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IV. The Variation in Yield of the Individual Plant

IV. The Variation in Yield of the Individual Plant

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318



R. W. WILLEY A N D S. B. HEATH



(1967) has stressed that no attempt was made in these studies to test

whether the shape of the distribution curves were constant, a necessary

condition before coefficients of variation can be compared. Koyama and

Kira ( 1956) considered the frequency distributions of pldnt weights at

different densities. They found that although -the distribution for seed

weight was normal, as the plants grew the distribution became more and

more skew. The development of skewness was greatest at high densities.

Kira et al. ( 1953) also tried using a correlation coefficient between the

weight of an individual and the mean weight of the six plants nearest to it

in a soybean experiment sown in a regular hexagonal arrangement.

Surprisingly, the correlation coefficients were low and proved positive,

apparently suggesting cooperation among plants rather than competition.

Mead ( 1967) considered that for small samples the use of this form of the

correlation coefficient is a biased estimator of the degree of competition

in the population. Mead proposed a measure of the weight relationship

between a plant and its six immediate neighbors, grown in a regular

hexagonal arrangement, termed the competition coefficient. This is a

general measure of the plant neighbor relationship for all the plants in the

community depending only on the size of the neighboring plants but

assuming regular arrangement. Mead ( 1968) analyzed the results of some

experiments laid down to examine this relationship and showed that, for

cabbage, carrots, and to a lesser degree, radishes, the competition coefficients are predominantly negative, showing competition between

plants rather than cooperation as was indicated by Kira’s results. Mead

therefore considered the competition function of more use than the

correlation coefficient.

Mead ( 1 966) investigated the importance of irregularity of spacing on

the variation of individual plant yield within a population. He did this by

examining the importance of the size and shape of the space available to

the plant in determining the yield of that plant. He suggested a model in

which the total ground area under an irregularly spaced crop was divided

into polygons, each one being allocated to a single plant. This was done by

allocating any given spot of ground to the nearest plant. The polygons

could then be characterized by three parameters, the area, the extent to

which the polygon was elliptical rather than circular (a measure of

rectangularity), and a measure of how far the plant was from the center

of the polygon. On examining the relationship between the three parameters and the root diameter of carrots grown at three densities and three

row widths, he found that the proportion of the total variation in plant

yield attributable to polygon variation increased with time, the largest

mean proportion at a final harvest being 20 percent, or for individual plots



PLANT POPULATION A N D CROP YIELD



319



as much as 55 percent. Mead also found that the area of the polygon was

more important than its shape. Furthermore, for an irregularly planted

crop the variation in area did not appear to change with change in density,

but at a given density it increased with increasing row width. This would

seem to indicate that for maximum uniformity within a crop, the rectangularity ratio should be as low as possible.

As Mead pointed out, this approach is somewhat unrealistic for it takes

no account of the size of the neighboring plants or the fact that plants

other than the immediate neighbors defined by the polygons might affect

the plant either directly or indirectly. However, this initial approach

seems to be a useful one.

V.



Conclusions



This review has attempted to examine the usefulness and biological

validity of the different mathematical equations that have been proposed

to describe the relationships between plant population and crop yield. I t

has been seen that even the simplest and most empirical of equations may

be useful in certain circumstances, e.g., to smooth data over a limited

range of densities. However, to describe the relationships realistically

over a wide range of densities, or to construct yield/density curves from

a minimum of data, it would clearly seem to be desirable to use those

equations that have a better biological foundation and have proved the

most satisfactory in practice. In general the reciprocal equations seem to

fulfill these requirements best. The satisfactory description which they

provide of the asymptotic yield/density situation has been established by

many workers. The description of the parabolic yield/density situation is

less certain, but at least this group still provides a choice of three basic

equations (Eqs. 12, 18, 20), all of which are inherently very flexible and

and all of which offer a reasonable possibility of obtaining a satisfactory

and realistic fit. A study of the evidence at present available suggested

that some biological meaning can perhaps be ascribed to the constants in

the reciprocal equations, but further research is needed in this field. An

equally worthwhile field would seem to be the incorporation of the effects

of plant rectangularity and plant variability into the yield/density equations; relatively few workers have studied these factors, yet their effects

on agricultural yield may be considerable.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank Mr. R. Mead, University of Reading, for many helpful discussions concerning the statistics.



