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III. Influence of Tillage–Planting System on Yields

III. Influence of Tillage–Planting System on Yields

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148



C. B. RICHEY ET AL.



TABLE I

Chemical and Mechanical Analysis of Indiana Soils to 15 cm (6 inches) Depth, 1967'

~~



Soil type and location

Tracy sandy loan (typic

hapludalf) Northwestern

Indiana

Runnmede loam (typic

argiaquoll) Northwestern

Indiana

Blount silt loam (aeric

ochraqualf) East central

Indiana

Pewamo silty clay loam

(typic argiaquoll) East

central Indiana

Bedford silt loam (typic

fragiudult) South central

Indiana



~



Total Total Total Organic

KC

sand

silt

clay matter

Pb

pH kg!ha (lb/A) kg/ha (lb/A) (%)

(%)

(%)

(%)



6.1



113(101)



317(283)



59.36 38.93



2.64



1.41



6.3



104(93)



240(214)



47.48 44.79



7.73



2.99



6.7



lOl(90)



323(288)



20.67 58.64 20.67



1.74



6.5



226(202)



306(273)



14.07 47.40 38.50



3.28



6.4



64(57)



204(182)



10.02 83.75



1.71



6.22



'Griffith ef al. (1973).

bMedium range for P 46-80 kg/ha (41-71 lb/A).

CMediumrange for K 151-210 kg/ha (135-187 Ib/A).



On the Bedford silt loam (typic fragiadult) in southern Indiana, all systems

averaged about the same for 1967-1971, except for the till-plant which again

showed an increase possibly due to its cultivation, Residue on the surface

appeared to provide a slight yield advantage. Moisture conserved in the summer

may have overbalanced the lower soil temperature early in the season.



2. Ohio Experiments

Studies comparing corn yields of conventional plow tillage with no-till coulter

planting under several crop rotation combinations on several typical Ohio soils

were conducted in the 1962-1973 period. The results are summarized in Table

IV (van Doren et al., 1976). Plots were thinned to achieve a common plant

population. No-till gave significantly higher yields than plowing under continuous corn and a corn-soybean rotation on Wooster silt loam but significantly

lower under continuous corn on Hoytville silty clay loam.



TABLE I1

Corn Response to Tillage-Planting System, Northwestern Indiana

Tracy sandy loam



1967-1971

Tillage-Planting

Fall plow -conventionalc

Spring plow-conventional

Spring plow-wheel-track plant

Fall chisel-conventionalc

Fall disk-conventionalc

Till-plant, one cultivationd

Till-plant, no cultivation

Rotary strip till and plant

No-till coulter plant

Fall ridge leaving residue in furrow



1969-1971



Standa



Yieldb



Standa



-



-



50.4

(20.4)

46.5

(18.8)

46.9

(19.0)



7846

(125)

7846

(125)

8223

(131)



49.2

(29.9)

49.9

(20.2)

44.5

(18.0)

50.9

(20.6)



8976

(143)



-



-



51.1

(20.7)

51.9

(21.0)



8160

(130)

7972

(127)

-



-



1972-1973



Yieldb Standa



-



50.7

(20.5)



Runnymede loam



51.4

(20.8)

51.4

(20.8)

51.1

(20.7)

55.8

(22.6)

-



%and 4 weeks after planting in 1000 plants/ha (1000 plants/A).

bYield in hg/ha (bu/A).

‘In 1973 only the ridged plots were tilled in the fall.

dNo cultivation for any system except till-plant as shown.



-



49.9

(20.2)

-



Yieldb



-



1967-197 1

StandQ Yieldb



-



7124

49.9

(113.5) (202)

45.7

(18.5)

46.7

7482

48.2

(18.9) (119.2) (19.5)

44.5

6779

(19.0) (108)

52.9

7934

54.4

(21.4) (126.4) (22.0)

52.6

7589

(21.3) (120.9)

51.1

(20.7)

50.9

7733

52.4

(20.6) (123.2) (21.2)

51.9

7558

(21.0) (120.4)



8662

(138)

8223

(131)

8286

(132)

-



1969-1 97 1

Standa



51.4

(20.8)

53.4

(21.6)

-



Standa



Yieldb



51.4

(20.8)



55.1

(22.3)

50.2

(20.3)

43.7

(17.7)

49.9

(20.2)

-



8574

54.1

(136.6) (21.9)

8035

(128)

