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V. Applications of Other Forms of Submicroscopy

V. Applications of Other Forms of Submicroscopy

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90



E. B. A. BISDOM



Auger electron microscopy would be an ideal technique if no charging problems existed for soil materials in thin sections of soils. Electron spectroscopy for

chemical analysis is a technique which will very often be applicable, but the

lateral resolution (3 mm) is too large for most.micromorphological and submicroscopic studies. Secondary ion mass spectrometry is a good technique (see Section IV) for the analysis of thin sections of soils. However, LAS does not yet

have the capability for quantitative analysis.



VI. CONCLUSIONS

Submicroscopy makes possible the in situ investigation of soil materials in thin

sections, soil peds, soil aggregates, minerals, and other entities. Electron microscopy, with or without equipment for in situ microchemical analysis, has been

used for the study of clays, weathered and newly formed minerals, organic

matter, and soil structure and fabric. More recently, ion microscopy and laser

microprobe mass analysis were introduced. These techniques make it possible to

study both trace and major chemical elements, which is not possible with electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy is another field of submicroscopythat will

be of major interest, especially because it is nondestructive. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis can only be used for samples which are homogeneous over larger areas of a thin section; auger electron spectroscopy is difficult

to apply to materials in thin sections of soils when they are nonconductive.

Consequently, electron microscopy, ion microscopy, laser microprobe analysis,

and Raman spectroscopy at present seem to be the most promising techniques.

However, many instruments that are regularly used in the metals industry have

not been tested for possible uses in soil science, although the most promising

ones have been.

Submicroscopic studies can provide microscale in situ information, whereas

X-ray diffraction and wet-chemical analyses are done on bulk and disturbed

samples. Information from light microscopy, which usually precedes submicroscopy during the in situ study of soil materials, is a powerful determination

technique when correlated with data from XRD and wet chemistry. The same is

possible for soil physics. Porosity data obtained by physical measurements can

be compared with data on porosity acquired with an image analyzer from photographs made with the transmitted light of a light microscope. Presently, such

photographs can also be made with the scanning electron microscope using

backscattered electrons. Thus, capillary pores can also be measured with the

image analyzer, usually a Quantimet. Soil-physical, light-microscopic, and submicroscopic techniques can thus be combined to solve problems related to soil

porosity.



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91



At present there exists the International Working-Group on Submicroscopy of

Undisturbed Soil Materials (IWGSUSM), in which specialists in soil micromorphology, soil mechanics, soil physics, soil chemistry, soil biology, and other

soil sciences have joined forces. The purpose and objectives of this group have

been described by Bisdom and Wells (1981). The group has become part of the

Subcommission on Soil Micromorphology of the International Society of Soil

Science in 1983.



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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL. 36



THE CONVERGENT EVOLUTION OF

ANNUAL SEED CROPS IN

AG R ICULTURE

C. M. Donald1 and J. Hamblin2*3

’Waite Agricultural Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, and

2Department of Agriculture, Geraldton District Office, Marine Terrace,

Geraldton, Western Australia



I. Introduction ..........................................................

11. Selection in Domesticated Crops .........................................

A. Charles Darwin’s Views

..................

B. Selection within Annual

rops ..................................

111. Ecotypic Parallelism in Crop Plants .......................................

IV. Selection, Evolution, and Crop Yield

..................

Biological Yield, Harvest Index, and Grain Yield. .............

Progress and

ent of Annual Seed Crops.. ............



B.

V.



B.

C.

D.

E.

F.



Barley ..........................

Rice.. ..........................................................

Maize

...................................

Sorghum ...............................

...

Common or American Bean ........................................



...........................

............

.................................

.................................

....

.......................

.......................



References ..............



97

100

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112

113

119

121

121

122

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126

127

129

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130

131

133

134

139



I. INTRODUCTION

Crop evolution consists of three phases: the natural evolution of a species to

the “roto-crop” stage, domestication, and further evolution within the domesticated species. In the proto-crop stage, the main requirement is for a species to

possess some attribute desired by man. Domestication of a seed crop was often a

3All correspondence regarding this article must be addressed to Dr. J. Hamblin.

97



Copyright 0 by Academic Press, Inc.

All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

ISBN 0-12-000736-3



98



C . M.DONALD



AND J. HAMBLIN



“once only” event, when certain major mutations ensured that a species was

adapted into the agricultural environment and altered unfavorably for survival in

the wild (Mangelsdorf, 1965), although this may be an oversimplification in

some cases (Harlan, 1971). These mutations include such well-known features of

crop plants as indehiscent fruiting bodies, which allow easier and more complete

harvesting, and soft seededness, which ensures simultaneous germination of all

seeds. The third phase of evolution within the domesticated species is a continuing phase. The crop changes under selection pressures, both natural and manimposed. It is the role of agronomists and plant breeders to optimize the environment and plant type to ensure maximum crop production within this

environment.

The world’s field crops are commonly grouped into cereals, pulses or grain

legumes, fiber crops, oil crops, root crops, and rubber. This classification, based

partly on botanical considerations and partly on crop product, has little ecological basis. However, many of these crops, such as the cereals, the grain legumes,

and some of the oil crops, are annual seed crops with parallel ecological features.

Increased understanding of the factors governing crop photosynthesis and respiration, distribution of assimilates, and seed growth permits us to compare and

contrast the performance of annual seed crops. This may be in terms of their

branching, leafiness, light profile, photosynthesis, biomass, flowering, seed setting, grain filling, harvest index, and yield, and/or in terms of agronomic factors

such as soil fertility, plant density, and plant arrangement. At first sight, it may

seem difficult to compare cotton with maize or sunflower with wheat, but such

comparisons provide a major challenge to our thoughts. For instance, why are

some annual seed crops so much more productive than others? And what can be

done to remodel less efficient crops?

Annual seed crops provide most of man’s food and, in some countries, a

significant part of the animal feed as well as industrial products of great importance (fibers, oil, etc.). They are cultivated from the equator to near the Arctic

circle and are adapted to diverse edaphic situations. Some are extremely tall

(more than 4 m) whereas others are dwarf, some are climbers with tendrils.

When these patterns of adaptation and the morphological and physiological

characters are surveyed, Can we perceive common features, either plant or

cultural, that may be exploited to increase seed yield per hectare in all the various

annual seed crops and environments?

We consider that the yield potential of annual crop species will increase at a

faster rate than occurs with empirical selection for yield if suitable ideotypes are

identified. A considerable list of common features and practices that influence

yield in all annual seed crops can indeed be identified, and it may be possible to

design a basic ideotype for all these crops, involving principles of crop physiology and associated agronomic practices equally applicable to any annual seed

crop. Such a common model or ideotype is formulated here.



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