3 20



R. W. WILLEY A N D



S. B. HEATH



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Bruinsma, J. 1966. Neth. J . Agr. Sci. 14,198-2 14.

Campbell, R. E., and Wets, F. G. 1967.Agron. J. 59,349-354.

Carmer, S. G., and Jackobs, J. A. 1965.Agron. J . 57,241-244.

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de Wit, C. T. 1959. Jaarb. Inst. Biol. Scheik. Onders. LandbGewass. Meded. 83,129-134.

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de Wit, C. T., and Ennik, G. C. 1958. Jaarb. Inst. Biol. Scheik. Onderz. LandbGewass.

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Donald, C. M. 195 I . Australian J. Agr. Res. 2,355-376.

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Jarvis, R. H. 1962. J. Agr. Sci. 59,28 1-286.

Jones, L. H. 1968.Agr. Prog. 42,32-62.

Keller, K. R., and Li, J. C. R. 1949.Agron. J . 41,569-573.

Kira, T., Ogawa, H., and Shinozaki, N. 1953. J . Inst. Polytech., Osaka City Univ.D4,1-16.

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Willey, R. W. 1965. Ph.D. Thesis, Leeds University, England.



32 1



This Page Intentionally Left Blank



AUTHOR INDEX

Numbers in italics refer to pages on which the complete references are listed.

