameters as affected by fallow methods in the Northern

Great Plains. Soil Sci. SOC.Am. J . 53, 1506-1511.

Taylor, H. M. 1983. Managing root systems for efficient water use: an overview. In “Limitations to

Efficient Water Use in Crop Production” (H.M. Taylor, W. R. Jordan, and T. R. Sinclair, eds.),

pp. 87-1 13. Am. SOC.Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.

Tedders, W. L. 1983. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: habitat manipulation.

Environ. Man 7 , 29-34.

Thakur, D. R., and Singh, K. K. 1990. Weed and fertilizer management in rainfed maize (Zea mays)

under mid-hill conditions of northwestern Himalayas. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 60, 245-248.

Tisdale, S . L . , and Nelson, W. L. 1975. “Soil Fertility and Fetilizers.” Macmillan, New York.

Todd, R. W., Klocke, N. L., Hergert, G. W., and Parkhurst, A. M. 1991. Evaporation from soil

influenced by crop shading, crop residue, and wetting regime. Trans. ASAE 34, 461-466.

Trernols, A. J., Socarras, M., and Soca, M. 1988. The evolution of the agrochemical properties of

some eroded soils. Agrofec. Cuba 20, 103-113.

Truman, C. C., Gascho, G. J., Davis, J. G . , and Wauchope, R. D. 1993. Seasonal phosphorus losses

in runoff from a Coastal Plain soil. J. Prod. Agric. 6 , 507-513.

+hrner, F. T., and Jund, M. F. 1991. Chlorophyll meter to predict nitrogen topdress requirement for

semidwarf rice. Agron. J. 83, 926-928.

Uhlen, G.. and Osterud, J. G. 1992. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in drainage water from

cultivated land. Nor. Landbruksforsk. 6 , 61-72.

Unger, P. W., Stewart, B. A,, Parr, J. F., and Singh, R. P. 1991. Crop residue management and

tillage methods for conserving soil and water in semi-arid regions. Soil Tillage Res. 20, 219240.

Valentin, C. 1980. Potassium balance in the lower Ivory Coast; example of pineapple cultivation,

pp. 26-35. In Seminaire sue le Potassium. Inst. Int. Potasse, Berne.

Varvel, G. E., and Peterson, T. A. 1990. Residual soil nitrogen as affected by continuous, two-year,

and four-year crop rotation systems. Agron. J. 82, 958-962.

Vasileva, T. 1989. Grass cultivars and mixtures suitable for vegetating highly eroded soils.

Rastenievudni Nauki 26, 45-50.

Venkitaswarny, R., Subramanian, S., and Veerabadran, V. 1991. Influence of modified forms of urea

and nitrogen levels on weed growth and grain yield of lowland rice. Ferf. Res. 28, 315321.

Viets, F. G., Jr. 1962. Fertilizers and the efficient use of water. Adv. Agron. 14, 223-264.

Vireshwar, S., Verma, S . S., and Singh, V. 1988. Dry matter production, nutrient uptake and

nitrogen recovery by cotton under weed control and nitrogen treatments. J. Indian Sor. Cotton

Improv. 13( I ) , 28-32.

Vittal, K. P. R., Vijayalakshmi, K . , and Rao, U . M. B. 1991. Effects of topsoil, rainfall, and

fertilizer on finger millet on an Alfisol in India. Soil Sci. 152, 3-6.

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

IV. Needs for Further Research

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)