Tải bản đầy đủ - 0 (trang)
V. Classification of Cultivated Barleys of the United States

V. Classification of Cultivated Barleys of the United States

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

336



G . A. PETERSON AND A. E. FOSTER



ductions from this group, improved selections, and later varieties of hybrid

origin have been grown extensively in the major barley-producing areas

of the Midwest. Approximately 90% of the malt in the United States is

made from the midwestern six-rowed barleys of this group. The varieties

LARKER, DICKSON, and CONQUEST account for practically all the present

malt production.

The varieties comprising this group are spring-type, six-rowed, awned

barleys with intermediate kernel size. The plants generally are medium to

tall in height, midseason in maturity, and with lax, nodding spikes. The

varieties shatter badly when grown in a dry climate. The better samples

of these varieties are medium-to-high in kernel protein, vigorous in germination, and produce high enzymatic activities when malted. These barleys

are used for both brewer’s and distiller’s malts, the higher protein lots

being selected for the latter. Malts for food uses also are made from these

varieties.



B. TWO-ROWEDGROUP

Varieties of the two-rowed group are of two types: the HANNCHENtype of European origin and the COMPANA-SMYRNA type of Turkish

origin. The HANNCHEN-HANNA type was introduced into the United States

near the beginning of the 20th century (Harlan and Martini, 1936), but

the acreage and number of varieties did not increase markedly until 1950.

Introductions such as PIROLINE, BETZES, FIRLBECKS 111, MoRAVIAN, and

HANNCHEN, and the two new varieties, VANGUARD and SHABET, are grown

in the Northwest and intermountain areas for use in malting. The

COMPANA-SMYRNA type is used for feed.

The varieties of the HANNCHEN-HANNA type used for malting are tworowed, awned, spring-type, intermediate in height, and midseason to midlate in maturity. Desirable samples of these varieties have large kernels,

thin hulls, and relatively low protein content. They germinate vigorously

and produce malts intermediate in enzymatic activity and high in extractable materials, primarily starch. Malts from two-rowed types are blended

with malts from midwestern six-rowed types for brewing, mainly to increase extract yield.

HANNA



C. COASTGROUP

The first varieties of the Coast group were introduced from arid sections

of North Africa into southwestern United States and California. Prior to

World War I1 large quantities of this western six-rowed type, grown in

California, were exported to England for malting. At present, relatively

small amounts of this type grown in the central valleys of California are

malted and used in blends with midwestern-type six-rowed varieties for

brewing. The Coast or Bay Brewing varieties were grown earlier, but have



337



MALTING BARLEY IN THE UNITED STATES



been replaced by small acreages of ATLAS and its backcross derivatives

and WINTER TENNESSEE.

The Coast varieties are characterized as spring types but usually are

fall- or winter-sown in mild climates, early maturing, midtall to short in

height, and resistant to shattering of grain from the spike. Varieties usually

TABLE 111

Typical Analyses of Malts from Three Types of Barley"



Property

Kernel weight (mg, dry basis)

Growth of malt

0 t o !/a (%I

!i t o !i (%)

36 to 94 (%I

t o 1 (%I

Overgrown

Kernel size assortment

On 764 screen (%)

On 964 screen (%)

On 964 screen (%)

Through 5.64 screen (%)

Moisture (%)

Extract (dry basis) :

Fine grind (%)

Coarse grind (%)

Difference (%)



Midwestern

6-Rowed



Western

%-Rowed



California

&Rowed



32.0



37 . 0



41.0



2.0

3.0

9.0

83.0

3.0



2.0

4.0

10.0

83.0

1.0



3.0

4.0

17.0

76.0

0.0



25.0

56.0

17.0

2.0

4.5



85.0

10.0

1. 0

0.0

4.5



79.0

24.0

4.0

0.0

4.7



76.5

74.5

2.0



80.5

79.0

-



77.0

74.8



1.5

__



9.2

__



1.5



1.0



1.3



12.0

38.0

195.0

40.0



10.0

38.0

90 . 0

25.0



11 . o

33.0

60.0

30.0



N



Color, laboratory wort ("IA)*

Protein (dry basis)

Total (%)

Soluble (%) of total

Diastatic power (degrees)c

a-Amylase (90' units)d



~



__



Reproduced from Reid et al. (1968).