A



Aurand, L. W., 65, 108



Abou Akkada, A. R.. 50, 97

Acton, C. J., 197, 199, 204, 207, 209, 21 I ,

230

Ada, G. L., 224,232

Adams, G . A., 224,230

Ademosum, A. A., 5 , 13, 97

Adler, F. E., 83, 99

Aitken, J. N., 92, 101

Alderman, G., 59, 97

Aldrich, D. T. A., 20, 22, 23, 66, 97, 100

Alexander, E. B., Jr., 247, 254, 255, 258,

2 72

Alexander, L. T., 150, 169, 257,274

Alexander, M., 2 19, 22 I , 230

Alexander, R. H., 13, 15, 97

Alfred, S., 275, 278

Allaway, W. H., 60, 97, 100

Allcroft, R., 56, 97

Allen, 0. N., 196, 197, 198, 199, 204, 209,

2 l9,22 1,222,231,233,234

Allen, P. E., 184, 192

Allison, J . B., 173, 193

Allison, L. E.. 19R. 230

Altschul, A. M.. 172. 173. 178. 180. 191

Anderson, D. M. W., 288.231

Alvarado, G., 189, 193

Alverez-Tostado, M. A,, 189, 193

Alvistur, E.. 180, 193

Anderson, J. U., 248, 252, 2S8, 272

Anderson, M. J., 17, I03

Andrews, E. D., 57, 97

Andrews, 0. N.. 29, 3 I , 97

Andrews, R. P., 36, 52, 102

Annison, E. F.. 41, 50, 5 I , 97

Antonopoulos, C. A,, 229,231

ap Griffith, G., 22, 54, 55, 56, 97, 99, 107

Appelqvist, L.-A,, 190, 192

Armstrong, D. G., I3,39,41,43,44,97

Arnold, G. W., 84,87,88,92,97, 103

Asahira,T., 294, 301, 310, 317,320

Atloe, 0. J., 196, 197, 198, 199, 204, 209,

22 I , 231, 233

Atwood, K. C., 176, 193



B



Babcock, G. E., 188, 194

Bach, R.. 197,204,208,216,218,232

Bacon, J . S. D., 197, 2 19, 235

Bacon, S. R., 266, 274

Baert, L., 5 5 , 69, 100

Bahn, A. V., 62,104

Bailey, H . H., 243, 250, 256, 260. 272,

2 73

Bailey, P. H., 82, 97

Bailey, R. W., 48, 97

Baker, E., 220, 234

Baker, G., 60, 97

Baker, J. C., 257,272

Baker, 0. E., 141, 169

Balch, C. C., 26, 27, 28, 36, 41,44,47, 52,

76, 97, 99, 106

Balch, D. A., 47, 97

Baldwin, M., 267, 272

Bandemer, S. L., 180, 192

Bandet. J., 185, 193

Banks, W.. 227, 228,231

Barclay, A. S., 180, 194

Barker, S. A., 202, 203, 207,208, 2 10, 2 I I ,

212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 220, 223, 228,

231, 235

Barnes, R. F., 14, 15, 29, 30, 31, 97, 104

Barnett, L., 175, 192

Barrett, A. J., 2 I I , 231

Barrett, J. F., 62, 97

Barrow, N . J.. 59, 84, 97

Bartelli, L. J., 240, 244, 252, 263,272, 273

Bartlett, R. J.. 246. 272

Bartlett, S.. 47,97

Bartley, E. E., 73, 107

Barton, R. A., 92, 99

Bassette, R., 65, 100

Bates, L. S., 173, 180, 181, 182, 183, 187,

191, 193

Bath, D. L., 87, 90, 97

Bath, I. H., 45, 98

Battacharya, A. N . , 77. 107



323



324



AUTHOR INDEX



Bauer, P. T., 118, 169

Baum, R. R.,177, 192

Baumann, C. A., 60, I04

Baumgardt, B. R.,5 , 1 1 , 13, 31,47,50,97,

98, 106

Beadle, G. W., 180, 192

Beardsley, D. W., 7 1 , 98

Beath, 0. A,, 59, 60, 101, 106

Beavers, A. H., 242, 243, 248, 251, 253,

255,260,272, 273

Beck, A. B., 61, 62, 98, 106

Becker, G., 173, 191

Becker, M. J., 226,231

Bedell, F., 87, 98

Beesley, T. E., 267,273

Beeson, W. M., 183, 192

Beitz, D. C., 45, 46, 47, 99

Bell, J. M., 65, 103

Bell, M. C., 82, 98

Bell, T. A,, 25, 106

BeMiller, J. N., 198, 205, 235

Beene, E. J., 3, 35, 102

Bennett, H. H., 266, 274

Bennett, W. D., 65, 98

Bensadown, A., 73, 104

Bentley, 0. G . , 1 I , 105

Bergman, E. N., 48, 98