7281

(116)

-



Yieldb



1972-1974



-



53.4

(21.6)



8913

(142)



50.2

(20.3)

52.8

(21.4)



8072

(129)



TABLE 111

Corn Response to Tillageplanting System, East Central and Southern Indiana

Blount silt loam



1968-1 97 1

Tillage-Plan ting

Fall plow-conventionalc

Spring plow-conventional

Spring plow-wheel track plant

c

v,



Fall chisel-conventionalc



0



Fall disk-conventionalc

Till-plant, one cultivationd

Rotary strip till and plant

No-till coulter plant

Fall ridge with residue in furrow'



Standa



51.6

(20.9)

50.2

(20.3)

50.2

(20.3)

45.5

(18.4)

-



50.2

(20.3)

43.0

(17.4)

51.4

(20.8)

-



Yieldb



Pewamo silty clay loam



1972-1973

Standa



Yieldb



42.5

(17.2)

-



41.8

(16.9)

56.8

(23.0)

46.9

(19.0)

42.0

(17.0)

49.2

(19.9)



aStand 4 weeks after planting in 1000 plants/ha (1000 plants/A).

bYield in kg/ha (bu/A).

CIn1973 all tillage was done in the spring.

dNo cultivation for any system except till-plant, as shown.



196 8-1 97 1



Bedford silt loam



1974-1 97 5



Standa



Yieldb Standa



46.7

(18.9)

48.7

(19.7)

41.3

(17.1)

43.0

(17.4)



55.1

(22.3)



1967-1971



Yieldb



Standa



5856

(933)



-



51.9

(21.0)

45.7

(18.5)

5166

48.4

(82.3) (19.6)

-



54.1

(21.9)

-



-



45.2

(18.3)

42.0

(17.0)



-



54.4

(22.0)



5097

(81.2)



53.6

(21.7)

45.7

(13.5)

46.7

(18.9)



-



Yieldb



1972-1973

Standa



Yieldb



50.2

(20.3)

46.9

(19.0)

41.8

(16.9)

46.7

(18.9)

41.7

(19.3)

49.4

(20.0)



7783

(124)

7093

(113)

7532

(120)

-



TABLE IV

Average Corn Yield within Each of Four Ohio Locations, Three Rotations, Two Time Periods, and Two Sets of Tillage Treatmentsa

Remaining years (1969-1973)



Years 2 4 (1963-1968)



Soil type



r



cn



r



Crop rotation



No-till

kg/ha (bu/A)



Plow

kg/ha (bu/a)



No-till

Probabilityb kg/ha (bu/A)



Plow

kg/ha Cbu/A) Probabilityb



Wooster silt loam

(typic fragiudalo



Continuous corn

Corn-soybeans

Corn-oats-ha y



7060 (112)

6470 (103)

6880 (110)



6370 (101)

5900 (94)

6850 (109)



0.001

0.015

ND



9400 (150)

9480 (151)

10450(166)



8420 (134)

8720 (139)

9720 (155)



<0.001

0.03

0.01



Crosby silt loam

(aeric ochraqualf)



Continuous corn

Cornsoybeans

Corn-oats-hay



6120 (97)

6410 (102)

7000 (112)



6180 (98)

6510 (104)

6720 (107)



ND

ND

ND



8620 (137)

8290 (132)

9730 (155)



8290 (132)

9020 (144)

9340 (149)



ND

0.07

ND



Hoytville silty clay loam

(mollic ochraqualf)



Continuous corn

Cornsoybeans

Corn-oats-hay



5720 (91)

6720 (107)

6830 (109)



6490 (103)

7000 (1 12)

6800 (108)



<0.001

ND

ND



6820 (109)

7920 (126)

8180 (130)



8000 (1 27)

8260 (132)

8390 (134)



<0.001



Toledo clay

(mollic haplaquept)



Continuous corn

Cornsoybeans

Corn-oats-hay



5060 (81)

5350 (85)

5080 (81)



5250 (84)

5560 (89)

5270 (84)



ND

ND

ND



6520 (104)

6930 (110)

7220 (115)



6340 (101)

7000 (112)

7550 (120)



ND

ND

ND



W a n Doren et al. (1976).

bProbability level at which the yield difference between pairs of tillage treatments is equal to zero. ND means no difference (p > 0.20).



