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CHAPTER 8. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOYBEANS

CHAPTER 8. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOYBEANS

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360



JACKSON L. CARlTFX A h 9 EDGAR E. HARTWIG



........



IS. Water Requirements and Utilization



.4. Water Needs in Relation to Pla

B. Irrigation and Soil Management .

..........

X. Growth-Regulating Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XI. Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. When to Harvest . . . . . . .

........

..............

B. Harvesting Methods . . . . .

...........................

XII. Seed Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

.

XIII. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References

...................................



401

402

403

404



404

405



406

407

408



I. introduction



A. WORLDPRODUCTION



The soybean, Glycim mar ( L . ) Merrill, has become a major crop in

the United States, the acreage harvested for beans increasing from only

190,000 acres in 19%)to over 26 million acres in 1961. It now ranks fourth



x



CHINA

MAINLAND



I

UNITED STATES



ESTIMATED W O R L D T O T A L



958,275,000



BUSHELS



FIG. 1. World soybean production, 1960. (Source of data: Foreign Agricultural

Service, U . S. Department of Agriculture.)



among the cash crops in this country and first among oilseed crops of

the Western Hemisphere. The United States now produces about 57

per cent of the total world crop of soybeans (Fig. 1 ) .

Many developments have contributed to the rapid increase in soybean



THE MANAGEMENT OF SOYBEANS



361



production, among them a steady expansion in the market for soybean

oil and meal in this country and a strong export demand for the crop.

Research on production problems and the development of superior

varieties by breeding have had a major role in increasing the efficiency

of production. Agricultural engineering research leading to the development of the combine harvester has been of considerable importance in

the complete mechanization of soybean production.

Soybean management is the application of the sciences of plant

breeding, plant pathology, plant physiology, soil management, engineering, and economics to the growing of soybeans. The most profitable soybean culture comes from the use of all these sciences. An old variety

such as MAMMOTH YELLOW,

under some conditions, could produce a

yield of 40 bushels. However, MAMMOTH YELLOW is susceptible to several

diseases which frequently limit seed yields and is subject to lodging and

shattering. The newer, improved LEE variety is resistant to several diseases

to which MAMMOTH YELLOW is susceptible, has greater lodging resistance

and improved seed holding. These factors reduce production hazards

and permit greater stabilization and efficiency of production.

Literature on soybean management is extensive. One of the first,

and little recognized, publications was that of Mooers (1908). He

presented information on varietal interaction to date of planting and row

width and gave directions for planting, cultivating, and harvesting the

crop, as well as data on chemical composition of the seed. The first

book on the subject was that of Piper and Morse (1923); twenty-six

years later appeared a general review of soybean breeding and management by Weiss (1949) followed by a review of production by Morse

( 1950) and of structure and genetics by Williams (1950). Recently,

reviews were made on physiology ( Howell, 1%0), nutrition ( Ohlrogge,

1960), and genetics and breeding (Johnson and Bernard, 1962). This

review brings together the recent research on culture and management.



B. UNITEDSTATESPRODUCTION

TRENDS

The first commercial crushing of soybeans from domestically grown

seed was in North Carolina in the fall of 1915 (Dies, 1943). By 1920,

production was 3,000,000bushels and the leading states were North

Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, Missouri, and Kentucky-North Carolina

producing 55 per cent of the total. By 1931, the center of production had

shifted to the North Central States, where it is at present (Fig. 2 ) .

Soybean production has been spreading over additional areas of the

United States as better varieties and improved production methods have

been developed. Soybean acreage in the United States increased 124 per

cent during the period 1949-1960, while cotton acreage dropped 44 per



FIG.2. Soybeans harvested for beans, acreage 1959. (From Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce.)



TABLE I

United States Soybean Acreage and Production Dataa by 5-Year Intervals, 1925-1960

Acres planted



Year

1925

1930

1935

1940

1945

1950

1955

1960

0



b

0



Grown

alone

(1000

acres )



Interplantedb

( 1000

acres)



Equivalent

solid0

(1000

acres)



Acres harvested

For

beans

(1000

acres )



For

hay

(1000

acres)



Grazed

or

plowed

under

(1000

acres)



476

1,785

1,539

415

1,175

195

3,072

786

3,473

1,074

337

2,082

6,966

1,028

7,503

2,915

544

4,044

2,589

11,782

4,807

10,487

4,819

2,156

1,505

13,807

13,056

10,740

1,940

1,127

1,184

15,640

15,048

13,807

963

870

19,658

603

19,959

18,620

711

628

24,275

375

24,463

23,516

521

426

Data from Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Grown with other crops.

Acreage grown alone, plus one-half the interplanted acres.



Yield per

acre harvested



Production



For

beans

(bushels)



For

hay

(tons)



Beans

(1000

bushels)



Hay

(1000

tons)



11.7

13.0

16.8

16.2

18.0

21.7

20.1

23.8



1.01



4,875

13,929

48,901

78,045

193,167

299,249

373,522

558,778



1,185

1,938

5,422

6,450

2,451

1,260

910

751



.94

1.34

1.34

1.26

1.31

1.28

1.44



8m



F



zE

3

8



3

E



364



JACKSON L. CAR'ITER A h 3 EDGAR E. HARTWIG



cent, wheat acreage 31 per cent, oats 28 per cent, all hay 5 per cent, and

corn acreage 4 per cent ( Kromer, 1961 ) .

Up to 1941, over half of the soybean acreage was for hay, grazing,

or green manure. The trend toward production for processing has been

strong since then because of the demand for soybean oil and meal, so

that at present virtually all soybeans are grown for processing (Table I ) .

