Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
IV. Mycorrhizas in Nodulating Nitrogen-Fixing Nonlegume Plants

IV. Mycorrhizas in Nodulating Nitrogen-Fixing Nonlegume Plants

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

MYCORRHIZAS IN NODULATING N-FIXING PLANTS



45



Youngberg, 1981). The VAM structures can be surrounded by ECM in species

of Ahus and Ceanothus. Thus it seems that the typical exclusion by nodular and

mycorrhizal endophytes does not occur in actinorrhizal plants (Rose, 1980).

As in legumes, these mycorrhizas act mainly by their well-known P-mediated

mechanism (Mejstrik and Benecke, 1969; Le Tacon and Diagne, 1982), thereby

increasing the number of nodules, the weight of nodular tissue, nitrogenase

activity, and N, Ca, and P shoot content (Rose and Youngberg, 1981). However,

hormone-mediated interactions between endosymbionts can be also involved as

these substances seem important in the formation of actinorrhizal symbioses

(Miguel et al., 1978). The possible interactions between mycorrhizas and actinorrhizas derived from the former produce calcium oxalate, which is needed by

the latter (Trappe, 1979).

C . ECOLOGICAL

ASPECTS



Actinorrhizal plants are usually involved in the early successional stages of

plant communities at low nutrient sites (Harley, 1973). These plants are therefore

found colonizing disturbed and marginal habitats such as sand dunes, volcanic

ash-derived soils, coal wastes, peat and sphagnum bogs, (Daft and Hacskaylo,

1976; Khan, 1978; Rose, 1980). Rose (1980) reported that 23 of the 25 actinorrhizal plants he tested were VA mycorrhizal. This is, therefore, similar to the

situation found with legumes, suggesting the suitability of applying the mycorrhizal effects to actinorrhizal plants (typically woody and perennial) for the

successful reforestation of stressed ecosystems.



V. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

Mycorrhizal associations play an important role in the growth and nutrition of

higher plants. This results primarily from their more efficient use of soil P.

Mycorrhizas appear to have an ecological and evolutionary relevance in the

history of terrestrial plants. It is increasingly recognized that this symbiosis can

be harnessed in order to improve nutrient cycling and crop productivity by

reducing industrial fertilizer inputs, thereby conserving and reducing environmental costs. In addition, mycorrhizal infection can help plants to become reestablished in eroded or degraded habitats, to thrive in arid conditions, to deter

pathogens, and to cope with various stress situations.

The commonest mycorrhizal types, the VAM, are nearly omnipresent and are

now being studied intensively throughout the world. Their contribution to the

more efficient use of added P fertilizers, whether soluble (as applied at suboptimal rates) or sparingly soluble (rock phosphate), is being widely appreciated.



46



J. M. BAREA AND C. AZC6N-AGUILAR



The infectivity and the operativity of VAbi aic self regulated by a mechanism

that assures that the P supply to the host will be optimal over a wide range of soil

P levels. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas enhace growth, nodulation, and N

fixation in grain and forage legumes, crops of the greatest interest for food

production in the biosphere. They have a similar function in N-fixing nonlegumes, largely actinorrhizal plants, mostly of interest in forestry. Nodulating,

N-fixing plants are usually mycorrhizal in the ecosystem, but the responsible VA

fungi are not always the most suitable and can be replaced with more effective

strains by means of inoculation.

In general, the inoculation of VAM fungi has problems that limit its extensive

use on a field scale. Field experiments with VAM must be supported by ecological and physiological studies including (1) the evaluation of the dependency of

the test plant on the mycorrhiza; (2) the assessment of field sites where mycorrhizal inoculation with preselected (efficient and ecologically adapted) endophytes may be worth trying; (3) the production of high-quality inocula and the

development of suitable inoculation techniques.

Further research on mycorrhizas is needed with regard to several topics pointed out in this article. Current research mentioned has included (1) studies of the

population ecology and epidemiology of mycorrhizal fungi; (2) studies investigating the causes of the host dependency of VAM fungi for carrying out their life

cycle axenically; (3) physiological studies of mycorrhizal symbioses to discover

new mechanisms of action; (4) the application of isotope and radiation techniques to make possible the effective management of mycorrhizas in increasing

food-crop production; and (5) field inoculation experiments in small plots to

establish bases for future mycorrhizal programs.

Mycorrhizas therefore can be regarded as an alternative strategy for a more

rational agricultural program. However, because the mycorrhizal condition is

nearly universal, the natural mycorrhizal potential of a soil needs first to be

preserved (avoiding detrimental practices), second to be optimized (manipulating

soil conditions to be conducive to the symbiosis), and third, finally, to be

considered when inoculation is required.



REFERENCES

Abbott, L. K . , and Robson, A. D. 1977. Aust. J . Agric. Res. 28, 639-640.

Abbott, L. K., and Robson, A. D. 1978. New Phytol. 81, 575-585.

Abbott, L. K . , and Robson, A. D. 1981a. Aust. J . Agric. Res. 32, 621-630.

Abbott, L. K . , and Robson, A. D. 1981b. Aust. J . Agric. Res. 32, 631-639.

Abbott, L. K . , and Robson, A. D. 1982. Aust. J . Agric. Rex 33, 389-408.

Allen, M. F., and Boosalis, M. G . 1983. New Phytol. 93, 67-76.

Allen, E. B., and Cunningham, G . L. 1983. New Phytol. 93, 227-236.

Akkermans, A. D. 1978. I n “Interactions between Non-Pathogenic Soil Microorganisms and

Plants” (Y. R. Dommergues and S. V. Krupa, eds.), pp. 335-372. Elsevier, Amsterdam.



