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VI. Summary of Long-Term Results

VI. Summary of Long-Term Results

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402



P. SUTTON AND W. A. DICK



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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL. 41



WATER AND QUALITY LOSS

DURING FIELD DRYING OF HAY

Andy D. Macdonald and E. Ann Clark

Department of Crop Science, University of Guelph

Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1



I.



INTRODUCTION



The challenge faced by producers of dry hay can be simply stated. A hay producer must (1) take herbaceous vegetation containing roughly four units of

water for each unit of dry matter (DM), which would amount to 10 tons/ha' of

water in a hay crop yielding 3 tons/ha (18% FW basis); (2) manage it so that

95% of the water evaporates as quickly as possible; then (3) collect, package,

store, and use the dry hay with minimal losses of DM and nutritional content.

Why, then, is haymaking considered such a risky proposition, given that a

well-watered stand of forage can transpire twice this amount of water on a

single, bright summer day (Thompson, 1981)? How can it be that some 75% of

the hay produced in England and Wales is unable to provide ruminant

maintenance requirements (Charlick et al., 1980)? What accounts for the

lessening of interest in dry hay, and the concomitant increase in silage in Great

Britain, as documented by Wilkinson (1981), and elsewhere in recent years?

What are some of the conflicts between water loss and nutrient conservation?

How will recent innovations in haymaking equipment affect both biological

and economic efficiency?

The status of haymaking technology has been thoroughly reviewed in recent decades (Carter, 1960; Klinner and Shepperson, 1975; Wilkinson,

1981), with additional excellent contributions in the physiology of water

loss (Harris and Tullberg, 1980) and modeling of field drying (Thompson,

1981). The present study surveys current knowledge of how haymaking

practices influence water loss and accompanying dry matter and quality

losses, with an emphasis on recent work.



II. PATTERNS OF WATER LOSS

A.



SAFE STORAGE MOISTURE

FOR DRYHAY



Moisture content may be expressed on a fresh weight (FW) basis, such as

that hay weighing 6 tons/ha at 50% moisture (FW basis) would contain

'Tons are metric



tons.

407

Copyright 0 1987 by Academic Press, Inc.

All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.



408



ANDY D. MACDONALD AND E. ANN CLARK



50% of 6 tons or 3 tons/ha of water. Alternatively, water content can also

be expressed relative to dry matter (DM) content, such that the same hay

would have equal parts water and DM, or a moisture content of 1.0 (DM

basis). In this chapter, moisture content will be expressed on a FW basis, except where specifically noted.

The objective of haymaking is to conserve the yield and nutritional value

of fresh-cut forage by drying it as quickly as possible to a level at which the

activity of microbial decomposers is halted. The moisture content

theoretically required to prevent microbial activity is 10-12% (Nash, 1978),

but in practice, dry hay is baled and stored at from 15 to 20% moisture

(Feldman and Lievers, 1978; Friesen, 1978; Jones and Harris, 1980), which

incurs low but acceptable levels of microbial damage.

Safe moisture content for dry hay storage varies with time of year, and

with type of bale package. In Great Britain, Nash (1978) indicated that dry

hay could be safely packaged at a somewhat higher moisture content for

winter than for summer storage (18 versus 16%, respectively), because cold

winter temperatures would reduce the activity of fungal decomposers. Required moisture content for safe storage is inversely related to the size of the

bale package, such that small rectangular bales may be safely harvested a

few percentage points below that required for large round bales (Scales et

al., 1978) (see Section IV,B,S).



B. PHASES

OF DRYING

Rate of water loss during field drying of cut hay typically declines exponentially, such that each additional percentage drop in moisture content

requires progressively more time (Firth and Lesham, 1976; Robertson,

1983; Hale, 1986). Although the pattern of loss is a smooth curve under

constant environmental conditions, the drying cycle may be conveniently

divided into two or three different phases, which differ in duration, in rate

of water loss, and in type of resistances to water loss.

The rapid initial drying phase occurs when the stomata are open, plant

resistance is minimal, and the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between plant

tissues and ambient air is maximal. As this phase is often brief and can be

difficult to detect, it is typically considered within the next phase, when the

stomata have closed and cuticular, stomatal, and boundary layer resistance

become significant barriers to water loss.

Water loss can still be rapid in this second and longer phase, if efforts are

made to reduce forage packing with periodic disturbance. Heavy, highmoisture hay, particularly if composed of juvenile, leafy tissues rather than

stiff, reproductive stems, tends to compact or settle under its own weight,

reducing air circulation within the windrow and increasing boundary layer



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