Bernier, B., 197, 200, 202, 208, 209, 210,

211,216, 217,218,231

Berry, G., 317,320

Betts, J. E., 62, 104

Bickoff, E. M., 61, 62, 63, 98, 104

Bielorai, H., 281, 321

Bigsby, F. W., 34, 107

Binns, B. O., 135,169

Bishop, C. T., 225,231

Black, W. A. P., 202, 207, 208, 209, 231

Blake, J. T., 89, 90, 99

Bland, B. F., 32, 98

Blaser, R. E., 17, 22, 24, 92, 95, 98,

I00

Blaxter, K. L., 27, 28,3 1,32,37,39,41, 43,

44, 51, 70,72, 73, 91, 97, 98, 100

Bleasdale, J. K. A., 283,285,286,299,300,

301, 302, 303,306, 307, 315,320

Blyth, D. E., 3 15,321

Bobbit, J. M., 198, 231

Bogdan, A. V., 54,100



Bogue, D. J., 110, 169

Bohman, V. R.,8 8 , 9 0 , 1 0 6

Bolin, D. W., 13, 106

Bond, J., 53, 104

Booysen, P. de V., 34,107

Bornstein, J., 246, 272

Bosman, M. S. M., 13, 98

Bouveng, H. O., 228,231

Bowler, E., 220, 231, 234

Braden, A. W. H., 61, I04

Bradley, N. W., 81, 103

Brasher, B. R.,248,273

Bratzler, J. W., 106

Bray, A. C., 59,104

Bredon, R. M., 87, 98

Bremner, J. M., 204, 205, 221, 231

Brenner, S., 175, 192

Bressani, R., 178, 180, 184, 191, 192

Brett, D. J., 48, 103

Brewer, R.,251, 253, 272

Brian, R. C., 196,232

Briggs, D. R., 188, 193

Briggs, M. H., 26, 52, 79, 98

Briggs, P. K., 37,45, 98, I05

Brimacombe, J. S., 223, 228,231

Brimhall, B., 180, 192

Brink, R. H., 209,231

Brockway, J. M., 48, 98

Broderick, G. A,, 60, 104

Broekmeijer, M. W. J. M., 110, 169

Brohult, S., 178, 191

Brook, P. J., 65, 98

Broughan, R. W., 92,105

Brouwer, E., 43, 98

Brown, D., 80, 83,98

Brown, L. D., 27, 98

Brown, R. E., 45, 46, 47, 99

Brown, R. H., 17, 22, 98

Brown, S. M., 78, 79, 98

Brown, T. H., 93,106

Brownell, J., 57, 106

Browning, C. B., 12, 103

Browning, D. R., 252, 255, 256, 262, 265,

2 75

Bruinsma, J., 283,320

Brundage, A. L., 84, 105

Bryant, A. M., 47, 98

Bryant, H. T., 95, 98



AUTHOR INDEX



Buchman, D. T., 72, 98

Buckman, H. O., 265,273

Buettner-Janusch. J., 178, 192

Bull, L. B., 58, 98

Bullen, E. R., 3 15, 3 16, 320

Burau, R. G., 57, 106

Burdick, D., 7, 98

Burges, A., 219,231

Burns, J. C., 14, 104

Bums, K. N., 56, 97

Butler, G. W., 59, 92, 98, 105

Butterworth, M. H., 5 , 6, 98

Bystrom, B. G., 220, 234

C



Cady, J. G., 150, 169, 244, 248, 251, 252,

254,256,259,260,274,275

Calhoun, F. G., 250, 251, 260, 272

Call, J. W., 89, 99

Calvo, J. M., 190, 192

Calvo, R. A., 190, 192

Cameron, G. D. T., 33, 92, 98

Campbell, C. M., 87, 98

Campbell, J. R., 53, 98

Campbell, R. E., 283,320

Campling. R. C.. 26. 27, 28, 32, 36, 52, 7 1 ,

72,75,76,77,97,99,100, 106

Carlisle, F. J., 239, 243, 245, 246,249,250,

25 1,254,256,257,272

Carlson, I. T., 13, 22, 107

Carmer, S. G., 289, 320

Carr, M. E., 265, 266, 273

Carrillo, B. J., 65, 108

Carroll, P. H., 167, 169

Carter, A. H., 81, 99

Carter, W. T., Jr., 266, 273

Cary, E. E., 60, 100

Cason, J. L., 1 1 , 98

Castle, M. E., 18, 96, 99

Chalmers, M. I., 50, 5 I , 97

Chalupa, W., 28, 52, 53, 99

Champakam, S., 171, 192

Charlwood, P. A,, 229, 231

Charter, C. F., 167, 169

Chen, M.-L., 182, 192

Chenost, M . , 34, 99

Cheshire, M. V., 200, 225,231



325



Chesters, G., 196, 197, 198, 199, 204, 209,

