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IX. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

IX. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

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354



DON KIRKHAM A h 3 RAYMOND J. KUNZE



(1960) reported that only a small portion of Srgo that fell on cultivated

land was removed by runoff. Nevertheless, a considerable concentration

of SrP0,found in the soil particles carried away by the runoff, may cause

sediments to be appreciably higher in Srw than soil under normal field

conditions.

Other studies, many primarily soil physics problems, as to how to

reduce the effective concentration of fallout nuclei and their absorption

by plant and animal tisues are under way.

X. Proposed Future Work



The use of isotopes in soil physics research and practice is still in

its infancy. Fruitful investigations already begun should be continued;

new work should be initiated. We have suggested a few researches in

the foregoing sections; we present further work areas here. Neutron

moisture meters, especially when improved to be more trouble-free and

less expensive, should be used widely; also gamma-ray density meters.

Kirkham (1961) has mentioned as a new research area the use of

radiation for assaying the soil mineralogically by a back-scattering

technique. The back-scattering technique offers tremendous possibilities

in soil survey.

Kirkham also lists the following seven items: ( 1 ) Simplify, and

make trouble-free, neutron-scattering soil moisture measuring equipment.

(2) Use isotopes in soil mixing studies in conection with ( a ) effectiveness of tillage operations; ( b ) insect activity; and ( c ) soil swelling and

churning activity as in the soils now called vertisols. ( 3 ) Use 0 l 8 to

and C14

trace sources of plant and soil aeration. (4) Use H2, 0l8,

simultaneously to trace water movement. (5) Use labeled carbon dioxide

to study whether decaying soil organic matter is a fertilizing source of

carbon dioxide for increased plant growth. ( 6 ) Use deuterium- or tritiumtagged water, under different physical conditions, in “split root” studies,

to see how the different physical conditions influence water uptake and

ion uptake where the ions of interest in the two sides of the split system

may also be tagged. Here we mention that the isotope P33 might be used.

P33 is now hard to get, as it is prepared in cyclotrons. Its half-life is

double that of P32. ( 7 ) Test a method proposed by Zaslavsky ( 1960) for

using tagged krypton to measure the vapor pressure of soil water in its

difficult-to-measure range.

In reiteration of, or in addition to the above list are these items:

( 8 ) Use the miscible displacement technique to study what fraction of

applied rain or irrigation water moves through the large pores in soil

and what ions are carried by this water, when the soil is initially at



ISOTOPES IN SOIL PHYSICS RESEARCH



355



various soil moisture levels and the ions at various concentration levels.

( 9 ) Use the same miscible fluid technique (see Biggar and Nielsen, 1961)

to see how applied water moves fertilizer, fumigants, insecticides, etc.,

in soil. (10) Use deuterium or tritium to see how OH groups interchange

in clay minerals and hence learn of bonding forces of soil structure.

Other techniques, not presented or discussed in our review will be

discovered as the research work with isotopes progresses. Much insight

as to the role of isotopes in research may be obtained from textbooks by

Rochlin and Schultz ( 1959), Kamen ( 1957), and others.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The illustrations in this contribution stem largely from work done by both the

authors or by their associates. This is partly because the senior author was in

Egypt at manuscript deadline time and did not have other suitable illustrations at

hand.

Part of this material was presented by the senior author at a nuclear methods

conference (unpublished) of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna,

Austria, May 14-19, 1961. The junior author is a principal investigator in isotopes

research under a National Science Foundation Grant awarded to the authors. Both

authors are indebted to Mrs. Kirkham, who, under difficult conditions in Egypt,

typed and helped edit the final copy of the manuscript.



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available.)



THE MANAGEMENT



.



OF SOYBEANS



.



Jackson L Cartter and Edgar E Hartwig

United States Regional Soybean laboratory. Urbona. Illinois. and Stoneville. Mississippi



I. Introduction ................................................

A . World Production ........................................

B. United States Production Trends ............................

C . Utilization ..............................................

I1. Soil and Climatic Adaptation ..................................

A. Areas of Production in the United States ....................

B. Soil Requirements ........................................

C. Climatic Adaptation ......................................

I11. Time of Planting and Varietal Adaptation ........................

A . Effect on Plant Characters ................................

B. Effect on Composition of the Seed ..........................

IV . Planting Methods and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. Seedbed Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B . Row Width and Planting Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................

C . Double Cropping ....................

D . Special Methods of Planting ................................

E . Types of Equipment ......................................

V . Rotation Practices and Erosion Control ..........................

A . Effect on Soybean Yields ..................................

B. Effect on the Following Crop ..............................

C . Effect on Weed Population ................................

D . Soil Residues from Herbicides ..............................

E . Erosion Control ..........................................

VI. Weed Control ................................................

A . Effect of Planting Time on Plant Growth and Weed Competition

B. Methods of Cultivation ....................................

C . Chemical Weed Control ..................................

VII . Seed Quality and Seed Treatment ..............................

A . Factors Affecting Seed Quality and Germination ..............

B . Seed Treatment ..........................................

VIII. Nutrient Requirements ........................................

A. Nitrogen Requirements and Nodulation ......................

B. Liming and pH Levels ....................................

C. Phosphorus ..............................................

D . Potassium ...............................................

E . Trace Elements ..........................................

F . Fertilizer Practices and Recommendations ....................

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........



IS. Water Requirements and Utilization



.4. Water Needs in Relation to Pla

B. Irrigation and Soil Management .

..........

X. Growth-Regulating Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XI. Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. When to Harvest . . . . . . .

........

..............

B. Harvesting Methods . . . . .

...........................

XII. Seed Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

.

XIII. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References

...................................



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I. introduction



A. WORLDPRODUCTION



The soybean, Glycim mar ( L . ) Merrill, has become a major crop in

the United States, the acreage harvested for beans increasing from only

190,000 acres in 19%)to over 26 million acres in 1961. It now ranks fourth



x



CHINA

MAINLAND



I

UNITED STATES



ESTIMATED W O R L D T O T A L



958,275,000



BUSHELS



FIG. 1. World soybean production, 1960. (Source of data: Foreign Agricultural

Service, U . S. Department of Agriculture.)



among the cash crops in this country and first among oilseed crops of

the Western Hemisphere. The United States now produces about 57

per cent of the total world crop of soybeans (Fig. 1 ) .

Many developments have contributed to the rapid increase in soybean



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