Long-run prospects indicate that as the demand for soybean meal

increases, production lvill continue to expand.



C. UTILIZATION

1. Processing to Obtain Oil a d Meal

Processing in this country was at &st by hydraulic press, later by

expeller or screw press, and now almost entirely by hydrocarbon solvent

extraction. A moist heat treatment is given to the solvent meal to destroy

certain protein digestion inhibitors and improve the absorption of some

of the amino acids, making the meal an escellent protein supplement in

feeds. Soybean meal now supplies nearly 56 per cent of the protein

concentrates in this country. For the 1959-1960 processing year, approximately 8,400,000 tons of meal were used in feed, 650,000 tons for

export, and 30,000 tons for food and industrial purposes. The yield of

meal is about 46.5 pounds per bushel of soybeans processed.

Soybean oil, cIassed as a semidrying oil, is used for food purposes and

also in several industrial products. Soybeans now supply about 35 per

cent of the total fats and oils produced in the United States. The yield of

oil per bushel has increased from 9.7 pounds in 1950 to 11 pounds

in 1960. This increase has been due in part to the change in

processing from the expeller method, which left 4 or 5 per cent of the

oil in the meal, to the solvent method, which leaves only about 1 per

cent in the meal, and also to the development of improved soybean

varieties with higher oil content. The principal use of soybean oil is in

food (margarine, 31 per cent; shortening, 34 per cent; other food uses,

24 per cent), constituting 89 per cent of the oil use. The remainder is

used in paints and varnishes, other drying oil products, and miscellaneous

nonfood products. Extensive research is being done to improve flavor

stability of soybean oil for food use and to increase the list of products

that can be made from the oil (Cowan and Witham, 1959).

2. Hay and Green Manure



The use of soybeans for hay and for grazing and plowing under

increased in importance from the start of production in this country to

about 1940, when nearly 7 million acres were grown for these purposes



THE MANAGEMENT OF SOYBEANS



365



(Table I ) . After that, the use of soybeans for hay and green manure

decreased rapidly and the acreage has dropped to less than a million.

II. Soil and Climatic Adaptation



A. AREASOF PRODUCTION

IN THE UNITED

STATES

The principal area of soybean production is in the North Central

region (Fig. 2 ) , where, in 1961, over 77 per cent of the United States

crop was produced. Here, as in the eastern portion of the great central

plain of Manchuria, a large area has been found to be particularly well

adapted to soybean production ( Weiss, 1949).

The two other major areas of soybean production in the United States

are the Mississippi delta and the Middle Atlantic coast. Production has

not extended very far west in the central Great Plains, except where the

crop can be irrigated. In this area, low rainfall and the high temperatures

frequently cause moisture shortages ( Swanson, 1951) . With supplemental

irrigation, especially during the pod-filling period, soybean culture can

be extended into this area successfully. The high plains of Texas and

west-central Nebraska represent such areas. Good yields have been

obtained under irrigation in southern California and in some areas of

eastern Oregon and Washington, but here soybeans are competing with

other crops having higher per acre value.



B. SOILREQUIREMENTS

The soybean will succeed on nearly all soil types except extremely

deep sands. Soybeans are better adapted for production on clay than

either corn or cotton. The crop is also well suited for production on muck.

For best results, soils should be limed to pH 6.0 to 6.5 and soils of low

fertility should be supplied with those mineral elements in which they

are deficient.

C. CLIMATIC

ADAPTATION



1. Effect of Temperature on Plant Growth

The effects of temperature on soybean yields have not been studied

extensively. Runge and Ode11 (1960) found that yields were slightly

lower when temperatures were above average during July and August.

They found above-average maximum temperatures in June and September

resulted in small increases in yield. Prompt emergence in the field is

important for weed control. Plants grown in the greenhouse under

controlled conditions at 60°F. took 7 to 10 days to emerge, compared to

3 to 5 days for those in 70°, 80°, or 90" chambers. Early-planted soybeans

often require 10 to 14 days to emerge, but later plantings, when the soil



366



JACKSON L. CARTIER AND EDGAR E. HARTWIG



is warm, will emerge in 5 to 7 days (Smith et d.,1961; Nagata, 1960;

Hartwig, 1954 ). In addition to affecting rate of germination of soybeans,

temperature also affects rate of growth and the time required for the

plants to shade the ground between the rows, an important consideration

in weed control as well as yield. Smith et al. (1961) found that soybeans

planted on May 5 had shaded only 59 per cent of the ground in 2 months

but those planted on June 5 had shaded 86 per cent. Hartwig (1954)

found the rate of growth increased markedly as temperature at planting

PLANTING



JUNE



D

A

m



10



M A Y 10



A P R I L 10



FIG. 3. Diagrammatic comparison of relative height and width at 6 weeks after

emergence for the average of four varieties of soybeans planted at Stoneville, Mississippi, April 10, May 10, and June 10, 1944-1951.



time increased. Figure 3 shows the relative growth 6 weeks after

emergence on the dates indicated.

Temperature affects blooming date, as pointed out by Garner and

Allard ( 1930). They stated that sustained summer temperatures below

75' to 77'F. will ordinarily delay blooming, a decrease of 1" causing a

delay of 2 or 3 days. Variation from year to year in date of flowering of a

given soybean variety planted on a particular date is due chiefly to

differences in temperature, whereas differences between varieties are due

chiefly to their response to length of day.

There is a minimum temperature for most growth processes, which

for all practical purposes appears to be about 50°F. Parker and Borthwick (1943) found that floral induction was greatly inhibited at 50°F.or



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