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XI. Residual Effects of Green Manures Applied to Wetland Rice

XI. Residual Effects of Green Manures Applied to Wetland Rice

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year of decomposition. Both soil properties and climatic conditions affect

the humification coefficient. Gu and Wen (1981) reported that the humification coefficient of green manures ranged from 0.18 for milk vetch to 0.43

for Azolla. Later, Wen (1984) gave a typical humification coefficient of

0.10, 0.20, and 0.40 for leaves, aerial parts, and roots of milk vetch green

manure, respectively. It has been found that mixed cultivation of leguminous and nonleguminous green manure crops often gives a higher humification coefficient, thus being advantageous to the accumulation of organic

matter in soil (Woodward and Burge, 1982; Chen, 1986). This may be a

promising way of cultivating green manure crops under the conditions

where enough quantity of crop residues is not returned to the soil. Higher

accumulation of organic matter and N in three different soils was observed

from the application to rice of 65-day-old Sesbania green manure as compared with 45- or 55-day-old crops (Bhardwaj and Dev, 1985). Both quantity and composition of the green manure changed markedly with age.

The experimental results from China (Bin, 1983) show that in most

cases, the effect of green manuring on accumulation of organic matter is

obvious. Ishikawa (1988) observed that long-term (10-51 years) application of milk vetch green manure increased organic matter and N content of

soils. Singh and Verma (1969) also observed that organic carbon content of

soil was high when green manuring was practiced every year, suggesting

that the effect of green manures on soil organic matter levels are shortlived unless continuous additions are made. Joffee (1955) reviewed some

aspects of green manures and concluded that green manures did not cause

any increase in soil organic matter content. In humid tropics and subtropics, mineralization rather than humification dominates the decomposition

reactions of organic materials incorporated in soil (Singh, 1962). In later

studies, Singh (1967) observed no appreciable increase in organic carbon

content N in green manured plots over that in those receiving purely

inorganic fertilizers. Some researchers have not accepted that green manures can even maintain soil organic matter levels (Pinck et ul., 1946;

Polyser et al., 1957).

B. CROPYIELDS

The residual effect of green manure application to wetland rice has

generally been measured in terms of grain yield of the succeeding crop.

Reviewing green manuring research in India, Sethi et al. (1952) concluded

that the residual effect of green manure applied to rice was low. Recent

work (App et al., 1980; Beri and Meelu, 1981; Dargan and Chhillar, 1980;

Hesse, 1984; Morris el al., 1986a, 1989) has also shown that there is little or



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no cumulative (over 3 to 4 years) benefit of green manuring of rice to the

succeeding crop.

Using 15N labeled vetch green manure, Westcott and Mikkelsen (1987)

recovered 15-35% of the added green manure N from the soil after rice

harvest. In green house and field experiments with vetch and Sesbania

green manures, N recovery by the second rice crop was about 6% of the

original application, representing 14-26% of the labeled vetch N remaining

in the soil at rice harvest (Westcott, 1982; Biswas, 1988).The grain yield of

the second rice crop was significantly higher (0.3 t/ha) than that obtained in

the urea-treated plots (Biswas, 1988). Significant residual effects of green

manures applied to rice on the following crop have been reported by Singh

(1971),Tiwarietal. (1980),Zhuetal. (1984), FurocandMorris(1989),and

Maskina et al. (1990). Jha et al. (1980) observed that rice yield and N

uptake increased by 0.7 t/ha and 18 kgfha on plots where GLM was applied

during the previous six seasons continuously over that measured when

ammonium sulphate was applied, respectively. Rinaudo et al. (1988) observed a 40-46% increase in yield of the second rice crop taken after green

manured rice, compared with inorganic N treatment. In these studies,

two-thirds of the total green manure N remained in soil after the harvest of

the first rice crop.

Residual effects of green manuring on the succeeding crops are location

specific. The reasons for such variations are not very clear and need

further investigations. Bouldin (1988) suggested that the residual effects of

green manure on a second crop would be small when only one application

of green manure is made, but the cumulative effects of several annual

applications are expected to give appreciable residual effects. Residual

effects of green manure under tropical climates are in fact likely to be

smaller than under temperate climates.



XII. CONCLUSIONS

Fast-growing leguminous green manure crops have a tremendous potential in harnessing the atmospheric Nz, and act as substitute for fertilizer N

in wetland rice. There is a large range of drought- and waterlogged-tolerant

green manure species. Sesbania aculeata, which is quite tolerant to waterlogging and soil salinity and alkalinity, has shown promise in the tropics

and subtropics. Perennial tree legumes are slow growing, and can be used

for green leaf manuring. Milk vetch, purple vetch, and clovers are most

suitable green manure crops for the temperate regions.