ND

ND



152



C. B. RICHEY ET AL.



Effects of plowing, disking, cultivating, and no-tillage on corn yield and mulch

cover were investigated from 1962 to 1971 (Van Doren and Triplett, 1973). It

was reported that: “Mulch cover produced three times as great a yield effect as

any other single variable, with the effect (kg/ha) = 36.2 M - 0.0021 8 MS, where

M is percent of the soil surface covered with mulch and S is yield in kg/ha of the

plowed plus cultivated treatment. Tillage variables increased yield in order of

cultivation > plow > disk, and results are expressed in terms of mulch cover

required to produce an equal yield effect. Most tillage and mulch effects were

additive.”

It was postulated that soils could be classified as follows:

A. Soils in which tillage and mulch effects on yield primarily result from water

conservation. . . .

B. Soils in which certain types of tillage can overcome mechanical impedance limitations to root and water penetration. . . .

C. Soils and climates in which mulch effects on soil temperatures influence corn

yield. . . .

D. Soils in which excess water occurs for substantial periods, probably causing aeration

problems for the growing crop. . . .”



3. Illinois Experiments

A project was initiated in 1971 to study the effects of different tillage

treatments and the resulting amount of corn stalk residue on the soil surface on

corn yield and soil loss. The results are shown in Table V (Oschwald and

Siemens, 1976). The disk-chisel had a pair of adjustable-angle disk gangs

mounted ahead of the chisels. The coulter-chisel had a gang of coulters across

the front to cut stalks.

Tillage systems had little yield impact on Catlin silt loam, a soil with good

drainage. The stands were about the same with all treatments, and weed control

was excellent. Corn and soybean growth tended to be slightly slower with the

no-till coulter treatment, but less so than on soils with restricted drainage.

The Flanagan silt loam has poor natural drainage. Planting was performed as

early as possible, even when some treatments were too wet. In general, yields

were lowest with spring plowing and spring disking, where there was the most

manipulation of wet soil in the spring. Wet soil in 1973 resulted in severe

crusting and poor stands with all treatments except no-till coulter planting and

fall plowing.



4. Nebraska Experiments

In 1960, 16 comparison tests were made in 15 counties. Each test compared 1

ha (2.5 A) of plowed and conventionally planted corn with 1 ha (2.5 A) of



TABLE V

Corn Yields and Soil Erosiona with Various Tillage Systems in Central Illinoisb

Catlin silt loam

(typic argiudoll)



Tillage-planting system

Chop stalks, fall plow, disk, plant

Spring plow, disk, plant

Fall disk-chisel, disk-chisel (sweeps), plant

Fall coulter-chisel, field cultivate, plant

Chop stalks, fall chisel, disk, plant

Chop stalks, plant with no-till coulter

Spring disk twice, plant



Flanigan silt loam

(aquic argiudoll)



Sediment loss

1000 kg/ha (lb/A)



1972, 1973, 1975 Average

kg/ha (bu/A)



1972-1975 Average

kg/ha (bu/A)



14.7 (16.5)



9102 (145)



-



-



4.0 (4.5)

3.5 (3.9)

5.7 (6.4)

2.5 (2.8)

2.9 (3.3)



8976 (143)

8976 (143)

9164 (146)

8537 (136)

8913 (142)



9290 (148)

8412 (134)

8913 (142)

8851 (141)

8976 (143)

9102 (145)

8662 (138)



aWater applied at 6.3 cm (2.5 inches) per hour for 4 hours by rainfall simulator after planting corn in 1973.

bOschwald and Siemens (1 976).



154



C.



B. RICHEY ET AL.



till-planted corn (Wittmuss et al., 1971). The till-planted corn averaged 7470

kg/ha (1 19 bu/A) compared with 1744 kg/ha (1 17 bu/A) for the conventional

corn, ranging from a difference of 1381 kglha (22 bu/A) favoring till-plant to a

difference of 1130 kg/ha (18 bu/A) favoring conventional.

Since 1960 till-planting has become common in the western corn belt, displacing the traditional lister system as well as the conventional plowing system.



B. SOYBEANS



1. Indiana Experiments

A project to compare four tillage-planting systems on a continuous corn,

continuous soybeans, and a corn-soybean rotation was initiated in 1974 near

Lafayette on Chalmers silty clay loam (typic argiaquoll). The yields results for

soybeans are shown for the first 2 years, 1975 and 1976, in Table VI.

