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V. Trace Elements, Antibiotics, Pesticides, and Microorganisms in Poultry Wastes

V. Trace Elements, Antibiotics, Pesticides, and Microorganisms in Poultry Wastes

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52



J. T. SIMS AND D. C. WOLF



25 to 50 mg/kg feed, and 4-nitrophenylarsonic acid at 188 mg/kg feed have been

added to rations (Bhattacharya and Taylor, 1975). In some situations, B concentrations in poultry waste can be elevated due to the use of boric acid for insect

control in poultry houses.

1. Concentrations

The levels of trace elements in poultry waste vary widely; representative values are summarized in Table VIII. The most definitive values are those provided

by Webb and Fontenot (1975), Kunkle et al. (1981), and Morrison (1969) because they showed that the level of trace element in the waste is related to addition of trace elements to the diet of the birds. When Cu was included in the feed,

the Cu concentration in the waste was five to six times higher than in waste from

birds not receiving Cu in the feed (Johnson et al., 1985; Webb and Fontenot,

1975). Kunkle et al. (198 1) reported that the Cu level in broiler litter was linearly

related to Cu added in the diet and was concentrated in the litter by 3.25 times.

The addition of As to the diet resulted in a sevenfold increase in As in the litter

(Morrison, 1969). Such information would certainly indicate that knowledge of

the diet of the birds provides valuable information on the trace element content

to be found in the waste material.



2. Impact and Fate

Land application of poultry waste can provide trace elements such as Cu and

Zn, required for crop production. There is some concern that long-term application of high rates of Cu could be toxic to crops grown on coarse-textured soils

or crops grown on fine-textured soils subject to anaerobic conditions (Meek et

al., 1975). Morrison (1969) found no evidence that As was taken up by plants

where broiler litter containing high As levels had been applied for 20 years. Total

As was <6 mg/kg in surface horizons of a Captina silt loam with or without a

history of poultry manure addition (Sharpley el al., 1991).

Application of poultry waste at levels that increase the soil available P levels

could result in a P-induced Zn deficiency in soils with low levels of Zn or where

Zn-sensitive plants are grown. Meek et al. (1975) reported that citrus trees fertilized with turkey manure developed Zn deficiency symptoms while adjacent

trees not treated with manure remained healthy. The Zn deficiency could also be

induced by addition of P fertilizer.

Perhaps a more important process is the chelation of trace elements by organic

compounds in the poultry waste. Chelation can increase trace element availability to plants (Prasad et al., 1984), resulting in possible transport of the chelates

or complexes beyond the root zone in the soil. The fulvic acid fraction of poultry

manure was characterized by Pandeya (1992) as having 70% of the total acidity



Table VIII

Concentrationsof Total Trace Elements in Poultrv Waste

Concentration

(mg/kg, dry weight)

Element

As



4-Hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonicacid in broiler diet

4-Hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonicacid not in broiler diet

B



Cd

co



cu



Waste type

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Liner

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Liner

Manure

Manure

Litter

Manure

Litter

Litter

Manure

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter



Mean



Range



40

76

nd

17

14

35

20

3

44

36

54

38

53

30

6

1



1-60

nd a

10-22

nd

0-77

3-60

12-30

3

32-56

nd

23-125

nd

48-58

26-33

nd

nd

1-1

nd



1



2

1

127

326

77

32

319



1



nd

305 -346

58- 100

25 - 39

156-599



No. of

samples

41

1



nd

55



24

8

11

1

2

164



106

55

4



2

1

1

2

1

12

164

2

4



2

8



Ref.

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Westing et al. (1981)

Ray (1978)

El-Sabban et al. (1969)

Messer er al. ( 1971)

Kunkle et al. (1981)

Morrison (1969)

Morrison ( 1969)

Hileman (1967b)

Stuedemann er al. (1975)

Stephenson et al. (1990)

El-Sabban era!. (1969)

Shortall and Liebhardt (1975)

Weil et a/. (1979)

Westing er a/. ( 1981 )

Bruhn er al. (1977)

Hileman (1967b)

Westing er al. (1981)

Lowman and Knight (1970)

Stuedemann e r a / . (1975)

Wood and Hall (1991)

Vandepopuliere er al. ( 1992)

Hileman ( 1967b)

Kunkle et al. (1981)

( ronrinues)



Table VIII-Continued

Concentration

(mg/kg, dry weight)

Element



cu

Copper sulfate used continuously in broiler diet

No copper added to broiler diet

Copper sulfate used continuously in broiler diet

No copper added to broiler diet



Fe



Mn



waste type



Mean



Range



Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Litter

Litter



84

473

593

255



nd

25-1003

nd

132-329

37-99

415 -630

51-101

29-232

20-52

nd

nd

28-48

529- 12,604

698-726

1016-2288



51



515

81

126

29

146

179

38

2.377

712

1,625

1



,ooo



1,023

601



630

1,349

717

2,300

1,216

228

406



Iooo-looo

nd

nd

450-950

790-2205

483-950

nd

nd

175-280

363-451



No. of

samples

55

106

1



46

35

24

24

20

12

1

1



2

I06

2

4

2

1

55

12

14

2

1



1

2

4



Ref.