22 1, 222,231, 233

Choudri, M. B., 204, 205,231

Christian, K. R.. 8 I , 99

Clancy, M. J., 7, 99

Clanton, D. C., 87, 101

Clapp, C. E., 196, 197, 1% 208,21 1,217,

23 I

Clapperton, J. L., 91,99

Clark, B., 1 I , 105

Clark, H. F., 184,192

Clark, K. W., I 1,99

Clark, V. R., 62,99

Clarke, E. G. C., 61,99

Clarke, M. L., 6 1,99

Clarke, R. T. J., 64,99

Clifford, A. J., 53,99

Cline, M. G., 239, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249,

250, 252, 253, 256, 257, 258, 260, 262,

263, 264, 268,273, 274

Cline, T. R.,53, 99, 185, 192

Coates, W. H., 246, 250,260,262,274

Collazos, C., 180, 194

Comer, G. H., 255, 256,273

Comerma, J. A., 247,252,256,258,273

Compere, R., 84, 101

Compy, E. 2. W., 267, 274, 276

Connolly, J. O., 84, 106

Conrad, H. R., 14, 27, 31, 32, 53, 71, 99,

100

Conway, A., 94, 95, 99

Cook, C. W., 89.90, Y9

Coop, I. E., 62, 91, 99

Cooper, .I.P., 22, 68, 99

Coote, J. N., 64, 102

Corbett, J. I-., 5,48, 83,84,85,91,99,101,

103

Corbett, W. M., 227,235

Cordes, E. H., 174, 192

Cornhill, W. J., 202,207,208,209,231

Cotnoir, L. J., Jr., 221, 233

Couchman, J. F., 70, 101

Cowlishaw, S. J., 83, 99

c o x , c . P., 47, 97

Craggs, 8. A., 22 I , 233

Cramer, D. A., 92, 99

Crampton, E. W., 4, 7, 29, 35, 36, 38, 90,

99,100



326



AUTHOR INDEX



Crawford, W. R., 3 13, 3 15,320

Crick, F. H. C., 175, 192

Cromwell, G. L., 183, 185, 192

Czochanska, Z., 92, 99

D



Daji, J. A., 202, 231

Dalgleish, C. E., 209, 231

Daniels, R. B., 238,240,242,243,246,247,

248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 258, 259, 261,

273,274

Danielson, C. E., 178,192

Dart, P. J., 220,231

da Silva, J. F. C., 29,99

Davey, B. G., 55,99

Davidson, E. A., 223,225,231

Davies, W. E., 54,56,99

Davis, C. L., 45,46,47,48,99

Davis, L. E., 84,99

Davis, R. J., 196, 197,231

Davison, K. L., 64,77,107,108

Dawes, C. J., 220,231

Dea, I. C. M., 228,231

de Freitas, J., 70, I01

de Groot, T., 54,56,99

De Haan, Sj., 80,108

Dehority, B. A., 7, 11, 12, 14, 16, 25, 71,

99,100,101,102

Deijs, W. B., 57, 108

Deinum, B., 23, 24, 100

de Loose, R., 55,69, 100

Demarquilly, C., 17, 18, 29, 70, 7 I , 72,73,

100



De Muelenaere, H. J. H., 182, 192

Denny, C. S., 245, 246, 259, 262,273

Dent, J. B., 288, 309, 321

Dent, J. W., 13, 20, 22, 23, 32, 66, 97, 98,

100



Derbyshire, J. C., 74,100

Deriaz, R. E., 19,88,91,106

Dermine, P., 24, 101

Derting, J. F., 275, 276

Deshpande, T. L., 198,231

Dettmann, M. G., 259,273

De Tyssonsk, E. R., 229, 231

Dew], H., 196, 197, 198, 203, 204, 205,

208, 209, 211, 212, 216, 217, 218, 231,

232,233, 234, 235



Deuel, M., 196, 197, 19H, 204, 208, 212,

216, 217,233

de Wit, C. T., 283,298,299, 304,307,320,

32 I

Dias, C., 180, 194

Dick, A. T., 5 8 , 98, 100

Dickson, G. R., 95, 100

Diebold, C. H., 254, 275

Dijkstra, N. D., 6, 100

Dische, Z., 223, 229, 231, 233

Dobie, J. B., 72, 74, 100, 106

Donald, C. M., 284, 291, 292, 293, 294,

315, 317, 320,321

Donefer, E., 4, 29, 35, 36. 38, 99, 100

Donker, J . D., 32, 92, 103

Dormaar, J. F., 199, 204, 207, 209, 232

Dougall, H. W., 54, 100

Doyle, J. J., 90, 101

Drew, K. R., 15, 100

