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XII. Genetic Engineering and Insect Tolerance

XII. Genetic Engineering and Insect Tolerance

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264



GURDEV S . KHUSH AND D. S. BRAR

Table V

Genetics of Resistance to Ma.ior Insect Pests of Crop Plants



Crop

Rice



Insect pest

Brown planthopper

Whitebacked planthopper

Green leafhopper

Zigzag leafhopper

Gall midge

Striped stem borer



Wheat



Maize



Sorghum



Barley



Cotton



Apple



Raspberry



Hessian fly



Greenbug

Cereal leaf beetle

Wheat stem sawfly

European corn borer

Corn earworm

Western corn rootworm

Corn leaf aphid

Fall armyworm

Spotted stem borer

Corn leaf aphid

Greenbug

Shoot fly

Sorghum midge

Chinch bug

Stem borer

Hessian fly

Cereal leaf beetle

Greenbug

Corn leaf aphid

Boll weevil

Thrips (Thrips spp.)

Tobacco budworm

Jassids (Empoa.tccr spp.)

Tarnished plant bug

Pink bollworm

Rosy leaf curling aphid

Rosy apple aphid

Woolly apple aphid

Rubtts aphid,

(Atnphorophora rubi)

( A . aguthonica)



Gene(s) for resistance

Bph-I, bph-2, Bph-3, bph-4, bph-5, Bph-6, bph-7,

bph-8, Bph-9

Wbph-1, Wbph-2, Wbph-3, wbph-4, Wbph-5

Glh-1 Glh-2, Glh-3, glh-4, Glh-5, Glh-6, Glh-7, glh-8

Zlh-I, Zlh-2, Zlh-3

Gm-I, Gm-2

Monogenic (antibiosis)

Polygenic (tolerance)

H-I, H-2. H-3. h-4. H-5, H-6, H-7, H-8, H-9, H-10,

H-119 H-12, H-13, H-14, H-15, H-16, H-17, H-18,

H-19

gb (Gh-l),Gb-2, Gb-3, Gb-4, Gh-5

2-3 genes, polygenic (leaf pubescence)

1-4 genes (stem solidness)

Pol ygenic

Pol ygenic

Monogenic, pol ygenic

Monogenic, polygenic

Pol ygenic

Polygenic



Monogenic, 2-3 genes

Polygenic, tr (trichome on leaf surface)

2-3 genes, polygenic

Monogenic, 1-2 dominant genes

Pol ygenic

H-.L Hf-1 , Hf-2

Monogenic

Grb (Rsg-la),Rsg-2b

s - 1 s-2 (complementary)

A few genes (pubescence, frego bract, okra leaf)

H-I, H-2, Sm (hairiness, smooth leaf) nonpreference

GI-2, GI-3 (nonpreference/antibiosis)

H , H-1, H-2, a few modifiers (hairiness)

A few genes, polygenic



S d - I , Sd-2, Sd-3, Sd-pr

Stnh

Er

A-I, A-2, A-3, A l l . A-5, A-6, A-7. A-8, A-Y?A-10,

A - k h , A-iorl, A-cor2

Ag-1, Ag-2 Ag-3 (complementary)



GENETICS O F RESISTANCE TO INSECTS



265



Table V (ctmrinired)

Crop

Black currant

Citrus

Muskmelon

Cucumber

Summer

squash

Pumpkin

Lettuce

Okra

Tomato

Potato

Soybean

Mung bean

Common bean

Cowpea

Alfalfa



Insect pest



Gene(s) for resistance



Leaf curling midge

Gall mite

Red scale

Melon aphid

Red pumpkin beetle

Striped cucumber beetle

Two-spotted spider mite

Squash bug



Dl



Fruitfly

Leaf aphid

Root aphid

Cotton jassid

Fruit borer

Potato tuber moth

Mexican bean beetle

Azuki bean weevil

Leafhopper

Cowpea aphid

Cowpea seed beetle

Spotted alfalfa aphid

Pea aphid of alfalfa

Sweet clover aphid



Fr (two complementary dominant genes)

Nr

Cytoplasmic and nuclear genes (modifiers)

Polygenic, monogenic (cotyledonary stage)

Pol ygenic

A few genes, polygenic

2-3 genes, polygenic

Monogenic

Pol ygenic

Rac. Roc-I, Roc-2

rcm-1, rcm-2

A few major genes

Monogenic

Monogenic



CE



Polygenic

Monogenic

Monogenic, polygenic

cu, polygenic

Bi. polygenic

Pol ygenic



processors. Numerous rice cultivars with multiple resistance to insects

have been developed and are widely grown (Khush, 1989).

However, for the continued success of host resistance, we must have

dynamic programs for gene identification. New genes for resistance must

be continuously utilized in breeding programs to ensure the availability of

resistant cultivars when old ones become susceptible because of the development of new biotypes. Various strategies for utilization of resistance

genes in host resistance programs have been discussed by Gallun and

Khush (1980). Insect-resistant cultivars are the major components of integrated pest management programs.

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