The stem-nodulating legumes (S. rostrata and A . afraspera) represent a



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YADVINDER SINGH E T A L .



further step in adaptation to waterlogging and N2 fixation in soil with high

amounts of combined nitrogen. Sesbania speciosa is an ideal leguminous

green manure for sowing in the standing rice crop, and on the field boundaries. The dual-purpose legumes such as mung bean and cowpea can be

grown with advantage where the fallow period interval before rice transplanting is more than 60 days, and the soils are well drained.

It is clear that in a favorable climate with proper management, leguminous green manures accumulate well over 100 kg N/ha in 50-55 days. It

appears that most of the N (80%) will be derived from biological N2

fixation. In some cases, especially with S.rostrata, inoculation has been

found to be necessary or usefuI. The other important factors that may

limit N accumulation are P, soil pH, N , temperature, and soil moisture

supply *

The most studied benefit of leguminous green manure is its contribution

to N nutrition of the following rice crop. Considerable evidence has accumulated that the use of leguminous green manure can significantly raise

rice yields. The increases in rice yield were found to be greater on the less

fertile coarse-textured soils than on the fertile medium- and fine-textured

soils. Indirect estimates generally indicated that leguminous green manure

can supply 50-120 kg chemical fertilizer N/ha. The increase in yield of rice

is proportional to the amounts of dry matter (and N) added. However,

large quantities of green matter added to poorly drained soils can adversely

affect rice growth. Green manure N generally shows N-use efficiency and

N recovery similar to that for fertilizer N. It has been repeatedly observed

that green manuring helped raise the yield potential of rice, which cannot

be achieved even by applying additional fertilizer N.

The supply of P through green manure appeared to be more beneficial in

enhancing the yields of rice than the direct application of P to rice crop.

Allowing extended periods of green manure decomposition before rice

transplanting generally resulted in a lesser contribution to the subsequent

rice crop. Release of N from succulent green manures is quite rapid,

especially under tropical and subtropical climates. Supplementing basally

applied green manure with top-dressed fertilizer N helped in maximizing

both green manure and fertilizer N recovery. Limited information available suggested that application of fertilizer N to the green manured rice can

be delayed up to the panicle initiation stage. Relatively less is known about

the processes of N loss from green manure N.

Green manuring can improve both the physical and biological properties

of soil. The data from a few studies indicated that the physical parameters

more likely to be affected by green manuring are aggregate stability and

bulk density. Several studies have shown that green manuring caused a

marked reduction in soil Eh, and a significant reduction in soil pH. Green



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181



manuring can also have a favorable influence on the availability of P, K,

Fe, and Mn in the soils.

Green manuring can help maintain organic matter levels under particular, though not well-defined, soil conditions. Rarely, soil organic matter

levels will be increased by green manuring. The residual effects of green

manure on the succeeding crop are small but the cumulative effects of

several applications are expected to give a significant residual effect.

Green manuring hastens the reclamation of saline and sodic soils, and has

thus proved an important management practice for their reclamation.

The practical advantages from green manuring are great enough to

justify further research. IRRI (1988)has prepared a long list of future needs

for research on green manuring in rice. Important areas proposed for

future studies are (1) selection of leguminous green manure crops for

different soil and agroclimatic conditions, (2) development of management

practices for green manures, (3) determining the rate of decomposition and

N mineralization of green manures and model the process of decomposition, (4) determining the effect of green manuring on N and other plant

nutrient transformations in diverse soil and climatic conditions, ( 5 ) investigating the fate of biologically fixed N by using "N-labeled green manure

crops, (6) understanding the effects on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, (7) modeling soil organic matter levels after longterm application of green manures, (8) studying integrated management

of inorganic N and green manures for maximizing N-use efficiency, and

(9) quantifying N contribution from green manures into a model of N

fluxes. It can be expected that future research, particularly with isotopically labeled green manures, will provide more insight into the rate of N

release and uptake, and the extent of N losses from the green manures.

There is a need to define necessary conditions that can ensure accumulation of 100 kg or more of N/ha by a green manure crop. Additional

experiments for comparing the fate of N from green manure versus inorganic fertilizer will be of considerable value. Identification of management

practices that reduce the losses of green manure N and factors that influence the transfer of green manure N to the rice plant will be critical for the

practical utilization of biologically fixed N for rice.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to Dr. M. S. Bajwa, Professor and Head, and Dr. 0. P. Meelu,

Chief Scientist, Department of Soils, for providingfacilities. We thank Mr. Subhash Chander

for typing the manuscript.



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