MYCORRHIZAS IN NODULATING N-FIXING PLANTS



41



Akkermans, A. D., Abdulkadir, S., and Tnnick, M. J. 1978. Nature (London) 274, 190.

Allen, M. F., Moore, T. S . , and Christensen, M. 1980. Can. J . Bot. 58, 371-374.

Allen, M. F., Sexton, J. C., Moore, T. S . , and Christensen, M. 1981. New Phytol. 87, 687-694.

Allen, M. F., Moore, T. S., and Christensen, M. 1982. Can. J . Bot. 60, 468-471.

Andrew, C. S., and Robins, M. F. 1969. Aust. J . Agric. Res. 20,675-685.

Asai, T. 1944. Jpn. J . Bot. 13, 463-485.

Asimi, S., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., and Gianinazzi, S. 1980. Can. J. Bot. 58, 2200-2205.

Azcbn, R., and Ocampo, J. A. 1981. New Phyrol. 87, 677-685.

Azcbn, R., Barea, J. M., and Hayman, D. S. 1976. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8, 135-138.

Azcbn, R., Azcbn-G. de Aguilar, C., and Barea, 3. M. 1978a. New Phytol. 80, 359-364.

Azcbn, R., Mm’n A. D., and Barea, J. M. 1978b. Plant Soil 49, 561-567.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., and Barea, J. M. 1978. Can J . Microbiol. 40, 520-524.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., and Barea, J. M. 1980. Invest. Ciencia 47, 8-16.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., and Barea, J. M. 1981. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13, 19-22.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., A z c h , R., and Barea, J. M. 1979. Narure (London) 279, 325-327.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., Barea, J. M.,and Olivares, J. 1980. Trans. Int. Symp. Microbial Ecol. 2nd, p.

129.

Azcbn-Aguilar, C., Barea, J. M., Azcbn, R., and Olivares, J. 1982. Agric. Environ. 7, 199-206.

Bagyaraj, D. J., and Sreeramulu, K. N. 1982. Plant Soil 69, 375-381.

Bagyaraj, D. J . , Manjunath, A., and Patil, R. B. 1979. New Phytol. 82, 141-145.

Barea, J. M., and Azcbn-Aguilar, C. 1980. Trans. Int. Symp. Microbial Ecology 2nd. p. 130.

Barea, J. M., and Azcbn-Aguilar. C. 1982a. Trans. Int. Col. Mycorrhizes Biol. Perspectives Urilization, Dijon.

Barea, J. M., and Azcbn-Aguilar, C. 1982b. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 810-813.

Barea, J. M., Ramos, A., and Callao, V. 1970. Microbiol. ESP.23, 257-270.

Barea, J. M., Azcbn, R., and Hayman, D. S. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B.

Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), p. 417. Academic Press, New York and London.

Barea, J. M., Escudero, J. L., and Azcbn-Aguilar, C. 1980. Plant Soil 54, 283-2%.

Barea, J. M., Azcbn, R., and Azc6n-Aguilar, C. 1981. FAOIIAEA Consult, Meet. Use Isotopes

Stud. Nutrient Availability Food Crops Endomycowhizal Vienna.

Barrow, N. J., Malajczuk, N., and Shaw, T. C. 1977. New Phytol. 78, 269-276.

Bauer, W. D. 1981. Annu. Rev. Plantfhysiol. 32, 407-449.

Baylis, G. T. S. 1970. Plant Soil 33, 713-716.

Bergersen, F. J . 1978. In “Interactions between NonpathogenicMicroorganismsand Plants” (Y. R.

Dommergues and S . V. Krupa, eds.), pp. 305-337. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Bethlenfalvay, G. J. 1983. Physiol. Plant. 57, 543-548.

Bevege, D. I., Bowen, G. D., and Skinner, M. F. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B.

Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp. 149-174. Academic Press, New York and London.

Bieleski, R. L. 1973. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24, 225-252.

Bjorkman, E. 1970. Plant Soil 32, 589-610.

Black, R. L., and Tinker, P. B. 1977. Nature (London) 267, 510-51 1 .

Bolin, B., and Anhenius, E. 1977. Ambio 6, 96-105.

Bone, F., and Barea, J. M. 1981. Anal Edafol. Agrobiol. 40, 2351-2381.

Bowen, G. D. 1973. In “Ectomyconhizae” (G. C. Marks and T. T. Kozlowski, eds.), pp.

151-205. Academic Press, New York.

Bowen, G. D. 1980a. In “Contemporary Microbial Ecology” (D. C. Ellwood, J. N. Hedger, M. J.

Latham, J. H. Slater, and J. M. Lynch, eds.), pp. 283-304. Academic F’ress, New Yo& and

London.

Bowen, G. D. 1980b. In “Tropical Mycorrhiza Research” (P. Mikola, ed.), pp. 165-190. Oxford

Univ. Press, London.

Bowen, G. D., and Bevege, D. I. 1976. Rev. Rural Sci. 3, 103-112.



48



J. M. BAREA AND C. AZC6N-AGUILAR



Bowen, G . D., and Theodorou,C. 1979. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 119-126.

Brill, W. J. 1979. Am. Sci. 67,458-466.

Bmughton, W. J. 1978. J . Appl. Bucreriol. 45, 165-194.

Brown. M. E. 1975. In “Soil Microbiology” (N. Walker, ed.), pp. 21-38. Butterworth, London.

Buwalda, J. G. 1980. N.Z. J . Agric. Res. 23, 379-383.

