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VI. Future Uses of Mutation in Rice Improvement
INDUCED MUTATIONS AND GENETICS OF RICE
consider the relative merits of induced mutation versus crossing. Induced mutation may be a means of quickly obtaining a needed gene in an adapted background, but the additional genetic diversity introduced during hybridization with
world collection sources may give greater long-term returns.
Induced mutation research relies heavily on availability or development of
effective screening methods. Most cases to date have been based on visual
screening techniques for semidwarfkm, early maturity, etc. Much current work
on tissue culture is directed at using physiological or biochemical screening
methods for identifying spontaneous or induced mutants. Tissue culture offers
the potential for screening extremely large populations, but this is counterbalanced by the problems of regenerating plants and determining if desired
characteristics expressed in culture also are expressed at the whole plant level. It
is important to remember that some of the physiological screening techniques
currently in use in tissue culture, for herbicide tolerance, salt tolerance, etc., can
also be used on whole-plant populations. Tseng and Seaman (1982), for example, were able to select for increased tolerance in rice breeding lines to the
herbicide thiolcarbamate by a seedling screening test. Similarly, Bright er al.
(1982) selected barley mutants with an altered aspartate kinase enzyme by
screening embryos for growth on a medium containing lysine plus threonine.
Although whole-plant screening may require more space than tissue culture, the
benefits of having a plant in hand at the end of the experiment can outweigh the
A particularly powerful tool for screening for mutants would result if genetic
systems were available for producing easily identified haploid seeds. Recessive
mutants could then be identified in the M, generation. Genetic techniques for
haploid seed production are available in maize (Sarkar, 1974), but so far similar
techniques have not been reported for rice.
Some specific examples of needed diversity in rice that might be obtained
through induced mutation include genes for naked or free-threshing grain, that is,
easy separation of the lemma and palea from the caryopsis as in wheat; longer
floret opening time; cytoplasmic male sterility; and herbicide resistance. According to Vavilov’s proposals (1951) on homologous series and parallel variation,
the naked gene should occur in rice, because it is present in the other cereals.
However, free-threshing, normal kernel shape types have not been found in rice,
probably because the hulls provide a strong selective advantage for survival of
the kernel in aquatic environments. With the advent of peroxide seed coatings,
the needs for a protective hull are diminished, and a naked rice kernel has a better
survival chance. Longer floret opening time would be useful in hybrid rice seed
production, as more time would be available for pollen transfer; rice florets
remain open only for an hour or less, whereas wheat florets remain open for
several hours. A recent report on another member of the grass family, pearl
millet, indicates that the induction of cytoplasmic male sterility is possible (Bur-
J. NEIL RUTGER
ton and Hanna, 1982), and it would seem worthwhile to make similar attempts in
rice. Cytoplasmic male sterility is available in several background genotypes in
rice, but it would be helpful to have more sources. Finally, resistance in crop
plants to grass-killing herbicides would be most useful in rice culture as an aid to
grassy weed control. Sufficient examples of herbicide resistance have been reported in other crops that additional’searchesin rice seem worthwhile.
Appreciation is expressed to Dr. H. L. Carnahan of the California Co-operative Rice Research
Foundation, Inc., for his reviews and suggestions for improving the manuscript.
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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 36
NITROGEN AVAILABILITY INDEXES
FOR SUBMERGED RICE SOILS
K. L. Sahrawat
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
ICRISAT Patancheru P.O., Andhra Pradesh, India
Factors Affecting Mineralization of Organic Nitrogen .
B. Moisture Regime and Soil Drying.
C. Soil Characteristics.
D. Organic Amendments
E. Land Preparation and Tillage Practices
III. Biological Indexes .
A. Anaerobic Incubation Methods
B. Factors Affecting Results of Laboratory Incubation Tests.
C. Ammonium Content in Soil Solution .
D. Soil Biomass Nitrogen
IV . Chemical Indexes.
A. Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen Content of Soils
B. Alkaline Pennanganate Method.
C. Acid Permanganate Method
D. Other Chemical Methods.
V. Simple Models of Nitrogen-Supplying Capacity Based on Biological and
VI . A Values.
VIII. Plant Analyses . .
IX. Nitrogen-Supplying Capacity and Fertilizer Recommendations
X. Perspectives .
Rice culture occurs on soils that differ considerably in their characteristics,
including their nitrogen-supplying capacity. According to Moormann ( 1978),
rice is grown on all the 10 soil orders given in the soil classification system of
Coonieht Q bv Academic Press. Inc.
AII rights of;;pr;ductio;l in any form reserved.
K. L. SAHRAWAT
Major sdtl CLe4sweations According to Soil Taxonomy Used for Rice Growinga
Suborders of soils used for rice culture
“From Moomann (1978).
soil taxonomy. The relative importance of the various soil suborders is shown in
The mineralizable nitrogen (N) pool in soils plays a dominant role in nitrogen
nutrition of wetland rice. Studies using lSN-labeled fertilizers have shown that
approximately one-half to two-thirds of the total N utilized by a rice crop, even in
well-fertilized rice paddies, comes from the soil-mineralizable N pool (Broadbent, 1978; IAEA, 1978; Reddy and Patrick, 1980; Koyama, 1981). The current
shortage of fertilizers coupled with soaring prices resulting from energy costs
involved in their manufacture warrant the most judicious and efficient use of
fertilizer N, for which it is essential to know the nitrogen-supplying capacity of
soils. Thus, development of laboratory indexes for predicting soil nitrogen availability to rice forms an important component of research for efficient use of
Numerous biological and chemical laboratory methods have been proposed for
predicting soil N availability to various crops, including rice, and these have
been reviewed by Bremner (1963, Gasser (1969), Robinson (1975), and Chang
(1978). However, there is no comprehensive review available on the nitrogen
availability indexes for submerged soils, although rice yields more than those of
any other crop depend on soil nitrogen availability. This article will review the
recent literature on methods proposed for assaying the nitrogen-supplyingcapacity of wetland rice soils and recommend those methods which have potential for
predicting soil N availability, thus making possible the judicious and efficient