Drysdale, A. D., 18, 96, 99

Dubach, P., 196, 197, 203, 204, 205, 208,

209,212,216,218,231,232,233,234

Dudzinski, M. L., 84,88,92,97,103

Duff, R. B., 197, 207, 208, 209, 214, 216,

217, 219,232,235

Dumanovic, J., 3 14, 320

Duncan, W. G., 289, 292,320

Dungan, G. H., 285, 287, 288, 289, 290,

309, 310, 313, 314, 315.320

Dunham, J. R., 65,100

Dunstone, J. R., 229, 232

Duval, E., 56, 101

E



Earle, F. R., 178, 193

Echols, H., 177, 192

Edlefesn, J., 90, 99

Egan, A. R., 37, 72,100

Eggum, B., 187, 192

Ehlig, C. F., 60, 100

Ekern, A., 5 I , 70, I00

Elder, J. H., 267, 274, 27.5, 276

Ellington, A., 54, 56, 99

Elliott, F. C., 25, 106

Elliott, R. C., 25, 37, 45, / 0 7

Ellis, W. C., 82, 100, 102

El Sayed Osman, H., 50, 97

El-Shazly, K., 11, 25, 100, 104



327



AUTHOR INDEX



Ely, R. A., 7, loo

Emerson, R. A.. 180, 192

Emerson, W. W., 198,231, 259, 273

Eng, K. S., 87, 98

Engberg, C. A., 242, 275

Engels, E. A. N., 13, Is, 100

Engleman, E. M., 178, 180, 191

Ennik, G . C., 298, 320

Enzie, F. D., 93, 103

Epley, I. B., 267, 273

Erskine, A. J., 21 I , 232

Ervin, J. O., 196, 197, 220, 221, 233

Essig, H. W., 79, 100

Estermann, E. F., 220, 232

Evans, L. T., 204, 232

Evans, P. S., 34, 100

Evans, R. J., 180, 192

Eveleth, D. F., 13, 106

F

Fabry, J., 84, IOZ

Faichney,G. J.,45,46,48,52, ZOO

Farazdaghi, H., 283, 300, 301, 302, 303,

304, 306, 3 1 I , 320

Farmer, V. C., 197, 219,235

Featherson, J. R., 185, 192

Fehrenbacher, J. B., 242, 243, 248, 251,

253, 255, 273

Finch, P., 202,203,207,208,2 I0,2 1 I , 2 12,

216, 217,221,231, 232

Fisher, L. J., 76, 106

Fitzpatrick, E. A,, 260, 273

Flatt, W. P., 39, ZOO

Fleming, G . A,, 54, 56, I00

Flodin, P., 228, 232

Florence, E.. 83, 99

Flowers, R. L., 267, 273

Folkins, L. P., 22, 105

Fontenot, J. P., 17,22,92,98,100

Ford, G. W., 205,206,232

Forsyth, W. G. C., 196, 201,204,208,209,

214, 216, 217, 219, 222,232

Foster, A. B., 2 1 I , 220, 232

Fountaine, E. R., 258,273

Fox, C. J., 267, 273

Fox, C. W., 62, 104

Francis, C. M., 62, 100, 104

Francois, C., 224, 225, 232

Franek, M. D., 229,232

Frankinet, M., 84, 101



Fransmeier, D. P., 248, 273

Fransson, L-A., 229,231

Fraser, A. C., 180, 192

Freer, M., 26, 32, 36, 52, 86, 99, 100, 104

Frey, K. J., 180, 192

Fulkerson, R. S., 22, 104

G



Gaillard, B. D. E., 7, 8, I00

Galberry, H. S., 267, 274

Gallagher, C. H., 63, ZOO

Gamble, E. E., 238, 240, 246, 247, 249,

259, 261,273

Gardell, S., 229,231

Garen, A., 174, 177, 192

Garen, S., 177, 192

Garrett, W. N., 74, 100

Garrigus, U. S., 53, 99, 102

Gascoigne, J . A,, 219,232

Gascoigne, M. M., 219, 232

Geoghegan, M. J., 196,232

George, J. M., 56, 62, 97, 102

Gerloff, E. D., 177, 192

Gibbons, R. A., 223, 227,232

Gile, L. H., Jr., 249, 254, 273

Gilfillan, E. W., 172, 179, 192

Gill, W. R., 251, 273

Gladstones, J. S., 58, ZOO

Glenday, A. C., 59, 92, 98, 105

Glenn, R. C., 248,273

Gomide, J. A., 29, 99

Gonzalez Gonzalez, V., 87, 100

Goodall, D. W., 292, 315, 320

Goodlett, J. C., 246, 250, 260, 262, 264,

273, 274

Gopalan, C., 171, 189, 192, 193

Goplen, B. P., 65, 103

Gordon, C. H.. 74, 100

Gottschalk, A., 223, 224, 232, 234