Buwdda, J. G., and Goh, K. M. 1982. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14, 103-106.

Callow, J. A., Capaccio, L. C. M., Parish, G., and Tinker, P. B. 1978. New Phytol. 80, 125-134.

Capaccio, L. C. M., andcallow, J. A. 1982. NewPhyrol. 91, 81-91.

Carling, D. E., and Brown, M. F. 1980. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. J . 44, 528-532.

Carling, D. E., Riehle, W. G., Brown, M. F., and Johnson, D. R. 1978. Phyroparhology 68,

1590- 1596.

Casadestis, J., and Olivares, J. 1978. Anal. Edafol. Agrobiol. 37, 915-948.

Chambers, C. A., Smith, S. E., and Smith, F. A. 1980a. New Phyrol. 85,47-62.

Chambers,C. A., Smith, S. E., Smith, F. A., Ramsey,M. D., and Nicholas, D. J. 1980b. Soil Biol.

Biochem. 12, 93-100.

Chapin, F. S., III 1980. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Sysr. 11, 233-260.

Chilvers, G. A., and Harley, J. L. 1980. New Phyrol. 84, 319-326.

Clarke, C., and Mosse, B. 1981. New Phyrol. 87, 695-703.

Cooper, K. M., and Liisel, D. 1978. New Phyrol. 80, 143-151.

Cooper, K. M., and Tinker, P. B. 1981. New Phyrol. 88, 327-339.

Cox, G., and Sanders, F. E. 1974. New Phyrol. 73, 901-912.

Cox, G., and Tinker,P. B. 1976. New Phyrol. 77, 371-378.

Cox, G., Sanders, F. E., Tinker, P. B., and Wild, J. A. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E.

Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp. 297-312. Academic Press, New York and

London.

Cox, G., Moran, K. J., Sanders, F., Nockolds, C., and Tinker, P. B. 1980. New Phyrol. 84,

649-659.

Cress, W. A., Thronebemy, G. O., and Lindsey, D. L. 1979. Planr Physiol. 64, 484-487.

Crush, J. R. 1974. New Phyrol. 73, 743-752.

crush, I . R. 1975. N.Z. J . Agric. Res. 18, 361-364.

crush, J. R. 1976. N.Z. J . Agric Res. 19, 473-476.

Crush, J. R . , and Caradus, J. R. 1980. N.Z.J . Agric. Res. 23, 233-237.

Daft, M. J., and El-Giahmi, A. A. 1974. New Phytol. 73, 1139-1147.

Daft, M. J., and El-Giahmi, A. A. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P.

B. Tinker, eds.), pp. 581-592. Academic Press, New York and London.

Daft, M. J., and El-Giahmi, A. A. 1976. Ann. Appl. Biol. 83, 273-276.

Daft, M. J., and EI-Giahmi, A. A. 1978. New Phyrol. 80, 365-372.

Daft, M. J., and Hacskaylo, E. 1976. J . Appl. Ecol. 13, 523-531.

Daft, M. J., Hacskaylo, E., and Nicolson, T. H. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B.

Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp. 561-580. Academic Press, New York and London.

Daniels, B. A., and Menge, J. A. 1980. Phytopurhology 70, 584-588.

Daniels, B. A., and Menge, J. A. 1981. New Phytol. 87, 345-354.

Daniels, B. A., and Trappe, J. M. 1979. Can. J . Bot. 57, 539-542.

Dazzo, F. B., and Brill, W. J. 1978. Plant Physiol. 62, 18-21.

Dazzo, F. B . , and Hubbell, D. H. 1975. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. SOC. Flu. 34, 71-74.

Delorenzini, C., Barea, J. M., and Olivares, J. 1979. Rev. Larinoarn. Microbiol. 21, 129-134.

Demeterio, J. L., Ellis, R., and Paulsen, G. M. 1972. Agron. J . 64, 566-570.

Mnari6, J . , and Truchet, G. 1979. Physiol. Veg. 17, 643-667.

Dexheimer, J., Gianinazzi, S.,and Gianinazzi-Pearson. V. 1979.2. Pjlunzenphysiol. 92, 191-206.

Diem, H. G . , Gueye, I., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., Fortin, J. A., and Dommergues, Y. R. 1981. Acta

Ecol. Ecol. Plant. 2, 53-62.



MYCORRHIZAS IN NODULATING N-FIXING PLANTS



49



Dodd, J., Krikun, J., and Haas, J. 1983. Isr. J. Bot. 32, 10-21.

Dommeregues, Y. R. 1978. In “Interactions between Nonpathogenic Soil Microorganisms and

Plants’’ (Y. R. Dommergues and S. V. Krupa, eds.), pp. 1-38. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Elmes, R., and Mosse, B. 1980. “Rothamsted Report 1979.”

El-Giahmi, A. A., Nicolson, T. H., and Daft, M. J. 1976. Trans. Br. Mycol. SOC. 67, 273-274.

Evans, H. J., and Barber, L. E. 1977. Science (Washington. D . C . ) 197, 332-339.

Fogel, R. 1980. New Phytol. 86, 199-212.

Foster, S. M., and Nicolson, T. H. 1981a. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13, 199-203.

Foster, S. M., and Nicolson, T. H. 1981b. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13, 205-208.

Furlan, V., and Fortin, J. A. 1977. New Phytol. 79, 335-340.

Gates, C. T. 1974. Aust. J. Bot. 22, 45-55.

Gates, C. T., and Wilson, J. R. 1974. Plant Soil 41, 325-333.

Gerdemann, J. W. 1975. In “The Development and Function of Roots” (J. G. Torrey and D. T.

