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VIII. Increased Exploitation of Yield-Promoting Factors Due to the Prevention of Lodging

VIII. Increased Exploitation of Yield-Promoting Factors Due to the Prevention of Lodging

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255



wheat CAPPELLI and its lodging-resistant mutant B 132, without N-fertilization, yielded 2628 and 2643 kg/ha, respectively. After the application

of 120 kg/ha N, the grain yield of the mutant, which did not lodge, was

increased by 82 % , whereas that of Cappelli, which lodged considerably,

was increased by only 28%. Similarly, certain trials in Britain have shown

that the differential response of barley varieties to high rates of nitrogen

could be attributed almost entirely to varietal differences in lodging

(Holmes, 1969). In India, grain yield of a semidwarf lodging-resistant

wheat variety could be increased considerably through adequate irrigation,

whereas the response of tall varieties to irrigation was considered to be

limited because of lodging (Misra et al., 1969).

In many cases, the prevention of lodging by the application of CCC

enabled wheat to benefit from high N fertilizer rates (Humphries, 1968a;

Wunsche, 1970). Similarly, under certain field conditions in Israel, CCC

has increased the beneficial effects of irrigation on wheat yield.

Up to the level of grain yield which has hitherto been achieved under

the most favorable conditions, lodging indeed constitutes the main factor

limiting the response of cereals to yield-promoting agents. Consequently,

the prevention of lodging through the application of CCC as well as

through the cropping of semidwarf varieties, may enable the attainment

of this grain yield level. However, beyond this level, any further increase

in grain yield will depend on the more effective use of ambient light. This

may perhaps be achieved through the development of hybrid varieties.

However, considering the dominant nature of the height-controlling genes

(Section VII, B ) and some other information on hybrid wheat (e.g., Johnson and Schmidt, 1968), the hybrids are expected to be tall and therefore

susceptible to lodging. On the other hand, the cereal “ideotype,” proposed

by Donald (1968), wiIl be a weak competitor, to be planted densely, having a single culm with a big awned head. It may be added that long upper

internodes, which should complete their elongation by the onset of grain

development, would also be advantageous for the assimilation of carbohydrates and their supply to the grain. The yielding capacity of such an ideotype will obviously be limited by lodging.

Consequently, further efforts to prevent lodging, whether by chemical

means or by breeding lodging resistance, will be needed in future in order

to benefit from the anticipated increase in grain yield potential. It may

be concluded that there is a permanent requirement for increased lodging

resistance which is linked to the continuous process of grain yield

promotion.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



Mr. D. Trifon, C.E. contributed considerably to Section 11, B. Mrs. V. Priel

read and corrected the manuscript. Their assistance is greatly appreciated.



256



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GENESIS AND MANAGEMENT OF ACID

SULFATE SOILS

C. Bloomfield and 1. K . Coulter

Rothomrted Experimental Station. Horpendcn. Herts. England



I . Introduction ..................................................

266

I1 . The Formation of Sulfides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

267

A . Sources of Sulfur ..........................................

267

B. Sulfate Reduction in Anaerobic Soils .........................

268

C Formation of Iron Sulfides ..................................

271

D . Environmental Factors and Sulfide Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

111 Oxidation of Sulfides ..........................................

278

A. Microbial Reactions ........................................

278

B. Metallurgical Applications ..................................

281

C. Reactions in Soils ..........................................

282

D . Formation of Ochre in Field Drains ..........................

289

IV Mining and Corrosion Problems .................................

290

A . Pollution .................................................

291

B. Corrosion ................................................

292

V . Classification and Mapping ......................................

292

A Classification .............................................

292

B. Mapping .................................................

293

VI Conditions for Plant Growth ....................................

296

A . Toxicities ................................................

297

B. Deficiencies ...............................................

305

C . Biological Factors .........................................

307

VII . Management for Agriculture ....................................

308

A Waterlogging .............................................

308

B. Drainage and Leaching ....................................

311

C . Liming ..................................................

313

D . Other Treatments ..........................................

314

E. Conclusions ...............................................

314

VIII. Analysis of Pyritic Soils .......................................

315

A . Detection of Pyrite ........................................

315

B. Measurement of Acidification ...............................

316

C. Determination of Monosulfide ..............................

316

D. Determination of Pyrite ...................................

317

IX. Conclusions ..................................................

318

References ...................................................

319



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