Soybean growth in corn residue was slower, like corn growth, but differences

were smaller than for corn. There was little growth difference when planted in

soybean residue. Slow growth in the 1975 ridged plots resulted from delayed

germination, a consequence of shallow planting followed by dry weather.

Yield differences were small following corn but no-till coulter yields were

reduced substantially in the bean residue. Soybean yields for all treatments were

consistently higher for beans after corn than for beans after beans, although

early growth favored the latter in 1975. Visual observations indicated no

difference in disease symptoms throughout the plot area.



2. nlinois Experiments

Tillage experiments similar to those described previously for corn were also

conducted for soybeans following corn (Siemens and Oschwald, 1975). The

results are shown in Table VII. The yield differences were not statistically

different.



3. Ohio Experiments

Projected average soybean yields in a corn-soybean rotation with different

tiUage systems for several Ohio soils are shown in Table VIII (Bone et al., 1976).

It would appear that soybean yields are less affected by tillage variations than

corn, showing only small differences with equal weed control. Tillage effectiveness in controlling weeds is a major factor.



TABLE VI

Soybean Response to Tillage-Planting System and Previous Crop in West Central Indiana on Chalmers Silty Clay Loam (Typic Argiaquoll)

~~



1975 (Planted 5/6 and 7)



Tillage-planting system



Fall plow-conventional

Fall chisel-conventional

Fall ridge leaving residue in f u r r o d

Nc-till coulter plant

Fall plow-conventional

Fall chisel-conventional

FaJI ridge leaving residue in f u r r o d

No-till coulter plant



1976 (Planted 5/10 and 11)



Mean



Height at 8 weeks

Yield

Height at 8 weeks

Yield

Yield

Previous Height at 8 weeks

cm (inches)

cm (inches)

kg/ha (bu/A)

crop

cm (inches)

kg/ha (bu/A)

@/ha (bu/A)

Corn

Corn

Corn

Corn

Soybeans

Soybeans

Soybeans

Soybeans



56.6 (22.3)

54.9 (21.6)

43.2 (17.0)

49.3 (19.4)

58.7 (23.1)

58.2 (22.9)

53.1 (20.9)

58.4 (23.0)



3793 (56.4)

3874 (57.6)

3356 (49.9)

3766 (56.0)

3544 (52.7)

3510 (52.2)

3302 (49.1)

3215 (47.8)



46.7 (18.4)

44.3 (17.4)

48.1 (18.9)

41.0 (16.1)

44.8 (17.6)

43.7 (17.2)

47.0 (18.5)

43.9 (17.3)



3657 (54.4)

3409 (50.7)

3425 (50.9)

3250 (48.3)

3225 (48.0)

3059 (45.5)

3093 (46.0)

2781 (41.4)



51.7 (20.3)

49.6 (19.5)

45.7 (18.0)

45.2 (17.8)

51.8 (20.4)

5 1.o (20.0)

50.1 (19.7)

51.2 (20.1)



%advertent shallow planting in 1975 resulted in reduced and delayed germination, impairing stand, early growth, and yield.



3725 (55.4)

3642 (54.1)

3391 (50.4)

3508 (52.2)

3385 (50.3)

3285 (48.8)

3198 (47.5)

2998 (44.6)



TABLE VII

Soybeans Yields (After Corn) and Weed Weights with Various Tilling Systems in Central Illinoisa

Flanagan silt loam (aquic argiudoll)

Catlin silt loam (typic argiudoll)

1974



Soybeans kg/ha (bu/A)



Tillage-planting system



Weedsb kg/ha (lb/A)



Soybeans kg/ha (bu/A)



1973'



1974



Mean



Chop stalks, fall plow, disk, plant

Fall disk-chisel, disk-chisel (sweeps), plant

Fall coulter-chisel, field cultivate, plant

Chop stalks, fall chisel, disk, plant

Chop stalks, plant with no-till coulter

Spring disk twice, plant



7.4 (6.6)

135.8 (121.2)

74.9 (66.9)

276.7 (246.9)

60.1 (53.6)

209.3 (186.7)



2892 (43)

2690 (40)

2825 (42)

2757 (41)

2421 (36)

2623 (39)



2576 (38.3)

2784 (41.4)



3067 (45.6)

3080 (45.8)

-



2825 (42.0)

2934 (43.6)



-



3013 (44.8)

3013 (44.8)



-



2979 (44.3)

2898 (43.1)



2912 (43.3)

3134 (46.6)



-



~~



%emens and Oschwald (1975).

bMeasured in mid-September. Weeds were a mixture of green foxtail (Setaria viridis 1. Beauv.), fall panicum (Panicum dichoromiflorum

Q

Michx.), and common milkweed (Asclepias S J T ~ ~ ~ CL.).