Clarkson, eds.), pp. 575-591. Academic Press, New York.

Gerdemann, J. W., and Trappe, J. M. 1974. Mycol. Mem. 5, 1-76.

Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., and Gianinazzi, S. 1981. In “The Fungal Community; Its organization and

Role in the Ecosystem” (D. T.Wicklow and G. C. Carrol, eds.), pp. 637-652. Dekker, New

York.

Gianinazzi, S., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., and Trouvelot, A. (eds.) 1982. “Les Mycorrhizes partie

int6grante de la plante: biologie et perspectives d’utilization”. Colloq. INRA No. 13.

Gibson, A. H., and Newton, W. E. (eds.) 1981. “Current Perspectives in Nitrogen Fixation.” Aust.

Acad. of Sciences, Canberra.

Gibson, D. I., Hayes, P., and Laidlaw, A. S. 1975. J. Br. Grassl. SOC. 30, 295-301.

Graham, J. H., and Menge, J. A. 1982. Phytopathology 72, 95-98.

Graham, J. H., Linderman, R. G., and Menge, 3. A. 1982. New Phytol. 91, 183-189.

Gray, L. E., and Gerdemann, J. W. 1973. Plant Soil 39, 687-689.

Greaves, M. P., and Webley, D. M. 1965. J . Appl. Bacteroil. 28, 454-465.

Hall, I. R. 1975. N.Z. J. Bot. 13, 463-472.

Hall, I. R. 1978. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 21, 509-515.

Hall, I. R. 1980. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 23, 103-105.

Hall, I. R., and Armstrong, P. 1979. N.Z. J . Agric. Res. 22, 479-484.

Hall, I. R., Scott, R. S., and Johnstone, P. D. 1977. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 20, 349-355.

Hardy, R. W. F., and Haveka, U. D. 1976. In “Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Plants” (P. S.

Nutman, ed.), pp. 421-439. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Harley, J. L. 1970. Trans. Bor. SOC.Edinburgh 41, 65-70.

Harley, J. L. 1973. J . Nut. Sci. Coun. Sri L a n k 1, 31-48.

Harley, J. L. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

1-24. Academic Press, New York and London.

Harley, J. L. 1978. Proc. R . SOC. London Ser. B 203, 1-21.

Hart, A. L., Jessop, D. J., and Galpin, J. 1981. N.Z. J . Agric. Res. 24, 27-32.

Hayman, D. S . 1974. New Phytol. 73, 71-80.

Hayman, D. S. 1975a. In ‘‘Soil Microbiology” (N. Walker, ed.), pp. 67-92. Buttersorth, London.

Hayman, D. S. 1975b. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.),

pp. 495-509. Academic Press, New York and London.

Hayman, D. S. 1977. ARC Res. Rev. (U.K.) 3, 82-85.

Hayman, D. S. 1978. In “Interactions between Nonpathogenic Soil Microorganismsand Plants” (Y.

R. Dommergues and S. V. Krupa, eds.), pp. 401-442. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Hayman, D. S. 1981. FAOIIAEA Consult. Meet. Use Isotopes Stud. Nutrient Availability Food

Crops Edomycorrhizae, Vienna.

Hayman, D. S . 1982. In “Advances in Agricultural Microbiology” (N. S. Subba Rao ed.). INH

New Delhi.



50



J. M. BAREA AND C. AZCdN-AGUILAR



Hayman, D. S. 1983. Can. J . Bor. 61, 944-963.

Hayman, D. S., and Mosse, B. 1979. Ann. Appl. Biol. 93, 141-148.

Hayman, D. S., Barea, J. M., and Azc6n. R. 1976. Phyropathol. Medirerr. 15, 1-6.

Hayman, D. S., Moms, E. J., and Page, R. J. 1981. Ann. Appl. Biol. 99, 247-253.

Haynes, R. J. 1980. Adv. Agron. 33, 227-261.

Heap, A., and Newman, E. I. 1980. New Phyrol. 85, 173-179.

Hepper, C. 1979. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11, 269-277.

Hepper, C. M. 1983. New Phyfol. 93, 389-399.

Ho, I., and Trappe, J. M. 1973. Nature New Biol. 244, 30-31.

Howeler, R. H., Cadavid, L. F., and Burckhard, E. 1982a. Plant Soil 69, 327-339.

Howeler, R. H., Asher, C. J., and Edwards, D. G. 1982b. New Phytol. 90, 229-238.

Islam, R., Ayanaba, A., and Sanders, F. E. 1980. Planr Soil 54, 107-117.

Jakobsen, I., and Nielsen, N. E. 1983. New Phyrol. 93, 401-413.

Janos, D. P. 1980a. Ecology 61, 151-162.

Janos, D. P. 1980b. “Tropical Succession 1980.”

Janse, J. M. 1896. An. Jard. Bor. Buirenz. 14, 53-212.

Jasper, D. A., Robson, A. D., and Abbott, L. K. 1979. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11, 501-505.

Jehne, W. 1980. Trop. Grassl. 14, 202-209.

Jensen, A. 1983. Plant Soil 70, 155-163.

Johnson, C. R., Menge, J. A., Schwab, S . , and Ting, I. P. 1982a. New Phyrol. 90, 665-669.

Johnson, C. R.,Graham,J. H., Leonard, R. T.,and Menge, J. A. 1982b. New Phytol. 90,671-675.

Jones, F. R. 1924. J . Agric. Res. 29, 459-470.

Khan, A. G. 1974. J. GenMicrobiol. 81, 7-14.

Khan, A. G. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

419-435. Academic Press, New York and London.

