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II. History of Malting Barley Production in the United States

II. History of Malting Barley Production in the United States

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MALTING BARLEY IN THE UNITED STATES



329



North America were brought to the Atlantic seaboard colonies by the earliest settlers from the Old World. Records show that barley was grown on

Martha’s Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands as early as 1602. These early

colonial varieties primarily were produced as a raw material for the production of beer and were cultivated types from the home regions of colonists from England and Continental Europe.

The first production of barley along the Atlantic seaboard was not particularly successful since growing conditions were unfavorable. Also, the

late-maturing, two-rowed varieties from England, such as CHEVALIER and

THORPE, were not well adapted to the area. A more favorable environment

for barley was encountered by settlers moving into western New York.

The two-rowed variety, HANNA, and the six-rowed varieties of the European continent were better adapted to this area than the two-rowed varieties from England. The combination of a favorable environment and

adapted varieties caused New York to emerge as the leading barley-producing state. Nearly two-thirds of the total United States barley production

was estimated to have been grown in New York by 1820. New York continued as the dominant barley producing state until‘l849.

Barleys of North African origin were introduced into southwestern

United States by Spanish settlers. from Mexico in the 1700’s. These varieties of the Coast group were grown near settlement areas as a feed grain.

The discovery of gold in California in 1848 caused an increased demand

for barley by the brewing industry and resulted in increased acreage. This

increased production, used both for feed and malting, moved California

ahead of New York as the leading barley-producing state. By 1889, California produced more than one-half of the nation’s total barley.

Concurrent with the dominance of California’s barley production was

a persistent movement of centers of production westward from New York

as agriculture advanced into the Midwest. The demand for malting barley

stimulated production around population centers such as Detroit, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Chicago. During the period from 1889 to 1919, the

total United States barley production increased dramatically, from

80,790,000 bushels to 225,067,000 bushels. Important regional redistribution of barley production accompanied the increase, and the North Central

States produced nearly 63% of the nation’s barley by 1920. Southeastern

Wisconsin, southeastern Minnesota, and western Iowa developed as three

very important centers of barley cultivation. In the 1890’s, the malting

industry began to build additional facilities in Wisconsin and neighboring

states to meet increased consumer demands and to be close to centers of

barley production. Areas in eastern Oregon and Washington and northwestern Idaho were growing barleys of the type found in California during

this time. Also, northwestern Kansas and central Nebraska developed as

barley production areas. The major movement of the total barley acreage



330



G. A. PETERSON AND A. E. FOSTER



began to develop arqhe turn of the 20th century. First, an acreage increase

occurred in western Minnesota and eastern South Dakota; however, by

1919 the Red River Valley and adjacent areas in North Dakota, Minnesota,

and South Dakota had become one of the major regions of barley culture

in the nation. The six-rowed varieties of the Manchurian type grown in

the heavy producing areas of the North Central States were the primary

source of malting barley for the industry.

The areas of barley production remained stable during the two decades

between World Wars I and 11, partly because new frontiers for agricultural

production were no longer abundant. However, the national barley acreage

expanded locally, and production increased to 31 1,278,000 bushels in

1940. An advance in barley varietal improvement was a major factor contributing to the increased barley acreage in the United States. During the

period, winter barleys of the Tennessee Winter type increased in the South,

and both dryland and irrigated production expanded in the intermountain

areas of the West. However, production in these two areas was minor compared to the continued dominance of the North Central States.

