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V. Modifications for Different Applications
SHERWOOD B. IDS0
FIG. 5 . Some modifications of net radiometers. Upper left: The basic Fritschen
net radiometer operated at optimum height (25 cm) above a surface of dry, bare
soil. Note the presence of the strip of white paint on the thermal transducer,
which recent research has proven to be unnecessary. Upper right: An underwater
solarimeter formed by replacing polyethylene domes with glass, painting the lower
dome black, and waterproofing the lead connecter. Lower right: A solarimeter
for terrestrial use made by applying white paint over the blackened lower glass
dome of the upper right instrument and attaching the double-layered shield to
reduce lower dome heating. Lower left: A hemispherical all-wave radiometer made
by applying black, and then white, paint to the outside of the lower dome of
a polyethylene-shielded net radiometer, taping a thermocouple to it, and attaching
the double-layered shield.
amount of either short- or long-wave radiation and thereby become warmer
than the clear dome, resulting in a net nonzero exchange of long-wave radiation between the two domes and the thermal transducer. White paint applied
upon the black that reflects considerable short-wave radiation and an
opaque circular shade that shields the painted dome from the direct rays
of the sun or the thermal emission and reflected short-wave radiation from
the ground can effectively eliminate this source of error (Idso, 1971b).
This technique thus eliminates the need for black and white-hot and cold
junctions of standard solarimeter thermopiles, such as the original KimbaII
and Hobbs (1923) instrument and later models of Blackwell-Anderson
(Anderson, 1967), Dirmhirn (Gates, 1962; Robinson, 1966), Ianishevsky
(Monteith, 1959), and Monteith (1959), which cannot be transformed
CALIBRATION AND USE OF NET RADIOMETERS
into total all-wave radiometers because of the differing spectral properties
of black paint and of white paint in the short- and long-wave regions.
It also allows for a more accurate measurement of solar radiation at low
intensities, where solarimeters based upon the black and block-hot and
cold junction design of the Moll thermopile (Moll, 1923; Gorczynski,
1924) often exhibit large zero offset errors (Maxwell, 1969).
One of the polyethylene domes of the original net radiometer can also
be similarly painted and shielded, resulting in either a total hemispherical
radiometer or a total albedo and long-wave emission radiometer. In this
case the temperature of the painted dome must also be known. Originally,
Idso (1971b, 1972a) obtained this temperature from three or four fine
thermocouples sandwiched between a double-layered polyethylene dome.
Later research, however, demonstrated that equally good results could be
obtained with a single thermocouple merely taped to a normal singlelayer
painted dome (Idso, 1 9 7 2 ~ ) .
The three underwater applications of the net radiometer derive from
merely waterproofing the lead connectors of some of the previously mentioned modifications. The short-wave balance meter thereby becomes an
underwater short-wave balance meter; and the solarimeter and albedometer
convert to their underwater counterparts. For shallow applications, even
polyethylene versions can be used in this way (Idso, 1972d), since no
long-wave radiation moves in water and it makes no difference whether
polyethylene or glass envelops the transducer. In this case, increased air
pressure must be supplied to keep the domes from collapsing; whereas for
the glass-domed instruments, air need not be supplied for most applications. Idso and Gilbert (1974) and Idso and Foster (1974) have kept
glass versions underwater for as long as 6 months without any leakage
or other deleterious effects.
In addition to these nine variations of the basic net radiometer, there
is also a tenth use to which it may be put, although this modification is
somewhat more difficult to make and use. It is the transformation of a
net all-wave radiometer into a net long-wave radiometer described by Paltridge ( 1969).
The procedure involves constructing two hemispheres of black polyethylene and joining them at their circumference so that they completeIy encase
a regular net radiometer. Both the domes of the net radiometer and the
outer black polyethylene sphere are then inflated by dry air; and the outer
shell is spun continuously about the stationary net radiometer. In this way
the asymmetric heating of the black polyethylene due to solar radiation
absorption is neutralized; and the output of the net radiometer becomes
proportional to the net long-wave radiation transmitted by the black polyethylene and absorbed at the radiometer’s transducer.
SHERWOOD B. IDSO
Knowledge of net radiation is essential to many agricultural research
endeavors and to most practical schemes of irrigation scheduling. For both
of these applications, estimation techniques are not suitable for all-weather
utilization; and direct measurement must be relied upon to obtain sufficiently accurate net radiation data.
The primary component of a net radiometer is a thermal transducer
or thermopile. Two different approaches are used to minimize or equalize
convection effects from its upper and lower surfaces; these are to ventilate
both surfaces equally or to shield them with transparent domes. The material most used for this latter purpose today is polyethylene.