Khan, G . G. 1978. New Phytol. 81, 53-63.

Kleinschmidt, G . D., and Gerdemann, J. W. 1972. Phyropafhology 62, 1447-1453.

Koske, R. E. 1981. Trans. Br. Mycol. SOC. 76, 411-416.

Koske, R. E., and Halvorson, W. L. 1981. Can. J . Bor. 59, 1413-1422.

Koske, R. E., Sutton, J. C., and Sheppard, B. R. 1975. Can. J . Bor. 53, 87-93.

Kruckelmann, H. W. 1975. I n “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker,

eds.), pp. 511-525. Academic Press, New York and London.

Kucey, R. M. N., and Paul, E. A. 1982. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14, 407-412.

Kucey, R. M. N., and Paul, E. A. 1983. Can. J. Soil Sci. 63, 87-95.

Lambert, D. H., and Cole, H. 1980. Agron. J. 72, 257-260.

Lambert, D. H . , Cole, H., and Baker, D. E. 1980a. Crop. Sci. 20, 615-618.

Lambert, D. H . , Cole, H., and Baker, D. E. 1980b. Planr Soil 57, 431-438.

Langkamp, P. J., and Dalling, M. J. 1982. Ausr. J. Bor. 30, 107-119.

Lanowska, J. 1966. Pam. Pulowski. 21, 365-386.

Le Tacon, F., and Diagne, 0. 1982. Trans. Int. Col. Mycorrhizes Biol. Perspecrives Urilisarion,

Dijon.

Levy, Y., Sylvertse, J. P., and Nemec, S. 1983. New Phyrol. 93, 61-66.

Lewis, D. H. 1973. Biol. Rev. 48, 261-278.

Lewis, D. H. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

119-148. Academic Press, New York and London.

Ling-Lee, M., Chilvers, G. A., and Ashford, A. E. 1975. New Phyrol. 75, 551-554.

Ljunggren, H., and Fahraeus, G . 1959. Nature (London) 184, 1578-1579.

Lijsel, D. M., and Cooper, K. M. 1979. New Phyrol. 83, 415-426.

MacDonald, R. M., and Lewis, M. 1978. New Phyrol. 80, 135-141.

Malajczuk, N., Linderman, R. G . , Kough, J., and Trappe, J. M. 1981. New Phyrol. 87,567-572.



MYCORRHIZAS IN NODULATING N-FIXING PLANTS



51



Malloch, D. W., Pirozynski, K. A., and Raven, P. H. 1980. Proc. Narl. Acud. Sci. USA 77,

21 13-21 18.

Marx, C., Dexheimer, J., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V.,and Gianinazzi, S. 1982. New Phyrol. 90,37-43.

Marx, D. H. 1980. In “Tropical Mycorrhiza Research” (P. Mikola, ed.). Oxford Univ. Press,

London.

Marx, D. H., and Krupa, S. U. 1978. In “Interactions between Non-pathogenic Soil Microorganisms and Plants” (Y. R. Dommergues and S. V. Krupa, eds.), pp. 373-400. Elsevier,

Amsterdam.

Mattingly, G. E. G. 1980. Chem. Ind. (London) 1980, 690-693.

Mejstrik, V., and Benecke, U. 1969. New Phyrol. 68, 141-149.

Menge, J. A. 1983. Can. J. Bor. 61, 1015-1024.

Menge, J. A., Lembright, H., and Johnson, E. L. V. 1977. Proc. Int. SOC. Citric. 1, 129-132.

Menge, J. A., Steirle, D., Bagyaraj, D. J., Johnson, E. L. V., and Leonard, R. T. 1978. New

Phytol. 80, 575-578.

Mexal, J. G. 1980. N.Z. J . For. Sci. 10, 208-217.

Meyer, F. H. 1973. In “Ectomycorrhizae” (G. C. Marks and T. T. Kozlowski, eds.), pp. 79-106.

Academic Press, New York.

Miguel, C., Caiiizo, A., Costa, A., and Rodriguez-Barmeco, C. 1978. In “Limitations and Potentials for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in the Tropics” (J. Nbereiner ezal., eds.), pp. 121-134.

Plenum, New York.

Mikola, P. 1970. Inr. Rev. For. Res. 3, 123-196.

Mojallali, H., and Weed, S. B. 1978. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 42, 367-372.

Moiraud, A., Capellano, A., and Birtschi, H. 1981. Can. J . Bot. 59,481-490.

Molina, R. 1977. In “Mushrooms and Man: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Mycology” (T.

Walters, ed.), pp. 147-161.

Molina, R. 1979. For. Sci. 25, 585-590.

Molina, R. 1981. Can. J. Bor. 59, 325-334.

Morley, C. D., and Mosse, B. 1976. Trans. Br. Mycol. SOC. 67, 510-513.

Mosse, B. 1962. J. Gen. Microbiol. 27, 509-520.

Mosse, B. 1972. Rev. Ecol. B i d . Sol 9, 529-537.

Mosse, B. 1973a. Annu. Rev. Phyropazhol. 11, 171-1%.

Mosse, B. 1973b. New Phyrol. 72, 127-136.

Mosse, B. 1975. In “Soil Microbiology” (N. Walker, ed.), pp. 39-66. Butterworth, London.

Mosse, B. 1977a. New Phyzol. 78, 277-288.

Mosse, B. 1977b. Coll. Trop. Agric. Univ.Hawaii Misc. Publ. 145, 275-292.

Mosse, B. 1978. In “Structure and Functioning of Plant Populations” (A. H. T. Freysen and B. W.