Degrees Lovibond, a unit of wort color.

c Degrees, a unit of amylase activity.

d 2O0C dextrinizing units, a unit of a-amylase activity.



a



b



have large, bright kernels, thick hulls, medium protein content, rather slow

physical and chemical modification, and low enzymatic activities after

malting.

Typical analyses of malts prepared from the Coast group (California

six-rowed), the MANCHURIA-O.A.C. 214DERBRUCKER group (Midwestern

six-rowed), and the two-rowed group (Western two-rowed), as given by

Dickson (Reid el al., 1968), are shown in Table 111.



338



G. A. PETERSON AND A. E. FOSTER



D. TENNESSEE

WINTERGROUP

The winter barleys were of little importance in the United States prior

to 1920. Increases in acreage have occurred and now 20-30% of the total

barley acreage of the United States (Reid et al., 1968) is planted to winter

barley. The principal region of winter barley production lies south and

east of a curved line running from New York City through Kansas City

and western Texas. Other areas of production outside this region are

located around the eastern Great Lakes, in the Pacific Northwest, in some

intermountain areas of western United States, and as far north as South

Dakota in the Great Plains. Very little winter barley is malted. Factors

causing unsuitability for malting are : unacceptable barley varieties, too

high kernel protein content, and severe kernel discoloration from excessive

moisture at harvest. Varieties such as WHITE WINTER grown in northwestern United States, and HUDSON,grown in the East, are used for malting to a minor extent.

VI.



Grading Standards of Malting Barley



Official grain standards of the United States are established for barley

moving in commerce and passing through inspection points or made available to grain inspection laboratories. The Grain Division, Consumer and

Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture is the agency

responsible for developing and providing information on these standards.

Commercial grain grading agencies, supervised and licensed by the USDA,

grade grain and furnish the information to “interested parties” such as

grain handlers, shippers, and buyers, and grain exchanges. Barley is

divided into three market classes: Barley, Western Barley, and Mixed Barley. The class Barley is further subdivided into three subclasses: Malting

Barley, Blue Malting Barley, and Barley. Numerical grades from U.S. No.

1 to 5 and Sample grade are assigned to barley lots within each market

class or subclass, except numerical grades 1-3 for the Malting Barley subclass. Special grades may be added to the grade designation to indicate

certain characteristics of the grain which are of interest to barley buyers,

such as “Tough” for moisture contents slightly above desired storage levels

or “Blighted” for grain with more than 4% blighted kernels.

“Barley” offered for sale on the commercial market is described, if officially graded by a licensed inspector, in terms of several physical characteristics, as shown in Table IV. Some of these characteristics are useful to

those who require the barley for malting purposes. Meeting the standards

for the subclass “Malting Barley” does not, in itself, indicate whether suitable malt can be made from the barley. The description of certain physical



TABLE I V

Grades and Grade Requirements for the Subclasses Malting Barley and Blue Malting Barley of the Class Barley‘

Minimum limits of



Grade



U S . No. 1

U.S. No. 2

U.S. No. 3



Test weight

per bushel

(pounds)



Sound barley

(%)



47.0

45.0

43 0



97.0

94.0

90 0



Maximum limits of



Damaged

kernels



Foreign

material



Skinned and

broken

kernels



Thin barley



(%I



(%I



(%I



(%I



2.0

3.0

4.0



1.o

2.0

3 0



4.0



7 0

10.0

15.0



6.0

8.0



Black barley Other grains

(%I

(%)

0.5

1 .o

0.0



2.0

3.0

5.0



a Reproduced from “Official Grain Standards of the United States” published by USDA, Consumer and Marketing Service, Grain Division,

as revised, February, 1970.



W

W



\o



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

V. Classification of Cultivated Barleys of the United States

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(0 tr)

×