Net radiometers are calibrated for sensitivity to short-wave radiation
(0 5 A 5 3pm) by simple shading techniques employing standard solarimeters for comparison. Long-wave calibrations ( A > 3pm) may be obtained from either special calibration chambers or from a simple flat-plate
technique, neither of which approaches requires any other radiometer. The
most recent intensive work in this area has indicated that popular polyethylene-shielded net radiometers have comparable sensitivities for both
short- and long-wave radiation and that they therefore do not need the
small strip of white paint that has routinely been applied to their black
transducers by most manufacturers in an attempt to correct for an erroneously assumed inequality in these two calibration factors.
Height placement of net radiometers is dependent upon the homogeneity
of the underlying surface and its temperature relative to that of ambient
air. When these two temperatures differ, common polyethylene-shielded
net radiometers ( 6 cm diameter) are preferably located at a height of
Polythylene-shielded net radiometers are extremely versatile instruments,
being easily transformed for utilization in nine additional applications. As
such, they enjoy a wide range of use in many fields of environmental
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SHERWOOD B. IDS0
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QUANTITATIVE GENETICS-EMPIRICAL RESULTS
RELEVANT TO PLANT BREEDING'
R. H. Moll* and C. W.
of Genetics, North Carolina Stote University, and t U . 5 Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, North Carolina
11. Genetic Variability
A. Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Experimental Estimates in Crop Species ..........................
Inbreeding Depression and Heterosis ...............................
A. Inbreeding Depression . .
B. Heterosis ....................................................
Genotype-Environmental Interactions ...............................
A. Measurement of Genotype-Environmental Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Evaluation of Stability .........................................
Response to Selection .............................................
A. Genetic Variances and Expected Response ........................
B. Experimental Evaluation of Selection Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Correlated Responses and Selection Indexes ......................
Implications of Quantitative Genetics to Breeding Methodology . . . . . . . .
A. Breeding Objectives ...........................................
B. Development of Genetic Material with Breeding Potential . . . . . . . . . .
C. Testing and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantitative genetics deals with the inheritance of those differences
among individuals that are expressed in terms of degree rather than kind.
In contrast with qualitative traits, in which variation is characterized by
discrete classes, variation in quantitative traits forms a continuous array
of values from one extreme to the other. Nearly every organ or function,
including most economically important traits of crop species, show differences of a quantitative nature.
The relevance of quantitative genetics to plant breeding lies in the fact
that manipulation of genetic variability of quantitative traits through in-
' Paper No. 4236 of the Journal Series of the North Carolina State University
Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, North Carolina.
R. H. MOLL AND C. W. STUBER
breeding, crossbreeding, and selection are essential features of any plant
breeding program. A primary objective of quantitative genetic research is
an understanding of the genetic consequences of such manipulations.
A basic premise of quantitative genetics is that the genes that affect quantitative traits follow the same laws of transmission as genes that affect qualitative traits. Usually many loci with small individual effects are involved;
therefore, it is necessary to study these traits through statistics appropriate
for continuous variables, such as means, variances, and covariances. Fisher
( I 918) provided the initial framework for the study of quantitative inheritance. Since that time, his developments have been clarified, elaborated,
and extended by numerous geneticists and statisticians. Unfortunately, the
experimental aspects of quantitative genetics have lagged behind theory.
Because it is difficult to design quantitative genetic experiments with definitive alternative hypotheses, many of the experimental conclusions have
been reached from the experience of numerous individual empirical investigations that have shown similar results.
Most of our emphasis will be concentrated on reviewing and interrelating
recent research results in areas of most significance to plant breeders, such
as ( 1 ) kinds of genetic variability found, (2) effects of inbreeding and
crossbreeding, ( 3 ) genotype-environmental interaction, and (4) selection
methodology and response. It is not our purpose to present a detailed description of quantitative genetic theory. Cursory summaries (using nomenclature from Falconer, 1960) are included to provide background
for readers untrained in quantitative genetics and to aid in understanding
results from experimental research.
Evaluations of inheritance mechanisms in quantitative genetics research
depend on valid assessments of genotypic values. However, the genotypic
value of an individual must be ascertained from measurements made on
its phenotype. Phenotypic value then, is defined as the performance of
a particular genotype in the environment in which it is grown. The two
components of the phenotypic value (P)-genotypic value ( G ) and environmental deviation (E)-are
usually represented in the equation for
phenotypic value as: P = G E.
A genotype is considered as the particular assemblage of genes possessed
by an individual, and genotypic value for a given genotype is defined as
the average of all possible phenotypic values, expressed as a deviation from
the population mean. In other words, it is the average phenotypic value