El-Sabban er al. (1969)

Stephenson er al. (1990)

Westing er al. (1981)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Johnson et al. (1985)

Johnson er al. (1985)

Bitzer and Sirns (1988)

Lowman and Knight ( I 970)

Ammerman er al. (1981)

Long er al. (1969)

Weil er al. (1979)

Stephenson et al. (1990)

Wood and Hall (1991)

Vandepopuliere er al. (1992)

Hileman ( 1967b)

Westing er al. (1981)

El-Sabban er al. (1969)

Lowman and Knight (1970)

Bomke and Lavkulich (1975)

Weil er al. (1979)

Ammerman eral. (1981)

Long et al. (1969)

Hilernan (1967b)

Vandepopuliere et al. (1992)



Mo



Se

Zn

YI YI



“nd. Not determined



Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Litter

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure

Manure



321

228

37 1

348

318

47 1

349

334

245

378

259

4

9

8

1



299

272

218

125

267

496

315

523

406

43 I

325

34 1

298

388



nd

nd

nd

125-667

nd

239-610

276-408

nd

217- 330

320-408

235-283

2-5

nd

nd

nd

291 -308

nd

189-258

105-145

nd

nd

106-669

320- 660

230-635

232 -5 30

nd

nd

280-309

325-450



164



55

1

106

1



20

14

1



12

4

2

2

1

164

1



2

164



4

2

55

1



106

20

14

12

1



1

4

2



Stuedemann et al. (1975)

El-Sabban ef al. (1969)

Westing et al. (1981 )

Stephenson et al. (1990)

Long et al. (1969)

Bitzer and Sims (1988)

Bomke and Lavkulich (1975)

Ammerman et al. (1 98 1 )

Lowman and Knight (1970)

Shortall and Liebhardt (1975)

Weil et al. (1979)

Hileman (1967b)

Westing e t a / . (1981)

Stuedemann er al. (1975)

Westing ef al. (1981)

Wood and Hall (1991)

Stuedemann er al. ( 1975)

Vandepopuliere ef al. (1992)

Hileman (1967b)

El-Sabban et al. (1969)

Westing et al. (1981)

Stephenson et al. (1990)

Bitzer and Sims (1988)

Bomke and Lavkulich (1975)

Lowman and Knight (1970)

Ammerman er al. (1 98 I )

Long er al. (1 969)

Shortall and Liebhardt (1975)

Weil et al. (1979)



56



J. T. SlMS AND D. C. WOLF



in the form of carboxy groups. Poultry litter humic acid material was shown to

have 60% of the total acidity as phenolic hydroxyl groups (Prasad and Sinha,

1981). The acidic functional groups of organic fractions in poultry waste would

be important in chelating or complexing trace elements in soils.



B. ANTIBIOTICS,COCCIDIOSTATS,

AND PESTICIDES

INPOULTRY

WASTES

1. Sources

Antibiotics that have reportedly been used in poultry production systems include bacitracin, bambermycin, chlortetracycline, dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, neomycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and tylosin (Bhattacharya and Taylor, 1975).

Several chemicals are used to control the internal protozoan parasites that

cause coccidiosis. Some of the common coccidiostats in poultry diets are monensin, lasalocid, clopidol, halofuginone, and salinomycin (Minchinton et a!. ,

1973; Stephenson et al., 1985).

It is a common practice to treat broiler houses with disinfectants between

flocks. It is possible that the disinfectants could be present in poultry waste and

in the soil near the houses.

In layer house operations, chemicals are often included in the poultry diet to

aid in insect control. The chemical is passed through the fowl and prevents larvae

development in the waste. Examples of some larvicides would be rabon, zoalene,

unistat, nicarbazin, furazolidone, and nitrofurazone (Bhattacharya and Taylor,

1975) and cyromazine (Pote et al., 1992). Such materials are generally not included in the diets of broilers, but are restricted to caged-layer operations. Wills

et al. (1990) reported that topical application of cyromazine and dimethoate to

caged-layer manure had no detrimental effect on filfth fly predators. It is possible

that herbicides or insecticides could be isolated in litter samples if the pesticides

were present in the bedding material, but pesticides do not appear to be a common problem.