A second westward movement of the major areas of barley production

began about 1940. In the North Central States, barley acreage was reduced

in Wisconsin, Iowa, and in southern Minnesota and South Dakota while

the crop became more firmly established in the agricultural programs of

the Red River Valley and adjacent areas. The “acceptable” six-rowed malting varieties were the types generally grown. This northwesterly movement

of the barley acreage was caused by several factors, among them, the competition from the expanding use of hybrid seed corn and the new crop,

soybeans. Also, damage from diseases reduced barley yields and its competitiveness with other crop alternatives. The susceptibility of both barley

and corn to scab (Gibberella spp. and Fusurium spp.) discouraged the

inclusion of these two crops in the same rotation, and decreased barley

production in the Corn Belt areas. Spot blotch (Helrninthosporiurn sutivum

Pam., King, and Bakke) was very destructive in 1943 and 1944 and discouraged the planting of barley in the more humid areas of the North Central States. The continued development of irrigation in the intermountain

areas of the western United States provided the opportunity to expand production of suitable two-rowed malting barleys. This second westward

movement of the barley production area generally stabilized in the mid1950.’~and has continued until the present time with seasonal variations

but only minor acreage shifts. Since 1955, the national annual production

of barley has been near or above 400,000,000 bushels. The malting industry in the United States purchases approximately 25 to 30% of this

production annually, but the amount depends upon total production and

suitability of the crop for malting.



MALTING BARLEY IN THE UNITED STATES



331



The present major areas of supply for the malting industry are North

Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota in the Upper Midwest, and California, Washington, Oregon, Colorado, Idaho, and Montana in the West.

The average production of barley used for malting, shown in Table I, was

estimated for the period 1963 to 1967 by Fraase and Anderson (1970).

TABLE I

Estimated Annual Supply of Malting Barley by State, Average Bushels

for the Period 1963-1967"

Type

Area and state



Six-row



8 8 ,2 3 7 ,1 2 9

North Central total

Minnesota

2 0 ,8 0 8 ,6 3 3

North Dakota

63,412,809

South Dakota

2 ,6 7 3 ,9 3 7

Total

86,895,379

Illinois

251,400

Michigan

328,800

Wisconsin

729,150

Iowa

32,400

Total

1 ,3 4 1 ,7 5 0

Western total

8 $ 5 0 5 ,5 9 8

Montana

1 ,1 7 9 ,9 3 6

Idaho

93,370

Wyoming

74,696

Colorado

275,600

Washington

1 ,6 1 6 ,4 7 9

Oregon

499,880

California

4 ,7 6 6 ,0 4 4

Total estimated US. supply

96,742,727

Imports, estimated

3 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

Total supply

100,242,727

Total supply of six-row and two-row barley 118,908,656

a



Two-row



14,583,504

4 ,6 8 2 ,8 7 1

728, 286

485,524

2 ,2 0 4 ,8 0 0

3 ,1 5 5 ,2 2 9

2 ,7 4 7 ,1 4 0

579,654

14,583,504

4,082,425

18,665,929



Adapted from Fraase and Anderson (1970).



The estimate includes barley produced in the United States and also that

which is imported from Canada and other countries. Although an increase

of approximately 10,000,000 bushels of barley over the 1967 estimate,

or 128,300,000 bushels (Katz, 1971), are used for malting at the present

time, the proportionate production within the various states is similar to

the estimate. The principal areas of malting barley production in 1972

are shown in Fig. 1.



332



G. A. PETERSON AND A. E. FOSTER



Ill.



The Malting Process



Malting involves a series of chemical and physical processes which convert the barley grain into malt. Although different techniques are used by

various maltsters, there are certain common basic steps. These steps are

discussed to illustrate the importance of some of the requirements of barley

used in the production of malt. A more extensive review of the malting



FIG. 1. The principal malting barley producing areas in the United States in

1972.



process is available in six chapters of a book, “Barley and Malt” edited

by Cook (1962) and from other sources (Kneen and Dickson, 1967; Reid

et al., 1968; Witt, 1970). A flow diagram of the steps involved in a malthouse operation is given in Fig. 2.

A.



PREPARING



THE



BARLEY



All foreign material must be cleaned from barley to be malted because

malt is used in products for human consumption. Thin and broken barley

kernels are removed, and the barley is sized by kernel width into two or

three assortments to assure uniform steeping and germination. New crop

barley usually is stored for at least three months before malting to permit

an afterripening process during which obscure chemical and physical

changes take place.



