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VI. Conclusions and Future Prospects

VI. Conclusions and Future Prospects

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advances are also,expected in the area of biocatalysis benefiting from the use

of plant or microbial cell enzymology, which is presently superior to the skills

of organic chemists in performing complex biotransformations. Learning

more about the plasmid-determined resistance of soil microbes to relevant

herbicides will allow us to employ effectively such resistance in several

microbially related processes such as the decontamination of soil residues of

persistent herbicides or the development of microbial herbicide safeners.

Advances in genetic technology will also facilitate our efforts to understand, manage, circumvent, and exploit the resistance of plants to selected

herbicides. Isolation and characterization of plant or microbial genes

coding for mutations altering the sensitivity of specific target proteins to

herbicides or for herbicide-detoxifying enzymes will improve our

understanding of the biochemical and genetic basis of plant resistance or

tolerance to herbicides. Such information coupled with advances in recombinant DNA technology will enable us to engineer herbicide-resistant determinants and develop herbicide-resistant crop plants. At a theoretical level,

progress in this area has been enormous. However, at the practical level,

success has been only partial. Presently, only one herbicide-resistant crop,

atrazine-resistant canola, developed from classic breeding techniques rather

than sophisticated genetic engineering technology, is marketed in Canada.

The development of tobacco and petunia plants resistant to the herbicides

glyphosate and chlorsulfuron by means of gene transfer and transformation

techniques indicates that genetic engineering of herbicide resistance is feasible. The full utilization of biotechnological procedures as tools for incorporating herbicide resistance to major agronomic crops (e.g., cereals and

legumes) is presently limited by a number of unresolved problems such as a

limited pool of genes of interest, lack of appropriate vector systems for gene

transfer, and inefficient methods for the regeneration of selected crops

from cell or tissue cultures. Future research, hopefully, will address and

solve these problems.

For a more fruitful application of biotechnology in engineering herbicide

resistance several considerations should be examined or reevaluated in

future investigations. According to Gressel(l985) and Widholm (1978) such

considerations include the following:

1. A given herbicide should be considered only when it more cost effectively controls specific problem weeds in a given crop better than other

presently available herbicides.

2. All biochemical mechanisms conferring plant tolerance or resistance to

herbicides should be considered and exploited for practical application.

3. If we are looking for resistance at the mode of herbicide action level,

we need more information on the biochemical mechanisms involved and

their genetic basis.



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4. There is a need for the development of better culture systems from

which economic crops (e.g., corn and soybean) can be regenerated.

5. The in vitro selection systems already available should be tested to

determine whether plant improvement can be accomplished.

6 . In isolating plant mutants, learn from the plant breeders: isolate many

mutants and evaluate their cost and effectiveness.

7. There is a need for advances in technology for transferring resistant

genes into plants: in addition to Ti plasmid vectors, new vectors for gene

transfer to monocotyledonous plants or cell organelles (e.g., chloroplast)

are currently needed.

8. Herbicide resistance incorporated into a sensitive crop should not cause

potential yield reduction or alteration of the quality of the marketed product.

9. In achieving the overall goal of engineeringherbicide-resistantcrops, a close

cooperation between genetic engineers and plant breeders is imperative. Once the

required techniques have been developed, it may be easier and less costly to

transfer herbicide resistance into crop plants than to develop new herbicides.



Biochemical and genetic advances may facilitate also the development of

chemical additives that could regulate the activity of currently marketed herbicides. Such bioregulators could either potentiate the activity of a herbicide

on target weeds (synergism) or reduce the activity of a herbicide on nontarget

crops (antagonism or safening). The commercialization of tridiphane, a potent inhibitor of plant glutathione sulfotransferase enzymes, as a synergist of

triazine herbicides on grass weeds (Ezra et al., 1985) and of safeners such as

flurazole, which acts as a chemical regulator of the gene coding for the GST I

enzyme and confers tolerance on corn against chloroacetanilide herbicides

(Shah et al., 1986a) illustrates the practical ramifications of this approach.

Apart from the four main areas of weed management that were discussed

in this review as promising fields for applying biotechnology, other areas of

weed management or herbicide technology may be considered for such applications. Among them, the utilization of monoclonal antibodies and immunoassays in trace analysis of herbicide soil residues is becoming widely

appreciated. Immunological assays offer considerable potential for rapid,

inexpensive, and sensitive methods of analysis of agrochemicals or their

metabolites and they could be used either as supplements or as alternatives

to instrumental methods of analysis. For more information on this subject

the reader is referred to the reviews by Hammock e t a / . (1987), Mumma and

Brady (1987), and Vanderlaan et a / . (1987).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



I thank the many scientists around the world who provided reprints of their published

research during the preparation of this chapter. I express my appreciation to my colleague Dr.



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C. L. Cramer for her critical review of the manuscript of this review. The author’s own work

on the molecular biology of the enhanced herbicide biodegradation is supported by the USDA

Competitive Research Grant 85-CRCR-1-1905.



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