'Corn grown the previous year was harvested late and losses were high. All tillage operations were done in the spring. Volunteer corn was a

serious problem in the fall-plow treatment especially and may have reduced yields.



YIELDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CORN AND SOYBEANS



157



TABLE VIII

Soybean Yields after Corn with Various Tillage-Planting Systems on Several Ohio Soils,

Based on Experimental Results’



Soil type

Wooster silt loam

(typic fragiudalf)

Rossmoyne silt loam

(aquic fragiudalf)

Crosby silt loam

(aeric ochraqualf)

Brookston silt loam

(typic argiaquoll)

Hoytville silty clay loam

(mollic ochraqualf)



Conventional tillage

Chop stalks, fall plow,

disk twice, plant

k d h a (bu/A)



Minimum tillage

Fall chisel,

disk, plant

kdha W A )



No-till

Chop stalks, plant

with no-till coulter

kg/ha (bu/A)



2421 (36)



-



2219 (33)



3228 (48)



2959 (44)



2757 (41)



3430 (51)



3228 (48)



3699 (55)



3491 (52)



3430 (51)



3228 (48)



2556 (38)



-



2623 (39)



“From Bone et al. (1976).

IV. Yield Factors Influenced by Tillage-Planting System



Although average yields over several years may show little difference between

some systems, there are often significant differences in individual years, depending primarily on climatic conditions. These yield differences are best

explained by examining the major factors controlling yields and the influence of

the tillage-planting system on these factors.

A. EARLY PLANTING



Corn yields in the central corn belt have been found to decrease approximately

63 kg/ha (1 bu/A) per day (Barber, 1965; Pendleton and Egli, 1969; Bone et al.,

1976) after May 10 and even more after May 24. In order to have most of the

crop planted by the start of the penalty period it is necessary for a farmer with

a large acreage to start planting as early as he can get an adequate and healthy

stand.

The primary requirements for successful planting are:

1 . Soil dry enough to permit proper planter functions.

2. Adequate warmth and moisture for germination and early growth.

3. Minimum crusting impedance to emergence.

Soil does not warm until it has dried. Tillage treatment has little influence on

soil temperature and plant growth in a dry spring but it can make a substantial

difference in a wet spring.



TABLE IX

Mean Daily Maximum Soil Temperature in Row at 10 cm (4 inches) Depth for the 8 Weeks Following Planting Corn in Indiana, in "C ( O F )

Chalmers

Tracy silt loam Runnymede loam Blount silt loam Pewamo silty clay loam Bedford silt loam silty clay loam

Tillage-planting system



Fall plow-conventional

Spring plow-conventional



Fall chisel-conventional

Till-plant

No-till coulter plant

Fall ridge with residue in furrow



19691971



19721973



19691970



19721974



19691970



19721973



19691970



1972,1974,

1975



23.3

(73.9)

23.3

(73.9)

20.6

(69.1)

21.6

(70.9)

19.1

(66.4)



24.7

(76.4)



21.9

(71.4)

21.7

(71.1)

19.6

(67.3)

20.8

(69.4)

18.2

(64.8)



25.2

(77.4)

-



24.6

(76.3)

24.3

(75.2)

22.4

(72.4)

23.4

(74.1)

22.1

(71.7)



23.2

(73.8)



24.5

(76.2)

24.3

(75.0)

22.4

(72.4)

23.5

(74.3)

23.2

(73.7)



23.2

(73.8)

-



-



-



23.7

(74.7)

21.4

(70.6)

25.5

(77.9)



-



22.1

(71.8)

25.2

(77.4)



-



-



22.4

(72.4)

-



21.9

(71.4)

23.1

(73.6)



-



22.7

(72.9)

-



23.1

(73.6)



19691970



19721973



19751976

24.6

(76.3)



25.6

(78.1)

24.2

(75.6)

25.1

(77.2)

23.4

(74.2)

-



26.4

(79.6)

25.2

(77.4)



24.2

(75.6)



24.1

(75.4)

25.2

(77.4)



22.4

(72.3)

24.2

(75.6)



-



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