333



MALTING BARLEY IN THE UNITED STATES



B. STEEPING

The cleaned barley of uniformly sized kernels from individual varieties

is placed in steep tanks to raise the kernel moisture level to 42-45%. In

addition to supplying water to the barley, steeping also allows removal

of any remaining foreign material from the barley. The rate of water absorption and time of steeping are influenced by temperature, type, and variety of barley, and physical characteristics of the kernel, such as size, endoDUST

AND CHAFF



DUST, CHAFF



OATS. WHEAT,



CORI(AND

WEED SEEDS



CRACKEDEARLEY

WEED SEEDS, ETC.



d*/



SEPARATOR



--b



UNDERSIZED

KERNELS



t



GRADER



BARLEY



\



DRIED SPROUTS



FIG. 2. Flow diagram of the steps in a malthouse operation. (Reproduced from

Fraase and Anderson, 1970).



sperm texture, degree of skinning, and hull adherence. Respiration increases with increased moisture content, and aeration is provided to prevent loss of germinating ability.



C. GERMINATION

The steeped barley is transferred to compartments or drums for the

germination step of the malting process. Germination proceeds under controlled conditions of moisture, oxygen supply, and temperature. The primary reason for germinating the barley is to produce or activate enzymes

which are important for subsequent uses, without a substantial loss of dry

matter from respiration and growth. The rate of production and the quantities of the several enzymes developed are influenced by malting conditions



334



0. A. PETERSON AND



A.



E. FOSTER



(Shands et al., 1942; Dickson et al., 1947; Kneen and Dickson, 1967).

Germination is allowed to proceed until the coleoptile of a majority of

the kernels has grown to about seven-eighths of the full length of the kernel. Germination requires 3-6 days for six-rowed barley and longer periods,

up to 10 days, for two-rowed types. The length of the germination period

depends upon the variety of barley (Shellenberger and Bailey, 1936;

Kneen and Dickson, 1967), the temperature, moisture, and oxygen supply

under which the barley is germinated, and the characteristics of the malt

desired. Germinating barley kernels which have reached the desirable stage

of development but still retain the rootlets and relatively high levels of

moisture are called “green” malt.

D.



KILNING



The green malt is moved to kilning compartments, or kept in the same

compartment in the fleximalt system, for drying and stopping germination.

Kilning proceeds through various stages, and kernel moisture content is

reduced from about 45% to 3.5-4.0% with initial drying temperatures

of about 90°F and final temperatures of 175O-195OF for brewer’s malt.

High temperatures cause chemical reactions between sugars and amino

acids which produce the aroma and flavor of the kilned malt as well as

considerable enzyme destruction. Color of the solubilized products of malt

also is enhanced by the use of high temperatures in the kilning schedule.

The subsequent use of the malt determines the time schedule, usually ranging from 48 to 72 hours, and temperature used in kilning to obtain a balance among aroma, flavor, color, and enzymes.



E. HANDLING

OF MALT

Finished malt is cooled, then moved through malt cleaners to remove

rootlets, loose hulls, and dust before storage. Sometimes the malt is stored

prior to cleaning. The finished malt is stored for several weeks to several

months to develop uniform moisture levels among kernels and to allow

other desirable changes, which are not well understood, to take place.

Separate binning of malt of the several sizes from each of the several types

or varieties, areas of production, or specific malting procedures is practiced.

Individual lots of malt are blended according to purchaser’s specifications

before shipment.

IV.



Uses of Malt



About 85% of the malt produced in the United States is utilized by

the brewing industry, slightly less than 10% by the distilling industry, and



MALTING BARLEY IN THE UNITED STATES



335



slightly over 5% for food uses (Dickson, 1969). The most important uses

of malt and by-products are given in Table 11. The “screenings,” or barley

kernels considered too small for malting, and other “cleanout” are sold

as feed.

V.