2. Concentrations

The amount of chemical residue found in poultry waste is related to the

amount, frequency, retention, and stability of the material. Webb and Fontenot

(1975) evaluated broiler litter samples and found that the level of chlortetracycline was over 15 times greater in litter when the antibiotic was used continuously in the diet as compared to when it was included intermittently in the diet

(Table IX).



Table IX

Commonly Used Antibiotics, Coccidiostats, and Larvicides

Concentration

(mg/kg, dry weight)



Name

Material

Antibiotic



Coccidiostat



Larvicide



Chemical



Common



Mean

27.3

12.5

0.8



Amprolium

Chlortetracycline

Chlortetracycline

Neomycin sulfate

Nicarbazin

Ox ytetracycline

Penicillin

Amprolium

Zoalene



Arnprol

Aureomycina

Aureomycin

Neomycin



-



193

(10



2-Chloro- 1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)

vinyl dimethyl phosphate



Rabon '



406



"Used continuously in broiler diet.

intermittently in broiler diet.

'Diet contained 800 mg/kg rabon.



Terramycin

Propen

Amprol



0

81.2

10.9



12.5



Range

0.0-77.0

0.8-26.3

0.1-2.8

-



35.1 - 152.1

5.5-29. I

0-25



Not

determined

186-580



No. of

Samples



Ref



29

26

19

12

25

12

2

1

1



Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webband Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot (1975)

Webb and Fontenot ( 1975)

Ray (1978)

Ray (1978)



I



Wasti et a/.(1970)



58



J. T. SIMS AND D. C. WOLF



3. Impact and Fate

The consequences of land application of poultry waste containing antibiotics,

coccidiostats, disinfectants, or pesticides have not been adequately evaluated. Nitrogen mineralization and corn growth were not influenced by chlortetracycline

or oxytetracycline in beef cattle feces (Patten et al., 1980). However, Tietjen

(1975) reported changes in biodegradation and crop response to antibioticcontaining manures. Aflatoxin formation has been reported in feedlot manure,

but the importance of aflatoxin production in poultry waste needs to be assessed

more completely (Fontenot and Webb, 1975). Growth deformation in vegetable

crops in soils amended with poultry manure has been related to the presence of

4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-methylpicolinic

acid that resulted from metabolism of an

impurity in the coccidiostat clopidol (Minchinton et al., 1973).



C. MICROBIAL

POPULATION

OF POULTRY

WASTES

1. Types and Levels

Poultry waste contains a large and diverse population of viruses, bacteria,

fungi, and protozoa. Typical total microbial viable colony-forming units (CFU)

counts of loxto 10' CFU/g dry waste have been reported (Halbrook et al., 195 I ;

Johnson et al., 1985; Lovett et al., 1971; Nodar et al., 1990a,b). Fungi were

found at levels of lo4 and lo5 CFU/g dry waste (Lien et a / ., 1992). Toxigenic

fungi have been isolated from poultry litter (Lovett, 1972). In a study of the

microbial population of seven poultry litters ranging in age from 1 to 36 weeks,

Schefferle (1965a) reported total bacterial plate counts of 1.1 X 10"' to 1.5 X

IO"/g fresh weight. The proportion of the total bacterial population capable

of hydrolyzing uric acid ranged from 14 to 42% with a mean value of 24%

(Schefferle, 1965b). The majority of the aerobic bacteria converted uric acid

to urea, but some bacteria were capable of complete hydrolysis of uric acid to

NH,-N. Giddens and Rao (1975) measured the total bacterial population in fresh

poultry manure and in poultry litter after 3 days of incubation and reported levels of 9.7 and 58.6 x 10y/g dry weight, respectively. Fungal populations after

3 days for the manure and litter were I .O and 2.6 X 10s/gdry weight, respectively.

Pathogenic microorganisms present in poultry waste represent a potentially serious health concern because of the diseases they could cause (Bhattacharya and

Taylor, 1975; Fontenot and Ross, 1981; Fontenot and Webb, 1975; McCaskey

and Anthony, 1979). The most frequently studied bacterial pathogens are Clostrzdium spp. and Salmonella spp. Alexander et al. (1 968) studied 44 samples of

broiler, hen, and turkey waste and reported that 13 of the samples were negative

for pathogenic bacteria, but Clostridium spp. were recovered from 60% of the

samples. Kraft et al. (1969) studied fresh poultry manure from 91 houses and



POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT



59



reported that they isolated Salmonella spp. from 29% of the samples with levels

of < I/g to > 3 x 104/gdry waste.