Woldendorp, eds.), pp. 269-298.

Mosse, B., and Hayman, D. S. 1971. New Phytol. 70, 29-34.

Mosse, B., and Hayman, D. S. 1980. In “Tropical Mycorrhiza Research” (P. Mikola, ed.), pp.

213-230. Oxford Univ. Press, London.

Mosse, B., and Hepper, C. 1975. Physiol. P h Purhol. 5 , 215-223.

Mosse, B., Hayman, D. S., and Arnold, D. J. 1973. New Phytol. 72, 809-815.

Mosse, B., Powell, C. L., and Hayman, D. S. 1976. New Phyrol. 76, 331-342.

Mosse, B., Warner, A., and Clarke, C. A. 1982. New Phyzol. 90, 521-528.

Munns, D. N . , and Mosse, B. 1980. In “Advances& Legume Science” (R.J. Summerfild and A.

H. Bunting, eds.), pp. 115-125. HM Stationery Office,London.

Nemec, S. 1983. Trop. Agric. 60, 97-101.

Newman, E. 1979. Biol. Rev. 53, 511-554.

Ng, P. P., Cole, A. L. J., Jameson, P. E., and Mcwha, J. A. 1982. New Phyrol. 91, 57-62.

Nicolson, T. H. 1960. Trans. Br. Mycol. SOC. 43, 132-145.



52



J. M. BAREA AND C. AZC6N-AGUILAR



Nicolson, T. H. 1975. In “Endomycomhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.),

pp. 25-34. Academic Press, New York and London.

Nielsen, J. D., and Jensen, A. 1983. Plum Soil 70, 165-172.

Nutman, P. S. 1977. In “Recent Developments in Nitrogen Fixation” (W. Newton, J. R., Postgate,

and C. Rodriguez-Barmeco, eds.), pp. 443-447. Academic Press, New York and London.

Nylund, J. E., and Unestam, T. 1982. New fhyrol. 91, 63-79.

O’Bannon,J. H., Evans, D. W., and Peaden, R. N. 1980. Can. J. flanr Sci. 60, 859-863.

Ocampo, J. A., and Hayman, D. S . 1981. New fhyrol. 87, 333-343.

Ocampo, J. A., Martin, J., and Hayman, D. S . 1980. New fhytol. 84, 27-35.

Ojala, J. C., Jarrel, W. M., Menge, J. A., and Johnson, E. L. V. 1983. Agron. J. 75, 255-259.

Olivares, J., Montoya, E., and Palomares, A. 1977. In “Recent Developments in Nitrogen Fixation” (W. Newton, J. R. Postgate and C. Rodriguez-Barmeco, eds.), pp. 375-386. Academic

Press, New York and London.

Owusu-Bennoah, E., and Mosse, B. 1979. New Phyrol. 83, 671-679.

Owusu-Bennoah, E., and Wild, A. 1979. New fhyrol. 82, 133-140.

PairUnan, A. K., Robson, A. D., and Abbott, L. K. 1980. New fhytol. 84, 327-338.

Pang, P. C., and Paul, E. A. 1980. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60, 241-250.

Pfeiffer, C. M., and Bloss, H. E. 1980. Mycologia 72, 1038-1041.

Phillips, D. A. 1980. Annu. Rev. Plant fhysiol. 31, 29-49.

Pichk, Y., and Fortin, J. A. 1982. New fhyrol. 91, 211-220.

Pirozynski, K. A,, and Malloch, D. W. 1975. BioSystems 6, 153-164.

Plenchette, C., Furlan, V., and Fortin, J. A. 1981. Can. J . Bot. 59, 2003-2008.

Plenchette, C. 1982. fytoprocr. 63, 86-108.

Plenchette, C., Fortin, 1. A., and Furlan, V. 1983a. Plant Soil 70, 199-209.

Plenchette, C., Fortin, J. A., and Furlan, V. 1983b. Plant Soil 70, 211-217.

Pope, P. E., Chaney, W. R., Rhodes, J. D., and Woodhead, S . H. 1983. Can. J. Bot. 61,412-417.

Possingham, J. V.,Groot Obbink, J., and Jones, R. K. 1971. J. Aust. Insf. Agric. Sci. 37, 160-161.

Postgate, J. R., and Hill, S. 1979. In “Microbial Ecology” (J. M. Lynch and N. J. Poole, eds.), pp.

191-2 13. Blackwell, Oxford.

Powell, C. L. 1975. Newfhyrol. 75, 563-566.

Powell, C. L. 1976a. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 66, 439-445.

Powell, C. L. 1976b. Nature (London)264,436-438.

Powell, C. L. 1977a. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 20, 59-62.

Powell, C. L. 1977b. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 20, 343-348.

Powell, C. L. 1979. N e w f h y t o l . 83, 81-85.

Powell, C. L. 1980a. N . Z . J. Agric. Res. 23, 225-231.

Powell, C. L. 1980b. N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 23, 219-223.

Powell, C. L. 1980~.Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 247-250.

Powell, C. L. 1982. flanr Soil 68, 3-9.

Powell, C. L., and Daniels, J. 1978. New fhytol. 80, 351-358.

Powell, C. L., Groters, M.,and Metcalfe, D. 1980. N.Z. J . Agric. Res. 23, 107-109.

Raj, J., Bagyaraj, D. J., and Manjunath, A. 1981. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13, 105-108.

Rangeley, A., Daft, M. J., and Newbould, P. 1982. New Phyrol. 92, 89-102.

Ratnayake, M., Leonard, R. T., and Menge, J. A. 1978. New fhyrol. 81, 543-552.