Classification of Cultivated Barleys of the United States



A classification of barley based more on physiological characters rather

than morphological, given by Wiebe and Reid (1961), has been useful

TABLE: I1

TTses of Barley hlalt and Malt By-Productsa

Brewer’s malt

Beverages-beer, ale, malt extracts

Export

Brewer’s grains for dairy feeds

Brewer’s yeast for animal feed, human food, and fine chemicals

IXstiller’s malt

Alcohol

Distilled spirits and whiskey

Export

Distiller’s grains

)for livestock and poultry feeds

Distiller’s soluhles

Specialty malts

High dried

Dextrin

for breakfast cereals, sugar colorings, dark beers, and coffee substitutes

Caramel

Black

Malt-enriched food products

Malted milk concentrates, malted milk beverages, and infant foods

Malt flour for wheat flour supplements and for human and animal food products

Malt syrups for medicinal, textile, haking, breakfast cereals, and candies

Malt sprouts for dairy feeds, vinegar manufacture, and industrial fermentations



1



a



Reproduced from Reid et al. (1968).



in categorizing malting varieties (Kneen and Dickson, 1967; Reid et al.,

1968). A description of each group follows.

A.



MANCHURIA-O.A.C.

21-ODERBRUCKER GROUP



The varieties in this group are believed to have originated in Manchuria

or neighboring countries and to have been introduced at various times into

the United States and Canada through Europe. The first introduction probably was in 1861 (Harlan and Martini, 1936), and distribution to farmers

was made by the Wisconsin station in 1873 (Harlan et al., 1925). Intro-



336



G . A. PETERSON AND A. E. FOSTER



ductions from this group, improved selections, and later varieties of hybrid

origin have been grown extensively in the major barley-producing areas

of the Midwest. Approximately 90% of the malt in the United States is

made from the midwestern six-rowed barleys of this group. The varieties

LARKER, DICKSON, and CONQUEST account for practically all the present

malt production.

The varieties comprising this group are spring-type, six-rowed, awned

barleys with intermediate kernel size. The plants generally are medium to

tall in height, midseason in maturity, and with lax, nodding spikes. The

varieties shatter badly when grown in a dry climate. The better samples

of these varieties are medium-to-high in kernel protein, vigorous in germination, and produce high enzymatic activities when malted. These barleys

are used for both brewer’s and distiller’s malts, the higher protein lots

being selected for the latter. Malts for food uses also are made from these

varieties.



B. TWO-ROWEDGROUP

Varieties of the two-rowed group are of two types: the HANNCHENtype of European origin and the COMPANA-SMYRNA type of Turkish

origin. The HANNCHEN-HANNA type was introduced into the United States

near the beginning of the 20th century (Harlan and Martini, 1936), but

the acreage and number of varieties did not increase markedly until 1950.

Introductions such as PIROLINE, BETZES, FIRLBECKS 111, MoRAVIAN, and

HANNCHEN, and the two new varieties, VANGUARD and SHABET, are grown

in the Northwest and intermountain areas for use in malting. The

COMPANA-SMYRNA type is used for feed.

The varieties of the HANNCHEN-HANNA type used for malting are tworowed, awned, spring-type, intermediate in height, and midseason to midlate in maturity. Desirable samples of these varieties have large kernels,

thin hulls, and relatively low protein content. They germinate vigorously

and produce malts intermediate in enzymatic activity and high in extractable materials, primarily starch. Malts from two-rowed types are blended

with malts from midwestern six-rowed types for brewing, mainly to increase extract yield.

HANNA



C. COASTGROUP

The first varieties of the Coast group were introduced from arid sections

of North Africa into southwestern United States and California. Prior to

World War I1 large quantities of this western six-rowed type, grown in

California, were exported to England for malting. At present, relatively

small amounts of this type grown in the central valleys of California are

malted and used in blends with midwestern-type six-rowed varieties for

brewing. The Coast or Bay Brewing varieties were grown earlier, but have



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