Graham, N . McC., 39, 72, 73, 91, 98, 100,

101

Granath, K. A., 228, 232

Graveland, D. N., 200, 204, 232

Gray, F. V., 48, 107

Greacen, E. L., 221, 234

Green, J. O., 66, 67, 101

Green, T. W., 267, 274

Greenhalgh, J. F. D., 5, 33, 83, 85, 92, 99,

101



328



AUTHOR INDEX



Greenhill, W. L., 70, 101

Greenland, D. J., 156, 170, 196, 197, 198,

200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207,

208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216,

217,218,220,221,231,232,235

Greenwood, C. T., 227, 228,231, 232

Grieve, C. M., 29, 101

Griffiths, E., 197, 232

Griffiths, T. W., 48, 101

Grimes, R. C., 47, 87, I01

Grossenbacher, K., 220, 233

Grossman, R. B., 239, 242, 243, 246, 248,

25 I , 252,253,255,257,258,272,273

Grunes, D. L., 56, 101

G ~ p t a U.

, C., 196,200, 202, 208,232

H



Hagberg, A., 187,192

Hamilton, F. J., 87,103

Hamilton, H. A., 24,101

Hamilton, J. W., 59,60,101

Hammer, K. C., 220,234

Hammes, R. C., 95,98

Handreck, K.A., 10,34,60,102

Hanel, D. J., 14,107

Hanson, C. H., 62,101

Harada, T., 205,231

Hardison, W. A., 84,95,98, I05

Harker, V. G., 5 , 13,105

Harkness,R. D., 17, 18, 19,101

Harlan, J. R., 94,101

Harmon, A. B., 267,273

Harmsen, G. W., 220,233

Harper,A. E., 182,192

Harpstead, D. D., 184,192,193

Harris, C. E., 5 , 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 28,

29, 38, 66, 75, 76, 79, 80, 84, 85, 101,

103,104,105

Harris, I . F., 179, 193

Harris, L. E., 90, 99

Harris, P. M., 300,301,302,303, 304,306,

3 11,320

Harris, R. F., 196, 198, 22 1, 222, 233

Hartree, E. F., 224, 233

Harvey, P. N., 315, 316,320

Hatfield, E. E., 53,99, 102

Hawkins, G. E., 25, I01

Haworth, W. N., 196, 224, 233



Hayes, M. H. B., 202, 203, 207, 208, 210,

211, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 221, 231,

232

Head, M. J., 26, I01

Heady, H. F., 90, I07

Healy, W. B., 60, 101

Heaney, D. P., 28, 29, 38. 71, 101

Hearn, W. E., 265,273

Hedin, L., 56, 101

Heidelberger, M., 229, 23.3

Heinegard, D., 229, 231

Heintz, R., 174, 193

Helinski, D. R., 174, 192

Hemingway, R. G., 58,103

Hemken, R. W., 72.98

Hennaux, L., 84,101

Henry, E. F., 275,276

Henry, J., 163, I70

Hercus, J. M., 91,101

Hibbs, J. W., 3 1,32,53,99

Hight, G. K., 33,101

Hill, D. E., 255,265,268,273,275

Hill, M. K., 91, 99

Hill, R. L., 178,192

Himes, F. L., 201, 202, 207, 208, 209,

2 12,214,216,2 17,233,235

Hinders, R. G., 7 I , 101

Hiridoglow, M., 24,101

Hirst, E. L., 224,233

Hocevar, B.J.,211,233

Hodge, R. W., 90,101

Hodgson, J., 92,101

Hodgson, J. F., 60,97

Hoehne, 0. E., 87, I01

Hoffman, H., 63,100

Hogan, J. P., 29, 37, 45, 48, 50, 98, 101,

105,107

Hogue, D. E., 5,102

Hole, F. D., 238, 247, 259, 260, 262, 263,

264,274

Holley, R. W., 174,192

Holliday, R., 282, 283, 284, 287, 289, 290,

292, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301,

305, 308,3 10,320

Holmes, J. C., 33,101

Holt, E. C., 94,106

Homb, T., 16,101

Honkanen, E., 65,101

Hopson, J. D., 12,101



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IV. The Variation in Yield of the Individual Plant

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