Raven, J. A., and Smith, F. A. 1976. New Phyrol. 76, 415-431.

Raven, J. A,, Smith, S. E., and Smith, F. A. 1978. Trans. Bor. SOC.Edinburgh 43, 27-35.

Read, D. J. 1983. Can. J. Bor. 61, 985-1004.

Read, D. J., and Stribley, D. P. 1975. In “Endomycomhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B.

Tinker, eds.), pp. 105-117. Academic Press, New York and London.

Read, D. J., Koucheki, H. K., and Hcdgson, J. 1976. New Phyrol. 77, 641-653.



MYCORRHIZAS IN NODULATING N-FIXING PLANTS



53



Redente. E. F., and Reeves, F. B. 1981. Soil Sci. 132, 410-415.

Redhead, J. F. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

469-484. Academic Press, New York and London.

Rhodes, L. H. 1980. Outlook Agric. 10, 275-281.

Rhodes, L. H., and Gerdemann, J. W. 1975. New Phytol. 75, 555-561.

Rhodes, L.H., and Gerdemann, J. W. 1980. In “Cellular Interactions in Symbiosis and Parasitism”

(C. B. Cook, P. W. Pappas, and E. D. Rudolph, eds.), pp. 173-198. Ohio State Univ. Press,

Columbus.

Robson, A. D. 1978. In “The Mineral Nutrition of Legumes on Tropical and Subtropical Soils” (C.

S. Andrew and E. J. Kamprath, eds.), pp. 277-293. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Robson, A. D., O’Hara, G. W., and Abbott, L. K. 1981. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8, 427-436.

Rose, S. L. 1980. Can. J . Bot. 58, 1449-1454.

Rose, S. L. 1981. Can. J. Bor. 59, 1056-1060.

Rose, S. L., and Trappe, J. M. 1980. Mycotaxon. 10, 413-420.

Rose, S. L., and Youngberg, C. T. 1981. Can. J. Bot. 59, 34-39.

ROSS,J. P. 1971. P h y t o ~ a t h o l o61,

~ ~ 1400-1403.

Ross, J. P., and Gilliam, J. W. 1973. Soil Sci. SOC. Am. Proc. 37, 237-239.

Ross, J. P., and Harper, J. A. 1970. Phytopathology 60, 1552-1556.

Ross, J. P., and Harper, J. A. 1973. J. Elishu Michell Sci. SOC. 89, 1-3.

Safir, G. R. 1980. In “The Biology of Crop Productivity” (P. S. Carlson, ed.), pp. 231-252.

Academic Press, New York.

Safu, G. R. 1981. FAOIIAEA Consult. Meet. Use Isotopes Stud. Nutrient Availability Food Crops

Edomycorrhizae, Vienna.

Safir, G. R., Boyer, J. S., and Gerdemann, J. W. 1972. Plant Physiol. 49, 700-703.

Saif, S. R. 1981. New Phytol. 88, 649-659.

Saif, S. R., and Khan, A. G. 1977. Plant Soil 47, 17-26.

Samuel, G. 1926. Trans. Proc. R. SOC.South Aust. 50, 245-246.

Sanders, F. E. 1975. In “Endomycomzas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

261-276. Academic Press, New York and London.

Sanders, F. E., and Tinker, P. B. 1971. Nature (London) 233, 278-279.

Sanders, F. E., Tinker, P. B., Black, R. L. B., and Palmerley, S. M. 1977. New Phyrol. 78,

257-268.

Sanni, S. 0. 1976. New Phytol. 77, 667-671.

Scannerini, S., and Bonfante, P. 1983. Can. J. Bot. 61, 917-943.

Scannerini, S., Bonfante, P. F., and Fontana, A. 1975. In “Endomycorrhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B.

Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp. 213-324. Academic Press, New York and London.

Schenck, N. C., and Hinson, K. 1973. Agron. J. 65, 849-850.

Schenck, N. C., and Kellan, M. K. 1978. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. No. 798.

Schenck, N. C., and Smith, G. S. 1981. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. SOC. Flu. 40, 171-175.

Schonbeck, F. 1979. In “Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens” (B. Schippers and W. Gams, eds.), pp.

271-280. Academic Press, New York and London.

Schramm, J. R. 1966. Trans. Am. Phil. SOC. 56, 1-194.

Shanmugam, K. T., O’Gara, F., Anderson, K., and Valentine, R. C. 1978. Annu. Rev. Plant

Physiol. 29, 263-276.

Shemakhanova, N. M. 1972. “Mycotrophy of Woody Plants.” US Dep. Agric. Natl. Sci. Found.,

Washington, D.C.

Shukla, U. C., and Yadav, 0. P. 1982. Plant Soil 65, 239-248.

Skipper, H. D., and Smith, G. W. 1979. Plant Soil 53, 559-563.

Slankis, V. 1974. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 12, 437-457.

Smith, F. A., and Smith, S. E. 1981a. New Phytol. 88, 311-325.



54



J. M. BAREA AND C. AZC6N-AGUILAR



Smith, F. A., and Smith, S. E. 1981b. New Phytol. 88, 299-309.

Smith, S. S. E. 1980. Biol. Rev. 55,475-510.

Smith, S . E. 1982. New Phytol. 90, 293-302.

Smith, S. E., and Bowen, G. D. 1979. Soil Eiol. Biochem. 11, 469-473.

Smith, S. E., and Daft,M. J. 1977. Aust. J . PInnr Physiol. 4,403-413.

Smith, S . E., and Daft,M. J. 1978. In “Microbial Ecology” (M. W. Loutit and J. A. R. Miles,

eds.), pp. 312-319. Springer-Verlag, New Yo&.