Because of the difficulty and expense in conducting specific pathogen analyses, most studies have used bacterial indicators such as fecal coliforms or E . coli

to assess potential fecal pathogen contamination of groundwater and surface

water. Poultry produce approximately 45 g (dry weight) of fecal material/day,

and the fresh waste contains approximately 1O6 coliforms/g dry waste (Geldreich

e t a l . , 1962; Lien et al., 1992; Lovett et al., 1971). Giddens and Barnett (1980)

evaluated total coliform levels in runoff from fallow and grassland amended with

poultry manure and found levels as high as 3.8 x lo6/100 ml. Analysis of runoff

samples from unamended tall fescue plots studied by Quisenberry et al. (198 1)

had mean fecal coliform levels of 5.2 X 104/100 ml and exceeded the primary

contact limit of 200/ 100 ml. Baxter-Potter and Gilliland (1988) noted that bacterial levels in agricultural runoff often exceed water quality standards regardless

of management practices. The first runoff-producing rainfall event following

waste application generally contains the highest pollutant levels (McLeod and

Hegg, 1984). Grass buffer strips have been shown to reduce fecal coliform levels

in manure-polluted runoff (Doyle et al., 1975).

Survival of fecal indicators and pathogens generally decreases as (1) temperature increases, (2) the waste dries, and (3) the waste is exposed to sunlight (Menzies, 1977; Reddy et al., 1981). The presence of Cu in litter may also influence

microbial population dynamics (Johnson et a f . , 1985).



VI.POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

Management programs for poultry wastes must reflect both the potential value

of the waste as a resource and a realistic appraisal of the negative effects waste

constituents may have on the environment. The concentrated nature of the poultry industry commonly results in large quantities and varieties of wastes (litters,

manures, dead bird composts, wastewaters, sludges) being produced in relatively

small geographic areas. Transportation costs and the lack of a waste-processing

and distribution infrastructure require that a comprehensive approach to poultry

waste management be developed to take advantage of all beneficial end uses for

the diverse waste products of this industry.

The predominant resource value of most poultry wastes is as a source of plant

nutrients for agronomic crop production. Other end uses, reviewed by Edwards

and Daniel (1992), are (1) as a feed material for ruminants, (2) as a fuel source,

either through direct burning or methane generation, and (3) as a component of

composts or organic fertilizers for specialty crops. Major environmental impacts

of poultry wastes, discussed earlier in this article, can be briefly summarized as

( 1 ) groundwater contamination by nitrate-N, (2) eutrophication of surface waters



60



J. T. SWIS AND D. C. WOLF



by N and P in runoff, (3) long-term fates of heavy metals and pesticides on soils,

waters, and the food chain, and (4) pollution of drinking waters by pathogens

such as E . coli and subsequent effects on human and animal health. Clearly, the

environmental impact of greatest concern will be directly related to the use of

the poultry waste. Avoiding degradation of groundwaters and surface waters by

nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens is the most pressing issue associated with

land application of poultry wastes. Toxicological effects of these waste constituents are of more concern when the wastes are processed and used as animal

feeds.

Sound waste management plans must reflect and prioritize the risks associated

with each end use to maximize resource value and minimize environmental impacts. The focus of the management practices discussed here will be the use of

poultry wastes as fertilizer materials for crop production. The literature on the

advantages and disadvantages of refeeding poultry wastes to ruminants is voluminous and exceeds the scope of this article, as does the use of wastes as fuels.

Readers are referred to several reviews of these topics (Fontenot and Ross, 1981 ;

McCaskey and Anthony, 1979; Shuler, 1980; Smith and Wheeler, 1979).



A. OVERVIEW

OF AGRICULTURAL

MANAGEMENT

PLANS

FOR POULTRY

WASTES

The components of an effective waste management program for the agricultural use of organic wastes are illustrated in Figs. 14 and 15 and include (1) site

selection, (2) production and collection, (3) storage, handling, and treatment,

(4) transfer and application, and ( 5 ) utilization. Legal and regulatory requirements must also be considered in designing a plan. Although there is no single

waste management plan that is appropriate for all locations, site-specific optimization of each of these components is essential to avoid wasting resources and

pollution of nearby environments. The localized nature of the poultry industry

in many areas also requires that regional waste management plans be developed

using the same principles as farm-wide plans. Whatever the scale, comprehensive waste management plans assist in identifying potential problems in waste

utilization and provide the basis for long-term plans for the most efficient use of

these potentially valuable resources. Some key aspects of each component will

be considered to illustrate the process involved in developing a waste management plan.

1. Site Analysis and Selection



Natural land features should be carefully considered when developing an agricultural waste management plan. As illustrated in Fig. 14, site analysis must



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