Smith, S. E., Nicholas, D. J. D., and Smith, F. A. 1979. Aust. J . Plant Physiol. 6, 305-311.

Sondergaard, M., and Laegaard, S. 1977. Nature (London) 268, 232-233.

Sparling, G. P., and Tinker. P. B. 1978. J. Appl. Ecol. 15, 959-964.

St. John, T. V. 1980. N ~ wPhytol. 84, 483-487.

St. John, T. V., andColeman, D. C. 1983. C u n J . Eor. 61, 1005-1014.

Stotzky, G. 1972. CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2, 59-137.

Stribley, D. P., Tinker, P. B., and Rayner, J. H. 1980. New Phytol. 86, 261-266.

Strullu, D. G. 1982. Trans. Int. Col. Mycorrhizes Eiol. Perspectives Utilisation, Dijon.

Stnemska, J. 1975. In “Endomyconbizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse,and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

537-543. Academic Press, New York and London.

Sutton, J. C., and Sheppard, B. R. 1976. Cun. J. Eor. 54, 326-333.

Tardieux-Roche, A. 1966. Ann. Agron. 17,403-479.

Thimann, K. V. 1977. “Hormone Action in the Whole Life of Plants.” Univ. of Massachusetts

Press, Amherst.

Thomazini-Casagrande, L. I. 1980. Fyton. 39, 113-120.

Tien, T. M., Gaskins, M. H.,and Hubbell, D. H. 1979. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37, 1016-1024.

Tinker, P. B. 1975. In “Endomycomhizas” (F. E. Sanders, B. Mosse, and P. B. Tinker, eds.), pp.

353-371. Academic Press, New York and London.

Tinker, P. B. 1978. Physiol. Veg. 16, 743-751.

Tinker, P. B. 1980. In “The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture,” pp. 617-653. Amer. Soc. Agron.,

Madison, Wisconsin.

Tinker, P. B., and Sanders, F. E. 1975. Soil Sci. 119, 363-368.

Tisdall, J. M., and Oades, J. M. 1979. Aust. J. Soil Res. 17, 429-441.

Torrey, J. G. 1976. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 27,435-459.

Torrey, J. G. 1978. EioScience 28, 586-592.

Trappe, J. M. 1977. Annu. Rev. Phytoputhol. 15, 205-222.

Trappe, J. M. 1979. In “Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Management of Temperate Forests” (J.

C. Gordon., C. T. Weeler, and D. A. Perry, eds.), pp. 276-286. Oregon State Univ. For. Res.

Lab., Corvallis.

Trappe, J. M. 1981. In “Advances in Food Producing Systems for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands” (J.

T. Manassah and E. J. Briskey, eds.), pp. 581-599. Academic Press, New York.

Trappe, J. M., and Fogel, R. C. 1977. Range Sci. Dep. Sci. Ser. (Color. State Univ.) 26,205-214.

Trinick, M. J. 1977. New Phytol. 78, 297-304.

van Schreven, D. A. 1958. In “Nutrition of the Legumes” (E. Hallsworth, ed.), pp. 137-163.

Buttenvorth, London.

Waidyanatha, U. P., Yogaramam, N., and Ariyaratne, W. A. 1979. New Phytol. 82, 147-152.

Warner, A., and Mosse, B. 1980. Trans. Er. Mycol SOC. 74,407-410.

Warner, A., andMosse, B. 1982. New Phytol. 90, 529-536.

Whittingham, J., and Read, D. J. 1982. New Phytol. 90, 277-284.

Wilson, J. M., and Trinick, M.J. 1983. Aust. J . Soil. 21, 73-81.

Zak, J. C., and Parkinson, D. 1983. Can. J . Eot. 61, 798-803.



ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL. 36



SUBMICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

OF SOILS

E. B. A. Bisdom

Netherlands Soil Survey Institute

Wageningen, The Netherlands



I. Introduction ..........................................................

11. Submicroscopic Techniques .............................................

A. Electron Microscopy.. .................

........

B . Ion Microscopy.. .....................

.....

C. Additional Submicroscopy. .........................................

111. Applications of Electron Microscopy

.....................

A. Unhardened Samples ..............................................

B. Thin Sections ....................................................

IV. Applications of Ion Microscopy ................

V. Applications of Other Forms of Submicroscopy ......................

VI. Conclusions ..........................................................

References ..................

....................................



55

57

57

61



62

65

66

77

88

89



90

91



1. INTRODUCTION

Submicroscopy of soils usually begins after light microscopy has been done,

and light microscopy itself often supports field studies. This article primarily

describes soil materials studied in thin sections, soil peds, and 1arger.mineral

grains. Submicroscopy may be regarded as a young field in soil science, although instruments such as the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the

electron microprobe analyzer (EMA) have been in use for more than a decade.

In situ light-microscopic studies of soils are usually performed by micromorphologists representing the field of soil micromorphology. For technical

reasons, this is itself a relatively young branch of soil science; soil micromorphology could only develop after thin sections had been prepared (i.e., after

development of the technique of the impregnation of samples with plastics necessary for their hardening). This technical difficulty did not exist in geological

studies of hardrock and, as a consequence, thin-section studies of cohesive rocks

were already being made many years before light-microscopic studies of soils

were possible. However, as soon as thin sections of soils were feasible, these

55



Copyrighl 0 by Academic F’ress, Inc.

All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.



ISBN 0-12-000736-3



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

IV. Mycorrhizas in Nodulating Nitrogen-Fixing Nonlegume Plants

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×